esting Materials for Thermal Conductivity by kxo18838


									 LESSON PLAN                                                                                                 GRADE 6

Testing Materials for
Thermal Conductivity

                                          OVERVIEW                                   tic, metal spoons or knives, the glass
                                                                                     rod and the popsicle stick should be
  KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                    Students will recognize the significant    approximately equal in height. The
                                          causes of heat loss in a home.             margarine or butter should be very
  TEKS utilized include: SCI. (b)
                                          Students will realize the importance       cold, even frozen if possible. Review
  6.2(A) plan and implement inves-
                                          of using proper insulation with a          the vocabulary and review safety
  tigative procedures; 6.2(B) collect
  data by observing and measuring;        high R-value to reduce heat transfer.      guidelines for students. Students
  6.2(E) construct...charts...and eval-   The differences in conduction among        should identify the methods of heat
  uate data; 6.2 (B) identify patterns    several materials will be observed.        transfer (conduction, convection, and
  in collected information                                                           radiation) using the glossary.
  using...average, range; 6.4(A) col-     TIME FRAME
  lect...and record information using     Two 45-minute periods                      Instruct students on how to obtain
  tools including beakers…ther-                                                      the hot water, either by heating on a
  mometers; 6.7(B) classify sub-          TEACHER GUIDE
                                                                                     hot plate or by distribution from
  stances by their                        Background Information                     teacher.
  physical…properties; MATH (b)           Conductors in the home include
  6.1(C) use integers to represent real   metals and glass. Ceilings and walls       Students should interpret the graphs
  life situations; SOC. S (b) 6.6(C)                                                 created for their four materials.
                                          conduct heat from inside the house
  analyze the effects of physical
                                          to outside. Insulation is a barrier to
  processes; 6.7(D) identify...ways                                                  ASSESSMENT ANSWERS:
                                          this conduction. There are conduc-
  people have adapted to the physical
                                          tion insulators, like clothing (jackets,
  environment; 6.7(B) identify and                                                   Short Answer Questions
  analyze ways people have modified       sweaters); and there are convection
                                          insulators, like walls preventing warm     1. Conduction
  the physical environment; 6.7(C)
                                          air from moving out of the house in        2. Metal
  describe ways in which technology
                                          the winter and hot air from moving         3. Conduction, convection, radiation
  influences human capacity to mod-
                                          into a cool home in the summer.            4. Questionnaire should include at a
  ify the physical environment; L.A.
  6.5(B) demonstrate effective com-       Radiation insulators can be window            minimum: R-value for roof insula-
  munication skills that reflect such     shades or curtains.                           tion, for wall insulation, and for
  demands as interviewing; 6.8(B)                                                       garage door insulation (or lack of
  select varied sources…such              Teaching Instructions                         insulation); window, door and duct
  as…newspapers; 6.13(A) form and         Teacher should read the student               system air leaks, and/or sealing
  revise questions for investigations;    activity first. Students should read          materials; any use or lack of passive
  6.13(B) use multiple sources            Fact Sheet #9, Energy Conservation in         solar heating; efficiency (EER) of
  including electronic texts...and        the Home, and then read through the           furnace and air conditioner; and
  print resources.                        instructions for the activity. The plas-      landscaping components.

LESSON PLAN NO. 9                                                       TESTING MATERIALS FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY P. 1
5. Caulk, foam, fiberglass
6. Continuous ridge and soffit vents      GLOSSARY
   around the roof.                       air infiltration – air seeping through cracks because of wind; cold air
7. Southwestern Indians wintered in       enters the home through openings around windows and doors and draws
   the Desert and spent the summer        heated air out of the house on the opposite side
   in the mountains, if possible, for     caulk – a semi solid, clay like material that can be squeezed into cracks to
   natural “air conditioning.” Teepees    stop air leaks
   had venting, clothing was insula-      conduction – passage of heat through a material, such as glass or metal
   tion, and any construction was
                                          convection – transport of heat by the movement of parts of a fluid (air or
   often quite airtight.
                                          water); cool air is denser than warm air and as it settles the cool air
8. The cumulative savings at 9 cents
                                          pushes the warm air upward
   per Kwh for a change from an EER
   of 8 to an EER of 13 are:              EER – energy efficiency ratio is a scale indicating operating efficiency of
                                          an appliance, heating or air conditioning unit; values range, with lower
  a) 30 + 24 + 20 + 16 + 14 = $104        #’s indicating lower efficiency. For example, an EER of 6 is low efficiency
     savings per ton; savings per ton     for an air conditioner, while a 14 is high efficiency.
     # tons multiplier = annual           heat – form of energy arising from the random motion of molecules and
     savings                              capable of transmission by conduction, convection, or radiation
                                          insulation – the material, stuffing or padding used so that heat, sound or
  b) $104     3 tons = $312 savings       electricity cannot pass through it
     1 ton             for 3 tons         radiant barrier – a shiny barrier, attached under an attic roof for exam-
                                          ple, that reflects light rays, thereby preventing the attic air space from
  c) Dallas has a .8 multiplier           being unnecessarily heated
     $312 0.8 (Dallas) = $249.60          radiation – passage of energy through open space, like sunlight
     annual savings                       R-value – numerical scale for insulation value with lower numbers
                                          being a poorer insulators than higher numbers; typical ranges are R-9
     El Paso has a .5 multiplier          through R-30s
     $104 0.5 (El Paso) = $156.00
                                          thermal mass – a dense material that gains or loses heat slowly, such as
     annual savings
                                          concrete, adobe, brick and water
9. Range is the difference between the    weather stripping – a strip of wood, rubber, felt, foam, etc. applied
   highest number of seconds and the      around a door or window to prevent air and water leaks
   lowest number of seconds among
   the four readings. The average is
   the total of all the seconds divided
   by 4.

Multiple Choice Questions
1 c 2 d 3 d 4 b 5 c
6 d 7 d 8 a 9 b 10 d

LESSON PLAN NO. 9                                                   TESTING MATERIALS FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY P. 2

Key Vocabulary
define the following terms:
air infiltration, caulk, conduction,
convection, EER, heat, insulation,
radiant barrier, radiation, R-value
thermal mass, weather stripping

Materials List
(for each group of 4-6 students)

• 2 spoons or knives (one plastic,
  one metal)
• 1 popsicle stick
• 1 glass stirring rod (about same
  height as spoons or knives)
• 500 ml beaker
• 500 ml hot water >85C (teacher
  will explain procedure)
• timer or stop watch                         of butter into 4 equal parts.         8. Start the timer. Measure the time
• 1 plastic knife (a separate knife)     4.   Put the 4 equal parts of butter           it takes for each thumbtack to fall
• 1 ea. 1/4 inch square slice of satu-        each on; a) the end of the plastic        from its spoon, knife or stirring
  rated margarine or butter (in stick         spoon or knife, b) the end of the         rod, etc. There will be 4 readings
  form), very cold or frozen                  metal spoon or knife. c) the end          to enter in a data table.
• goggles                                     of the popsicle stick and, d) the     9. Touch the 4 materials and rate
• 4 thumbtacks                                end of the glass stirring rod.            them as to which feels the coolest
• 1 small piece of wax paper             5.   Place the 2 spoons or knives, the         to hottest, after the thumbtack
                                              popsicle stick, and the glass rod         has fallen off.
Performing the Activity                       (all with their piece of margarine)   10. Develop a graph showing the dif-
(wear goggles)                                into the beaker and angle them so         ference in melting time for the 4
1. Collect the plastic spoon, the             the margarine is placed beyond            materials (glass, plastic, metal,
    metal spoon, the popsicle stick,          the rim (outside of) the beaker.          and wood).
    and the glass stirring rod and lay   6.   Place a thumbtack into the center
    them side-by-side.                        of each of the 4 pieces of mar-
2. Take the 1/4 inch slice of butter          garine.
    or margarine and place it on a       7.   Obtain 500 ml of hot water, as the
    small piece of wax paper.                 teacher directs, and pour the hot
3. Take the second plastic knife and          water into the beaker, with the
    cut the 1/4 inch square cold slice        spoons/knives, stirring rod, etc.

LESSON PLAN NO. 9                                                      TESTING MATERIALS FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY P. 3

Short Answer Questions                                                                               Multiple Choice Questions:
1. What was the method of heat
   transfer from the water to the mar-                                                               1. Annually the total amount of the electric bill for heating and cooling a
   garine?                                                                                              home is:
2. Which material was the best con-                                                                     a) 12%                      c) 45%
   ductor?                                                                                              b) 17%                      d) 85%
3. What are the three methods of heat
   transfer?                                                                                         2. To save energy and money, a simple investment can be:
4. Create a questionnaire with your                                                                     a) caulking                 c) weather stripping
   class regarding R-value home insu-                                                                   b) insulation               d) all answers a, b, and c
   lation, radiant barrier, sealing air
   leaks etc. for a home owner. Have                                                                 3. The easiest place to add extra insulation in an existing home is:
   your teacher review the question-                                                                    a) a wall                     c) window frame
   naire, then administer it to your                                                                    b) baseboard                  d) attic
   parents or a home owner and com-                                                                  4. Another easy addition to your home to save energy during the summer is:
   pile the class results.                                                                              a) furnace                  c) toaster
5. What are some materials used to                                                                      b) solar screens            d) water heater
   take care of air leaks?
6. How is an attic ventilated without                                                                5. A radiant barrier, which prevents heat from entering your home through the
   mechanical equipment?                                                                                attic, is made from:
7. Native Americans in the                                                                              a) copper                    c) reflective aluminum
   Southwestern United States used a                                                                    b) putty                     d) foam
   variety of shelters. Research and
   write a report on the types of hous-                                                              6. High efficiency appliances:
   ing used by native Americans,                                                                        a) cost more to buy         c) reduce energy use
   pointing out any elements of pas-                                                                    b) cost less to operate     d) all answers a, b, and c
   sive heating, venting, cooling, and
   insulation used. Wintering and                                                                    7. A roof overhang:
   summering site temperatures                                                                          a) shades out summer sun                                                    c) lets sunlight in during winter
   should be included.                                                                                  b) shades out winter sun                                                    d) a and c
8. Using the chart on page 3 of Fact                                                                 8. The best R-value is
   Sheet #9, compute the savings for a                                                                  a) R = 35                                                                   c) R = 12
   3 ton air conditioner changing                                                                       b) R = 5                                                                    d) R = 20
   from an EER of 8 to an EER of 13
   at 9 cents/kWh: a) in Dallas and b)                                                               9. The best EER is:
   in El Paso. An example for this                                                                      a) 6                                                                        c) 10
   computation can be found below                                                                       b) 16                                                                       d) 0
   the chart.
9. Find the range and the average for                                                                10. When you own a home you will:
   the four data entries in the activity,                                                              a) use insulation           c) use caulking
   showing the melting times you                                                                       b) use efficient appliances d) all answers a, b, and c
Financial Acknowledgement                        This publication was developed as part of the Renewable Energy Demonstration Program and was funded 100%                                                                             RENEWABLE ENERGY
w i t h o i l o v e r c h a r g e f u n d s f r o m t h e E x x o n s e t t l e m e n t a s p r o v i d e d b y t h e Te x a s S t a t e E n e r g y C o n s e r v a t i o n O ff i c e a n d t h e U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f     THE INFINITE POWER
E n e r g y. M e n t i o n o f t r a d e n a m e s o r c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t s d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e e n d o r s e m e n t o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r u s e .                                             OF TEXAS

 LESSON PLAN NO. 9                                                                                                                                                          TESTING MATERIALS FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY P. 4

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