Docstoc

Pengantar Manajemen Operasi - Hu

Document Sample
Pengantar Manajemen Operasi - Hu Powered By Docstoc
					            Bahan Kuliah
Manajemen Operasi & Produksi
           Pendahuluan :
Manajemen Operasi & Produksi
(Part 1 : Managing Operations)
          Program Pascasarjana
Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof Dr Hamka
 Dosen : Dr. Muchdie, PhD in Economics
          Telp : 0812-826-3034
                     Pokok Bahasan
• Fungsi Operasi dalam Organisasi
   – Teknologi Konversi
• Operasi Manufaktur Vs Operasi Jasa
• Sejarah Manajemen Operasi & Produksi
• Pandangan Kesisteman dari Operasi
   – Organisasi Sebagai Suatu Sistem
• Manajemen Sub-Sistem Operasi
   –   Definisi Manajemen Operasi
   –   Manajemen Klasik
   –   Manajemen Tingkahlaku
   –   Pemodelan Sebagai Manajemen
• Kerangka Kerja untuk Manajemen Operasi
   – Perencanaan, Pengorganisasian, Pengendalian, Tingkahlaku, Model
• Masalah-Masalah dari Manajer Operasi
• Peran Strategis dari Operasi
   – Perspektif Strategi, Tujuan Operasi
• Kecenderungan dalam Manajemen Operasi
• Karier dalam Manajemen Operasi
             Fungsi Operasi dalam Organisasi



                                 Random
                               Fluctuations




                Butuh                          Monitor
             Penyesuaian ?                     Output


INPUTs                       Proses Konversi             OUTPUTs
• Lahan                                                  • Barang
•Tenaga                                                  •Jasa
•Modal
•Manajemen
                              Umpan Balik

                  Membandingkan : Fakta & Keinginan
             Beberapa Terminologi
• Sistem operasi : bagian dari organisasi yang
  menghasilkan produk barang dan jasa organisasi
• Proses konversi : proses yang merubah input menjadi
  output
• Nilai tambah : peningkatan nilai karena proses konversi
  dimana output > input
• Random fluctuations : pengaruh lingkungan yang tidak
  dapat dikendalikan
• Umpan balik : informasi dlm proses kontrol yg
  memungkinkan bagi manajemen untuk memutuskan
  apakah kegiatan organisasi memerlukan penyesuaian
• Technology : tingkat kecanggihan pengetahuan dlm
  proses konversi (pabrik, peralatan dan ketrampilan)
            Sistem Operasi pada Toko Swalayan



                                 Random
                               Fluctuations
                                       • Deliveri terlambat
                                       • Resesi ekonomi
                                       • Tenaga kerja berkurang



INPUTs                       Proses Konversi                          OUTPUTs
• Lahan                                                           Melayani
•Tenaga                                                           konsumen dgn
• Bangunan, Peralatan                                             memuaskan
• Manajer Toko
                  + atau -    Umpan Balik

                              •Tingkat inventory
                              • Efisiensi tenaga kerja
                              • Volume penjualan
           Sistem Operasi pada Usaha Pertanian



                                Random
                              Fluctuations
                                      • Cuaca/iklim
                                      • Inflasi
                                      • Kontrol pemerintah
                                      • Peralatan rusak


INPUTs                      Proses Konversi                           OUTPUTs
• Lahan                                                         • Biji-bijian
•Tenaga petani                                                  • Daging
•Traktor, dsb                                                   • Susu
• Bangunan                                                      • Telur
• Manajemen      + atau -    Umpan Balik
pertanian
                             •Observasi kondisi air dan tanah
                             • Harga yang diterima
         Perubahan Paradigma : Manajemen Proses



                                Random
                              Fluctuations



                                              Monitor
                                              Output


INPUTs                      Proses Konversi                OUTPUTs
• Bahan                                                 • Barang
                        •   Fasilitas
                        •   Orang                       • Jasa
                        •   Organisasi
                        •   Informasi

                             Umpan Balik
                Membandingkan : Fakta & Keinginan
                    Perubahan Paradigma :
              Manajemen Proses Belajar-Mengajar


                                Random
                              Fluctuations




INPUTs                     Proses Konversi                OUTPUTs
• Mahasiswa                                            • Sarjana
                    •   Fasilitas    •   Kuliah
                                                       • Magister
                    •   Orang        •   Seminar
                                                       • Doktor
                    •   Organisasi   •   Penelitian
                    •   Informasi    •   Tugas Akhir

                             Umpan Balik
         Operasi Manufaktur Versus Jasa :
            Produksi Versus Operasi
                        Random
                      Fluctuations




INPUTs              Proses Konversi         OUTPUTs
                                            Barang
                                            Jasa


                     Umpan Balik
            Perbedaan Barang dgn Jasa
Ciri-Ciri Barang                  Ciri-Ciri Jasa
                                  •   Produk tidak berwujud
•   Produk berwujud
                                  •   Jasa sulit dijual kembali
•   Produk bisa dijual kembali
                                  •   Banyak jasa tdk bisa disimpan
•   Produk bisa disimpan
                                  •   Produksi dan konsumsi bisa secara
•   Produksi terpisah dgn
                                      simultan
    konsumsi
                                  •   Banyak aspek mutu sulit diukur
•   Aspek mutu mudah diukur
                                  •   Penjualan menjadi bagian dari jasa
•   Penjualan terpisah dgn
    produksi                      •   Interaksi pelanggan tinggi
•   Produk bisa diangkut          •   Penyedia, bukan produk, bisa
                                      diangkut
•   Fasilitas penting utk biaya
                                  •   Fasilitas penting untuk kontak
•   Mudah melakukan
                                      pelanggan
    otomatisasi
                                  •   Sulit untuk melakukan otomatisasi
•   Penerimaan dihasilkan
    dariproduk                    •   Penerimaan dihasilkan dari
                                      kumpulan jasa
                  Barang Versus Jasa
             Barang                                      Jasa

                      Mobil

                        Komputer

                              Makanan siap saji

                                    Makanan restoran

                                             Bengkel

                                              Rumah sakit

                                            Jasa konsultasi/pengajaran

                                                        Konseling


100%   75%     50%            25%     0%          25%      50%      75%   100%
                                        Sejarah
Tahun   Kontribusi                                               Kontributor
1776    Spesialisasi tenaga kerja di pabrik                      Adam Smith
1832    Pembagian tenaga kerja; penugasan berds ketrampilan      Charles Babbage
1900    Scientific management; time study and work               Frederick W Taylor
1900    Motion study of jobs                                     Frank B Gilberth
1901    Schedulling techniques for employee, machines and job    Henry L Gantt
1915    Economic lots sizes for inventory control                F.W. Harris
1927    Human relations; the Hawthorne studies                   Elton Mayo
1940    Operation research applications in WW-II                 PMS Blacket, dkk
1946    Digital computer                                         John Mauchly & JP Eckert
1947    Linier programming                                       GB Dantizg, dan lainnya
1950    Mathematical programming, non linier & stochastic        A.Chanrnes, WW Cooper
1951    Commercial digital computer; large-scale are available   Sperry Univac
1960    Organizational behaviour; Study people at work           L. Cumming; L.Porter
1970    Integrating operation into overall strategy & policy     W. Skinner
1980    Quality and productivity application from Japan          WE Deming & J. Juran
Pandangan Kesisteman

                                       SDM


Keuangan



           Akuntansi




                                                    Teknik
                               Produksi/Operasi




                       Distribusi
                                        Pembelian
  Pemasaran
       Manajemen Sub-Sistem Produksi
              Asumsi-Asumsi            Fokus Utama               Kontribusi terhadap
Klasik                                                           Manajemen
Scientific    •People motivated by     •Economic efficiency      Demonstration of
Management    economic alone           •Physical aspecs of       benefits from
              •Mangerial rationality   work environment          specialization of labor,
              •Organization a          •Scientific analysis of   division of labor, job
              closed system            work task                 analysis, separation
                                       •Application of           of planning and doing
                                       techniques to work
                                       tasks
Process       Management               Management                Indentification of
Orientation   activities separable     processes                 principles and
                                                                 function of
                                                                 management
       Manajemen Sub-Sistem Produksi
Behavioral   Asumsi-Asumsi        Fokus Utama              Kontribusi terhadap
                                                           Manajemen
Human        People complex;      Behavior of individual   Awareness of
Relations    possess multiple     in work environment      individuals
             needs
Behavioral   Human being sosial   Interpersonal and        Indentification of
Science      creatures            social aspects of work   behavioral variables
                                  environment              that relate to
                                                           organisational
                                                           behavior
Social       Organisation an      Interactive relationships Development of
Systems      open system          of organisation with its theories relating
                                  environment               oragnisational
                                                            behavior to human
                                                            characteristics and
                                                            organisational
                                                            variables
         Manajemen Sub-Sistem Produksi
Modelling      Asumsi-Asumsi         Fokus Utama                Kontribusi terhadap
                                                                Manajemen
Decision       Decision making       Information acqusition,    Development of
making         process are the       utilisation and choice     guides for improving
               primary managerial    processes                  decision making
               behaviors
System         •Organisation an      Identification of          Devel;opment of
theory         open system           organisation               approaches for
               •Organisation an      boundaries,                predicting and
               complex               interrelationships         explaining system
               interrelated          among subsystems and       behavior
               subcomponents         organisation and larger
                                     environment
Mathematical   Main elements of      •Quantification of         • Development of
modelling      organisation can be   decision problems and      explicit rules for
               abstracted,           systems                    management
               interrelated and      •Optimizing of small set   decisions
               expressed             of situations              •Development of
               matehematically                                  methods for analysing
                                                                organisation systems
                                                                or subsystems
        Pendekatan Klasik
• Efisiensi Organisasi (%) :

 Output/Input x 100%
• Process Management


                    Planning     Organising



                         Controlling
  Kerangka Kerja untuk MOP
• Planning : activities that establish a cource of
  action and guide future decision making
• Organising : activities that establish a structure
  of tasks and authority
• Controlling :activities that assure that actual
  performance is in accordance with planned
  performance
• Behavior : how planning, organising and
  controlling affect human behavoir
• Modelling : use to simplify real-world
Kerangka Kerja untuk MOP


  Planning          Organising

         Model   Behavior


         Controlling
           Masalah-Masalah dalam MOP
 %                   Activity               %                 Activity
90.6   Production planning                 48.1   Lead time reduction
76.9   Supervisor training                 47.5   Quality circles
66.3   Capacity expantion                  46.9   Developing new processes for
                                                  old product
63.1   Worker safety program               46.3   Automating jobs
58.8   Defining manufacturing strategy     44.4   Developing new process for
                                                  new product
57.5   Motivating direct labor employees   43.1   Vendor relations,procurement
55.0   Value analysis-product redesign     42.5   Focusing factories
54.4   Improved maintenance practices      41.3   Narrowing product line
53.1   Changing manufacturing              39.4   Making existing system work
       organisation                               better
51.3   Changing labor/management           35.0   Giving workers a broader
       relationship                               range of tasks to perform
50.0   Developing integrated infromation   33.1   CAD
       system
          Peran Strategis MOP
                        Industry
                  Market & competitions

                  Organisational Strategy
                      Profit or return
                     Source of funds
                 Product or service quality

                     Operations Policy
              Conversion Characteristics : Design
                  Product design flexibility
                      Delivery capacity
                      Location of facility
                   Processing technology
                       Control system

              Managing conversion operation
               Quality, Efficiency, Schedule
Results
         Model Umum Manajemen Operasi
                                         Random
                                       Fluctuations
                   Planning
           Planning Conversion System
                • Operations Strategis                   Organising
           • Product and Process Choices        Organising for conversion
                  • Opration Capacity           •Job Design, Work Measurement
                   • Facility Location               • Project Management
                    •Layout Planning
                      Schedulling
                 • Schedulling System
               • Operation Schedulling

INPUTs                             Proses Konversi                              OUTPUTs

                                               Controlling
                                           Material Control
                                            •Inventory Control
                                  • Material Require Planning
                       Managing for world-class competition
                                    • Japanese manufacturing
                                         •Managing for quality

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:2059
posted:8/18/2010
language:Indonesian
pages:22