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					Administrator WorkBench
               Purpose

 TheAdministrator Workbench is the tool
 for   controlling,  monitoring     and
 maintaining all of the processes
 connected with data staging and
 processing in the Business Information
 Warehouse.
Administrator WorkBench
Overview: Administrator Workbench (AWB)
The AWB is the primary administration-, control-, and
  monitoring tool in BW, and so is the data warehouse
  manager of SAP BW.
You can use AWB to manage, control and monitor all
  relevant objects and processes in SAP BW.
As well as defining all relevant meta objects, you can also
  use the AWB to plan load process using a scheduler,
  and monitor them using a monitor.
Assistants can be used to analyze the load process
  comprehensively. These can especially help you to find
  the cause of an errors very quickly.
                Functional Areas

You perform tasks in AWB in the following function areas :
        Modeling
        Monitoring
        Reporting Agent
        Transport Connection
        Documents
        Business Content
        Translation
        Metadata Repository
                       Modeling
Modeling
The Modeling functions area is used to create and maintain (meta)
  objects relevant to the data staging process in SAP BW. These
  objects are displayed in a tree structure, in which the objects
  are ordered according to hierarchical criteria. You can use a
  context menu to access the relevant maintenance dialogs for
  each object in the object tree. You can also carry out additional
  functions.
To access the Modeling functions area, choose transaction RSA1.
               Monitoring
The Monitoring function area enables you to
  monitor and control data loading processes
  and additional data processes in SAP BW.

You can access the Monitoring function area via
  the transaction RSMON.
              Reporting Agent

The Reporting Agent is a tool with which you can schedule
  and execute reporting functions in the background, such
  as the evaluation of exceptions, the printing of queries
  and the pre-calculation of Web templates.

To access the Reporting Agent function area, in the AWB
  navigation box, choose Reporting Agent.
                        Documents
Documents

The Documents function are enables you to insert, search in, and create
   links for one or more documents in various formats, versions and
   languages for SAP BW objects. You can find detailed information about
   SAP BW-document distribution in the BW305 (BW Reporting Analysis)
   or TBW20 courses, and in the online documentation.

To access the Documents function area, in the AWB navigation window,
   choose Documents.
                 Business Content
Business Content

Business Content provides pre-configured information models
  based on metadata. It provides users in an enterprises with a
  selection of information they can use to fulfill their tasks. (You
  can find additional information about Business Content in the
  Business Content Unit.)

To access the Business Content function area, choose the
  transaction RSORBCT.
                      Translation
In the Translation function area, you can translate short and long
  texts belonging to SAP BW-objects to any language that are
  supported in SAP BW.

To access the Translation function area, in the AWB navigation
  window, choose Translation.
              Metadata Repository
In the HTML-based SAP BW-Metadata Repository, all SAP BW meta objects
   and the corresponding links to each other are managed centrally.
   Together with an integrated Metadata Repository browser, a search
   function is available enabling a quick access to the meta
   objects. In addition, metadata can also be exchanged between
   different systems, HTML pages can be exported, and graphics
   for the objects in the displayed.

To access the Metadata Repository function area, choose the
   transaction RSOR.
Source System Definition
All systems that provide the SAP Business Information
Warehouse with data are described as source systems.
These can be:
    1.    SAP systems
    2.    SAP Business Information Warehouse systems,
    3.   Flat files, through which metadata is manually
maintained, and transferred into BW by using a file interface,
    4.    A database management system into which data is
loaded from a database supported by SAP, using DB
Connect and not an external extraction program.
    5.    External systems, in which data and metadata is
transferred using staging BAPIs.
    6.    XML databases using SOAP interface.
1. When the source system is non SAP system such as a
   Flat file or a third party tool the maximum no of
   characteristics allowed for the technical name is 10.
2. When the source system is an SAP system I.e either R/3
   or BW, the technical name matches the logical system
   name. The maximum no of characteristics allowed for
   the technical name is 32.
Naming spaces of SAP BW:
There are 3 naming spaces
1. SAP naming Space: all SAP defined objects follows this
   convention. Ex: 0calday


2. CUS naming space: created by the customer or user. In this
   case every object name can starts from A to Z, Underscore is
   allowed, 1 to 9 digits allowed.


3. PAR name space: Partner defined objects.
Infoarea: Infoareas are used to organize Infocubes, ODS objects and
   Infoobjects. The maximum no of characteristics allowed for the
   technical name is 30. It can be created at two instances
1. At the Infoobjects level
2. At the Infoproviders level.
Infoobject Catalog: these organize infoobjects. There are two types of
   Infoobject catalogs:
1. Characteristic Infoobject catalog: organizes characteristics
   infoobjects only.
2. Keyfigure Infoobject catalog: organizes keyfigure infoobjects only.
The maximum number of characteristics allowed for technical name is
  30.
InfoObjects
      The Importance of InfoObjects in
                 SAP BW
InfoObjects are the “smallest available information modules” (=fields) In
   SAP BW: These can be uniquely identified with their technical name.

   As components of the Metadata Repository, InfoObjects contain the
   technical and specialist information for master-and transaction data in
   SAP BW.

   InfoObjects are used throughout the system to create structures and
   tables. These enables information to be modeled in a structured form
   in SAP BW.
  InfoObjects are used for the definition of reports, to evaluate
  master-and transaction data.

Hint:   SAP delivers InfoObjects within Business Content (BCT).
  The technical name of standard InfoObjects begins with 0. As
  well as these, you can also define your own InfoObjects. Make
  sure the technical name begins with a letter between A and Z
  and that it is 3-9 characters in length.
                         Structures
                   (Communication and /
                  or Transfer   Structures



InfoCubes                                    PSA Tables

                      Info Objects




                       Attributes    Texts   Hierarchies
  ODS Objects




       Figure 22: How InfoObjects are used in SAP BW
InfoObjects Definition
Business evaluation objects (customers. sales
  revenues,...) are known in BW as InfoObjects.
They are divided into
1. Characteristics,
2. Key Figures,
3. Unit Characteristics
4. Time Characteristics
5. Technical Characteristics (for example, request
   number).
Characteristic Infoobjects: represents who, where, when
   scenarios. Characteristics are used to describe the objects dealt
   within business process. These can be anything from core
   business objects like customers, products, accounts, color, zip
   code and status. The maximum no of characteristics allowed for
   the technical name is 9. No duplicate technical names allowed in
   BW.
There are 4 Data Types for Characteristics Infoobject:
1. CHAR: Character string
2. NUMC: character string with only digits
3. DATS: Date field (YYYYMMDD) stores as char (8)
4. TIMS: Time field (HH:MM:SS) stores as char (6)
Key Figure Infoobjects: Key figures are used to describe any kind
  of numeric information from the business process level. Key
  figures are numeric values or quantities such as per unit sales
  price, quantity sold, sales revenue.
The maximum no of characteristics allowed for technical name is 9.
There are 6 Data types for Key Figures:
1. Amount
2. Quantity
3. Number
4. Integer
5. Date
6. Time
               Time Characteristics 
 Time characteristics form the time reference frame for many data
   analysis and evaluations.      They are delivered with Business
   Content. It is not possible to define your own time characteristics.

Examples:

   -   Time characteristic with the largest granularity: Calendar Day
       (0CALDAY)

Time characteristic with the smallest granularity: Calendar Year
   (0CALYear)

Hint: Once again, it is not possible to define your own time
   characteristics.
                        Units

Unit InfoObjects can be specified alongside the key
figures.    They enable key figure values to be
partnered      with   their   corresponding   units   in
evaluations.

Examples:

-   Currency unit (0CURRENCY)

-   Value Unit (0UNIT)
        Technical Characteristics
These characteristics have an organizational function
within SAP BW.

Examples:

-   Request ID (0REQUID)

-   Change ID (0CHNGID)

Info Object 0REQUID delivers the numbers the system
allocates when loading requests ; Info Object 0CHNGID
delivers the numbers allocated during aggregate change
runs.
Versions of objects in SAP BW:
In BW every object is available in three versions
1. New / Delivery version (D): new implies customer created objects.
   Delivery refers to the default version of SAP defined objects.
2. Active (A):
3. Revised / Modified (M):
Note: only active version objects are executable.


Object status has two parameters:
1. Active and executable
2. Inactive and not executable.
InfoSource Definition
In BW, an InfoSource describes the quantity of all the
data available for a business transaction or a type of
business transaction (for example, cost center
accounting).
An InfoSource is a quantity of information that
logically belongs together, summarized into a single
unit. InfoSources contain either transaction data or
master data (attributes, texts and hierarchies).
An InfoSource is always a quantity of InfoObjects
that logically belong together. The structure in which
these are stored is called a communication structure.
Use
Data that logically belongs together is stored in the
source systems as DataSources. A DataSource is an
object that, at the request of BW, makes data available in
one of its predetermined structures. The properties of a
DataSource relevant to BW are copied into the BW
system.
In the BW Transfer rules Maintenance, individual
DataSource fields are assigned to the corresponding
InfoObject of the InfoSource. You also determine here,
which data is actually transferred from an extract
structure of a DataSource to the communication of an
InfoSource.
The transfer structure is used for the data transfer. The
data is transferred 1:1 from the transfer structure of the
source system into the BW transfer structure.
If fields that logically belong together exist in various
    source systems, they can be grouped together into a
    single InfoSource in BW. The source system release
    is not important here.
There are two types of Infosources:
1. Flexible update in any Data Targets (Except Hierarchy): it is
   ment for loading transaction data and master data texts and
   attributes only
2. Direct Update of Master data: it can be used for loading
   master data Texts, attributes and hierarchies.
Communication Structure Definition
The communication structure is localized in the
SAP Business Information Warehouse and
displays the structure of the InfoSource. It
contains all of the InfoObjects belonging to the
InfoSource of the SAP Business Information
Warehouse.
Use
Data is updated in the data targets of this
structure. In this way, the system always
accesses the actively saved version of the
communication structure.
Transfer Structure Definition
The transfer structure is the structure in which the data is transported
from the source system into the SAP Business Information Warehouse.
It provides a selection of the DataSource fields for the source system.
Use
The transfer structure provides BW with all the source system
information available for a business process.
An InfoSource in BW requires at least one DataSource for data
extraction. DataSource data that logically belongs together is staged in
an extraction structure in an SAP source system. In the source system
you have the option of filtering and enhancing the extraction structure
and, in doing so, determining the DataSource fields.
Transfer Structure
In the transfer structure maintenance, you can specify which
DataSource fields are to be transferred into BW. When you activate the
transfer rules in BW, an identical transfer structure for BW is created in
the source system from the DataSource fields.
This data is transferred 1:1 from the transfer structure of the source
system into the BW transfer structure, and is then transferred into the
BW communication structure using the transfer rules.
A transfer structure always refers to a DataSource from a source
system and an InfoSource in BW.
Transfer structure maps data source fields to infosource Infoobjects. It
is a projection view upon the fields of data source. Multiple data
sources can be assigned to a single infosource allowing you to extract
the same kind of data.
Data Source: a data source describes a specific source of data on a
   specific source system from a technical point of view. The data
   source description includes information about the extraction process,
   the data transfer process and it provides the option to store data
   transferred to SAP BW in the PSA.
There are 2 types of Data Sources:
1. Transaction data datasources
2. Master Data data sources
There are 3 types of Master Data data sources
1. Attributes
2. Texts
3. Hierarchy
Note: data source descriptions are source system specific.
Processing Transfer Rules
When you have maintained the transfer structure and
the communication structure, you can use the transfer
rules to determine how the transfer structure fields
are to be assigned to the communication structure
InfoObjects. You can arrange for a 1:1 assignment.
But you can also fill InfoObjects using routines or
constants.
Use of transfer Rules:
The main purpose of transfer rules is to convert the source system
  specific representation of data into SAP BW specific view and
  eliminating technical or semantic differences between multiple
  source systems providing the same data.


Types of Transfer rules:
1. Infoobject:
2. Constant:
3. Routine:
4. Formula:
Transfer Methods:
1. PSA
2. Idoc
Persistent Staging Area (PSA)
Purpose
The Persistent Staging Area (PSA) is the inbound
storage area for data from the source systems in the
SAP Business Information Warehouse. The
requested data is saved, unchanged from the source
system.
Request data is stored in the transfer structure
format in transparent, relational database tables in
the Business Information Warehouse. The data
format remains unchanged, meaning that no
summarization or transformations take place, as is
the case with InfoCubes. PSA is a holding area of
Raw data
You determine the transfer method PSA in the Transfer
rules maintenance.
If you set the PSA when you are extracting data, you get
improved performance if you use TRFCs for loading the
data. The temporary storage facility in the PSA also
allows you to check and change the data before the
update into data targets
Uses of PSA:
• The main purpose is to store uploaded data for data quality and
  consistency maintenance purpose.


• Once stored in PSA, data is available for multiple updates into
  multiple data targets at different points of time avoiding multiple
  extraction runs for the same set of data.


• It supports error handling and simulation of data updates.
Idoc: (Intermediate Document): idoc is SAP’s standard
   format for electronic data interchange between systems.
   Idocs can be used in the following scenarios:
1. Application Link Enabling
2. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
PSA uses TRFC (Transactional Remote Function Call) for
  data transfer method. TRFC supports a maximum of
  1962 bytes and 255 fields. Idoc supports limited file size
  1000 bytes. Data cannot be loaded to PSA using Idoc,
  But PSA uses TRFC.
Benefits of using TRFC over Idoc method:
• Data can be stored in PSA by using TRFC (but not with Idoc)
• Improved performance when loading data.
• Higher through put (over coming the limit of 1000 bytes for Idocs)
• Possibility of synchronizing infosources.
• Acts as a API to access the data stored in the ODS.
InfoCubes Definition
InfoCubes are InfoProviders but are not necessarily data targets
(InfoCubes are also data targets only if data is physically stored
in them).
From a reporting point of view, an InfoCube describes a self-
contained dataset, for example, of a business-orientated area.
This dataset can be evaluated in a BEx query.
An InfoCube is a quantity of relational tables arranged according
to the star schema: A large fact table in the middle surrounded
by several dimension tables.
Use
InfoCubes are supplied with data from one or more InfoSources
or ODS objects (Basic InfoCube) or with data from a different
system (RemoteCube, SAP RemoteCube, virtual InfoCube with
Services, transactional InfoCube).
Fact Table: It is a collection of facts or measures or KPIs or Key
Figures and relations to the Dimensions table. Fact table hold
transactional data.


Dimension table: it is a collection of logically related characteristics.
In a Star Schema model Dimension table contains Master Data. But in
extended Star schema model the master data is not in dimension
table. Master data will be maintained in master data tables (Texts,
Attributes, Hierarchies) externally.


SID table: it is also called as Setid or Surrogate ID. SID translates a
potentially long key for an Infoobject (Characteristics infoobject) into a
short 4 byte integer which saves I/O and memory during OLAP
reporting.
Master data tables: there are 3 tables:
1. Attributes: it stores the additional descriptive information of an
   entity. Normally these will be treated as Master data.


2. Texts: it gives the textual description such as Short text (Char 20),
   Medium Text (Char, 40) and Long text (Char 60) of each record. It
   also maintains the language key in which the values are maintained
   (0langu, Char, 1). Hence these tables are called Language
   dependent table.


3. Hierarchies: it stores the parent and child relationships. It is used
   to display the values in a structured format.
There are various types of InfoCube:
... 1.    Physical data stores:
-        Basic InfoCubes
-        Transactional InfoCubes
    2.     Virtual data stores:
-        RemoteCube
-        SAP RemoteCube
        Virtual InfoCube with Services
Only Basic InfoCubes and transactional InfoCubes physically
contain data in the database. Virtual InfoCubes are only logical
views of a dataset. By definition, they are not data targets.
However, the InfoCube type is of no importance from the
reporting perspective, since an InfoCube is accessed as an
InfoProvider.
Basic InfoCube Definition
A Basic InfoCube is a type of InfoCube that physically
stores data. It is filled with data using BW Staging.
Afterwards, it can be used as an InfoProvider in BEx
Reporting.
Structure
As with other InfoCube types, the structure of a Basic
InfoCube corresponds to the Star Schema.
Transactional InfoCubes Definition
Transactional InfoCubes differ from Basic InfoCubes in
their ability to support parallel write accesses. Basic
InfoCubes are technically optimized for read accesses to
the detriment of write accesses.
The transactional InfoCube was developed to meet the
demands of SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM).
Use
Transactional InfoCubes are used only in conjunction with
SEM. The data from this kind of InfoCube is accessed
transactionally, meaning data is written to the InfoCube
(possibly by several users at the same time) and reread as
soon as possible. Basic InfoCubes are not suitable for
this. You should use Basic InfoCubes for read-only access
(for example, when reading reference data).
RemoteCube Definition
A RemoteCube is an InfoCube whose transaction data is not managed in
the Business Information Warehouse but externally. Only the structure of
the RemoteCube is defined in BW. The data is read for reporting using a
BAPI from another system.
Use
Using a RemoteCube, you can carry out reporting using data in external
systems without having to physically store transaction data in BW. You
can, for example, include an external system from market data providers
using a RemoteCube.
By doing this, you can reduce the administrative work on the BW side
and also save memory space.
SAP RemoteCube Definition
An SAP RemoteCube is a RemoteCube that allows the definition of
queries with direct access to transaction data in other SAP
systems.
Use
Use SAP RemoteCubes if:
   •You need very up-to-date data from an SAP source system
   •You only access a small amount of data from time to time
   •Only a few users execute queries simultaneously on the
   database.
Do not use SAP RemoteCubes if:
   •You request a large amount of data in the first query
   navigation step, and no appropriate aggregates are available in
   the source system
   •A lot of users execute queries simultaneously
   •You frequently access the same data
Virtual InfoCubes with Services Definition
A virtual InfoCube with services is an InfoCube that does not
have its own physical data storage in BW. A user-defined
function module is used as DataSource. The properties of the
DataSource can be defined more precisely with a number of
options. Depending on these properties, the Data Manager
provides services for converting the parameters and data.
Use
A virtual InfoCube with services can be used if you want to
display data from non-BW data sources in BW without having
to copy the data to the BW structures. The data can be either
local or remote. You can also change the data with your own
calculations before passing it to the OLAP processor.
This function is used primarily in the SAP Strategic Enterprise
Management (SEM) application.
Statistical Information about BW Star Schema
An Infocube contains only one fact table.
The maximum no of Dimension tables in an Infocube are 16. Out of this
  SAP defined dimensions are 3. The maximum no of Dimension tables
  a user can create are 13. (16 –3).
SAP Defined Dimensions: these are called as fixed dimensions.
1. Time Dimension (T): the technical name of this dimension is xxxT.
   Time dimension contains a maximum of 13 Time characteristics. But
   3.0B, 3.1C versions supports 9 Time characteristics. Ex: 0CALDAY,
   0CALMONTH.
2. Data Packet Dimension (P): techname xxxP. It contains 3
   characteristics. Request ID, Recordtype, Change Run ID.
3. Unit Dimension (U): Tech name xxxU. Basically it includes
   characteristics related to amounts and quantifies. 0Unit, 0Currency.
User defined dimensions: technical names maintains as follows xxx1,
xxx2, xxx3 ….. Xxx9, xxxA, xxxB, xxxC, xxxD..


The maximum no of Key figures in a Fact table: 233.
The maximum no of Characteristics in a dimension table are 248.
Update Rules Definition
Update rules specify how the data (key figures, time
characteristics, characteristics) is updated into the InfoProvider
from the communication structure of an InfoSource. You are
therefore connecting an InfoSource with an InfoProvider.


Update rules connect an Infosource to a data target allowing it to
specify additional transformations from a business point of view.
An update rules specifies how data will be updated into their
targets. If the update rule is applied to data from an infosource,
the update rules technical name will match the infosource
technical name. If the update rules is applied to data from an ODS
object, the update rules technical name matches the ODS objects
tech name prefixed wit number 8.
Update rules establish a many to many relationship between infosource
and data targets. An Infosource can be used to update multiple data
targets and a data target can be updated from multiple infosources.


While transfer rules are used to eliminate technical differences, update
rules are used to perform transformations from a business point of view.
• Perform additional data validity and integrity checks
• Skips unnecessary data
• Aggregate data
• Convert currency and unit of measure
• Performs data enrichment i.e adding fields read from master data
tables.
Update type for Infocube:
1. Addition
2. No Update


Update methods / Update rules for Key figures:
1. Source Key figure
2. Formula
3. ABAP Routine
Update methods / Update rules for Characteristics:
• Source Characteristics
• Constant
• Master data attribute of characteristic
• Formula
• ABAP Routine
• Initial value
Update methods / Update rules for Time Characteristics:
• Source Characteristics
• Constant
• Master data attribute of characteristic
• Formula
• ABAP Routine
• Time distribution (Normal Calendar, Factory calendar)
• Initial value
Note: by default system is having key figures update rules.

				
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