Administrator WorkBench Purpose TheAdministrator Workbench is the tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all of the processes connected with data staging and processing in the Business Information Warehouse. Administrator WorkBench Overview: Administrator Workbench (AWB) The AWB is the primary administration-, control-, and monitoring tool in BW, and so is the data warehouse manager of SAP BW. You can use AWB to manage, control and monitor all relevant objects and processes in SAP BW. As well as defining all relevant meta objects, you can also use the AWB to plan load process using a scheduler, and monitor them using a monitor. Assistants can be used to analyze the load process comprehensively. These can especially help you to find the cause of an errors very quickly. Functional Areas You perform tasks in AWB in the following function areas : Modeling Monitoring Reporting Agent Transport Connection Documents Business Content Translation Metadata Repository Modeling Modeling The Modeling functions area is used to create and maintain (meta) objects relevant to the data staging process in SAP BW. These objects are displayed in a tree structure, in which the objects are ordered according to hierarchical criteria. You can use a context menu to access the relevant maintenance dialogs for each object in the object tree. You can also carry out additional functions. To access the Modeling functions area, choose transaction RSA1. Monitoring The Monitoring function area enables you to monitor and control data loading processes and additional data processes in SAP BW. You can access the Monitoring function area via the transaction RSMON. Reporting Agent The Reporting Agent is a tool with which you can schedule and execute reporting functions in the background, such as the evaluation of exceptions, the printing of queries and the pre-calculation of Web templates. To access the Reporting Agent function area, in the AWB navigation box, choose Reporting Agent. Documents Documents The Documents function are enables you to insert, search in, and create links for one or more documents in various formats, versions and languages for SAP BW objects. You can find detailed information about SAP BW-document distribution in the BW305 (BW Reporting Analysis) or TBW20 courses, and in the online documentation. To access the Documents function area, in the AWB navigation window, choose Documents. Business Content Business Content Business Content provides pre-configured information models based on metadata. It provides users in an enterprises with a selection of information they can use to fulfill their tasks. (You can find additional information about Business Content in the Business Content Unit.) To access the Business Content function area, choose the transaction RSORBCT. Translation In the Translation function area, you can translate short and long texts belonging to SAP BW-objects to any language that are supported in SAP BW. To access the Translation function area, in the AWB navigation window, choose Translation. Metadata Repository In the HTML-based SAP BW-Metadata Repository, all SAP BW meta objects and the corresponding links to each other are managed centrally. Together with an integrated Metadata Repository browser, a search function is available enabling a quick access to the meta objects. In addition, metadata can also be exchanged between different systems, HTML pages can be exported, and graphics for the objects in the displayed. To access the Metadata Repository function area, choose the transaction RSOR. Source System Definition All systems that provide the SAP Business Information Warehouse with data are described as source systems. These can be: 1. SAP systems 2. SAP Business Information Warehouse systems, 3. Flat files, through which metadata is manually maintained, and transferred into BW by using a file interface, 4. A database management system into which data is loaded from a database supported by SAP, using DB Connect and not an external extraction program. 5. External systems, in which data and metadata is transferred using staging BAPIs. 6. XML databases using SOAP interface. 1. When the source system is non SAP system such as a Flat file or a third party tool the maximum no of characteristics allowed for the technical name is 10. 2. When the source system is an SAP system I.e either R/3 or BW, the technical name matches the logical system name. The maximum no of characteristics allowed for the technical name is 32. Naming spaces of SAP BW: There are 3 naming spaces 1. SAP naming Space: all SAP defined objects follows this convention. Ex: 0calday 2. CUS naming space: created by the customer or user. In this case every object name can starts from A to Z, Underscore is allowed, 1 to 9 digits allowed. 3. PAR name space: Partner defined objects. Infoarea: Infoareas are used to organize Infocubes, ODS objects and Infoobjects. The maximum no of characteristics allowed for the technical name is 30. It can be created at two instances 1. At the Infoobjects level 2. At the Infoproviders level. Infoobject Catalog: these organize infoobjects. There are two types of Infoobject catalogs: 1. Characteristic Infoobject catalog: organizes characteristics infoobjects only. 2. Keyfigure Infoobject catalog: organizes keyfigure infoobjects only. The maximum number of characteristics allowed for technical name is 30. InfoObjects The Importance of InfoObjects in SAP BW InfoObjects are the “smallest available information modules” (=fields) In SAP BW: These can be uniquely identified with their technical name. As components of the Metadata Repository, InfoObjects contain the technical and specialist information for master-and transaction data in SAP BW. InfoObjects are used throughout the system to create structures and tables. These enables information to be modeled in a structured form in SAP BW. InfoObjects are used for the definition of reports, to evaluate master-and transaction data. Hint: SAP delivers InfoObjects within Business Content (BCT). The technical name of standard InfoObjects begins with 0. As well as these, you can also define your own InfoObjects. Make sure the technical name begins with a letter between A and Z and that it is 3-9 characters in length. Structures (Communication and / or Transfer Structures InfoCubes PSA Tables Info Objects Attributes Texts Hierarchies ODS Objects Figure 22: How InfoObjects are used in SAP BW InfoObjects Definition Business evaluation objects (customers. sales revenues,...) are known in BW as InfoObjects. They are divided into 1. Characteristics, 2. Key Figures, 3. Unit Characteristics 4. Time Characteristics 5. Technical Characteristics (for example, request number). Characteristic Infoobjects: represents who, where, when scenarios. Characteristics are used to describe the objects dealt within business process. These can be anything from core business objects like customers, products, accounts, color, zip code and status. The maximum no of characteristics allowed for the technical name is 9. No duplicate technical names allowed in BW. There are 4 Data Types for Characteristics Infoobject: 1. CHAR: Character string 2. NUMC: character string with only digits 3. DATS: Date field (YYYYMMDD) stores as char (8) 4. TIMS: Time field (HH:MM:SS) stores as char (6) Key Figure Infoobjects: Key figures are used to describe any kind of numeric information from the business process level. Key figures are numeric values or quantities such as per unit sales price, quantity sold, sales revenue. The maximum no of characteristics allowed for technical name is 9. There are 6 Data types for Key Figures: 1. Amount 2. Quantity 3. Number 4. Integer 5. Date 6. Time Time Characteristics Time characteristics form the time reference frame for many data analysis and evaluations. They are delivered with Business Content. It is not possible to define your own time characteristics. Examples: - Time characteristic with the largest granularity: Calendar Day (0CALDAY) Time characteristic with the smallest granularity: Calendar Year (0CALYear) Hint: Once again, it is not possible to define your own time characteristics. Units Unit InfoObjects can be specified alongside the key figures. They enable key figure values to be partnered with their corresponding units in evaluations. Examples: - Currency unit (0CURRENCY) - Value Unit (0UNIT) Technical Characteristics These characteristics have an organizational function within SAP BW. Examples: - Request ID (0REQUID) - Change ID (0CHNGID) Info Object 0REQUID delivers the numbers the system allocates when loading requests ; Info Object 0CHNGID delivers the numbers allocated during aggregate change runs. Versions of objects in SAP BW: In BW every object is available in three versions 1. New / Delivery version (D): new implies customer created objects. Delivery refers to the default version of SAP defined objects. 2. Active (A): 3. Revised / Modified (M): Note: only active version objects are executable. Object status has two parameters: 1. Active and executable 2. Inactive and not executable. InfoSource Definition In BW, an InfoSource describes the quantity of all the data available for a business transaction or a type of business transaction (for example, cost center accounting). An InfoSource is a quantity of information that logically belongs together, summarized into a single unit. InfoSources contain either transaction data or master data (attributes, texts and hierarchies). An InfoSource is always a quantity of InfoObjects that logically belong together. The structure in which these are stored is called a communication structure. Use Data that logically belongs together is stored in the source systems as DataSources. A DataSource is an object that, at the request of BW, makes data available in one of its predetermined structures. The properties of a DataSource relevant to BW are copied into the BW system. In the BW Transfer rules Maintenance, individual DataSource fields are assigned to the corresponding InfoObject of the InfoSource. You also determine here, which data is actually transferred from an extract structure of a DataSource to the communication of an InfoSource. The transfer structure is used for the data transfer. The data is transferred 1:1 from the transfer structure of the source system into the BW transfer structure. If fields that logically belong together exist in various source systems, they can be grouped together into a single InfoSource in BW. The source system release is not important here. There are two types of Infosources: 1. Flexible update in any Data Targets (Except Hierarchy): it is ment for loading transaction data and master data texts and attributes only 2. Direct Update of Master data: it can be used for loading master data Texts, attributes and hierarchies. Communication Structure Definition The communication structure is localized in the SAP Business Information Warehouse and displays the structure of the InfoSource. It contains all of the InfoObjects belonging to the InfoSource of the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Use Data is updated in the data targets of this structure. In this way, the system always accesses the actively saved version of the communication structure. Transfer Structure Definition The transfer structure is the structure in which the data is transported from the source system into the SAP Business Information Warehouse. It provides a selection of the DataSource fields for the source system. Use The transfer structure provides BW with all the source system information available for a business process. An InfoSource in BW requires at least one DataSource for data extraction. DataSource data that logically belongs together is staged in an extraction structure in an SAP source system. In the source system you have the option of filtering and enhancing the extraction structure and, in doing so, determining the DataSource fields. Transfer Structure In the transfer structure maintenance, you can specify which DataSource fields are to be transferred into BW. When you activate the transfer rules in BW, an identical transfer structure for BW is created in the source system from the DataSource fields. This data is transferred 1:1 from the transfer structure of the source system into the BW transfer structure, and is then transferred into the BW communication structure using the transfer rules. A transfer structure always refers to a DataSource from a source system and an InfoSource in BW. Transfer structure maps data source fields to infosource Infoobjects. It is a projection view upon the fields of data source. Multiple data sources can be assigned to a single infosource allowing you to extract the same kind of data. Data Source: a data source describes a specific source of data on a specific source system from a technical point of view. The data source description includes information about the extraction process, the data transfer process and it provides the option to store data transferred to SAP BW in the PSA. There are 2 types of Data Sources: 1. Transaction data datasources 2. Master Data data sources There are 3 types of Master Data data sources 1. Attributes 2. Texts 3. Hierarchy Note: data source descriptions are source system specific. Processing Transfer Rules When you have maintained the transfer structure and the communication structure, you can use the transfer rules to determine how the transfer structure fields are to be assigned to the communication structure InfoObjects. You can arrange for a 1:1 assignment. But you can also fill InfoObjects using routines or constants. Use of transfer Rules: The main purpose of transfer rules is to convert the source system specific representation of data into SAP BW specific view and eliminating technical or semantic differences between multiple source systems providing the same data. Types of Transfer rules: 1. Infoobject: 2. Constant: 3. Routine: 4. Formula: Transfer Methods: 1. PSA 2. Idoc Persistent Staging Area (PSA) Purpose The Persistent Staging Area (PSA) is the inbound storage area for data from the source systems in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. The requested data is saved, unchanged from the source system. Request data is stored in the transfer structure format in transparent, relational database tables in the Business Information Warehouse. The data format remains unchanged, meaning that no summarization or transformations take place, as is the case with InfoCubes. PSA is a holding area of Raw data You determine the transfer method PSA in the Transfer rules maintenance. If you set the PSA when you are extracting data, you get improved performance if you use TRFCs for loading the data. The temporary storage facility in the PSA also allows you to check and change the data before the update into data targets Uses of PSA: • The main purpose is to store uploaded data for data quality and consistency maintenance purpose. • Once stored in PSA, data is available for multiple updates into multiple data targets at different points of time avoiding multiple extraction runs for the same set of data. • It supports error handling and simulation of data updates. Idoc: (Intermediate Document): idoc is SAP’s standard format for electronic data interchange between systems. Idocs can be used in the following scenarios: 1. Application Link Enabling 2. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) PSA uses TRFC (Transactional Remote Function Call) for data transfer method. TRFC supports a maximum of 1962 bytes and 255 fields. Idoc supports limited file size 1000 bytes. Data cannot be loaded to PSA using Idoc, But PSA uses TRFC. Benefits of using TRFC over Idoc method: • Data can be stored in PSA by using TRFC (but not with Idoc) • Improved performance when loading data. • Higher through put (over coming the limit of 1000 bytes for Idocs) • Possibility of synchronizing infosources. • Acts as a API to access the data stored in the ODS. InfoCubes Definition InfoCubes are InfoProviders but are not necessarily data targets (InfoCubes are also data targets only if data is physically stored in them). From a reporting point of view, an InfoCube describes a self- contained dataset, for example, of a business-orientated area. This dataset can be evaluated in a BEx query. An InfoCube is a quantity of relational tables arranged according to the star schema: A large fact table in the middle surrounded by several dimension tables. Use InfoCubes are supplied with data from one or more InfoSources or ODS objects (Basic InfoCube) or with data from a different system (RemoteCube, SAP RemoteCube, virtual InfoCube with Services, transactional InfoCube). Fact Table: It is a collection of facts or measures or KPIs or Key Figures and relations to the Dimensions table. Fact table hold transactional data. Dimension table: it is a collection of logically related characteristics. In a Star Schema model Dimension table contains Master Data. But in extended Star schema model the master data is not in dimension table. Master data will be maintained in master data tables (Texts, Attributes, Hierarchies) externally. SID table: it is also called as Setid or Surrogate ID. SID translates a potentially long key for an Infoobject (Characteristics infoobject) into a short 4 byte integer which saves I/O and memory during OLAP reporting. Master data tables: there are 3 tables: 1. Attributes: it stores the additional descriptive information of an entity. Normally these will be treated as Master data. 2. Texts: it gives the textual description such as Short text (Char 20), Medium Text (Char, 40) and Long text (Char 60) of each record. It also maintains the language key in which the values are maintained (0langu, Char, 1). Hence these tables are called Language dependent table. 3. Hierarchies: it stores the parent and child relationships. It is used to display the values in a structured format. There are various types of InfoCube: ... 1. Physical data stores: - Basic InfoCubes - Transactional InfoCubes 2. Virtual data stores: - RemoteCube - SAP RemoteCube Virtual InfoCube with Services Only Basic InfoCubes and transactional InfoCubes physically contain data in the database. Virtual InfoCubes are only logical views of a dataset. By definition, they are not data targets. However, the InfoCube type is of no importance from the reporting perspective, since an InfoCube is accessed as an InfoProvider. Basic InfoCube Definition A Basic InfoCube is a type of InfoCube that physically stores data. It is filled with data using BW Staging. Afterwards, it can be used as an InfoProvider in BEx Reporting. Structure As with other InfoCube types, the structure of a Basic InfoCube corresponds to the Star Schema. Transactional InfoCubes Definition Transactional InfoCubes differ from Basic InfoCubes in their ability to support parallel write accesses. Basic InfoCubes are technically optimized for read accesses to the detriment of write accesses. The transactional InfoCube was developed to meet the demands of SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM). Use Transactional InfoCubes are used only in conjunction with SEM. The data from this kind of InfoCube is accessed transactionally, meaning data is written to the InfoCube (possibly by several users at the same time) and reread as soon as possible. Basic InfoCubes are not suitable for this. You should use Basic InfoCubes for read-only access (for example, when reading reference data). RemoteCube Definition A RemoteCube is an InfoCube whose transaction data is not managed in the Business Information Warehouse but externally. Only the structure of the RemoteCube is defined in BW. The data is read for reporting using a BAPI from another system. Use Using a RemoteCube, you can carry out reporting using data in external systems without having to physically store transaction data in BW. You can, for example, include an external system from market data providers using a RemoteCube. By doing this, you can reduce the administrative work on the BW side and also save memory space. SAP RemoteCube Definition An SAP RemoteCube is a RemoteCube that allows the definition of queries with direct access to transaction data in other SAP systems. Use Use SAP RemoteCubes if: •You need very up-to-date data from an SAP source system •You only access a small amount of data from time to time •Only a few users execute queries simultaneously on the database. Do not use SAP RemoteCubes if: •You request a large amount of data in the first query navigation step, and no appropriate aggregates are available in the source system •A lot of users execute queries simultaneously •You frequently access the same data Virtual InfoCubes with Services Definition A virtual InfoCube with services is an InfoCube that does not have its own physical data storage in BW. A user-defined function module is used as DataSource. The properties of the DataSource can be defined more precisely with a number of options. Depending on these properties, the Data Manager provides services for converting the parameters and data. Use A virtual InfoCube with services can be used if you want to display data from non-BW data sources in BW without having to copy the data to the BW structures. The data can be either local or remote. You can also change the data with your own calculations before passing it to the OLAP processor. This function is used primarily in the SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM) application. Statistical Information about BW Star Schema An Infocube contains only one fact table. The maximum no of Dimension tables in an Infocube are 16. Out of this SAP defined dimensions are 3. The maximum no of Dimension tables a user can create are 13. (16 –3). SAP Defined Dimensions: these are called as fixed dimensions. 1. Time Dimension (T): the technical name of this dimension is xxxT. Time dimension contains a maximum of 13 Time characteristics. But 3.0B, 3.1C versions supports 9 Time characteristics. Ex: 0CALDAY, 0CALMONTH. 2. Data Packet Dimension (P): techname xxxP. It contains 3 characteristics. Request ID, Recordtype, Change Run ID. 3. Unit Dimension (U): Tech name xxxU. Basically it includes characteristics related to amounts and quantifies. 0Unit, 0Currency. User defined dimensions: technical names maintains as follows xxx1, xxx2, xxx3 ….. Xxx9, xxxA, xxxB, xxxC, xxxD.. The maximum no of Key figures in a Fact table: 233. The maximum no of Characteristics in a dimension table are 248. Update Rules Definition Update rules specify how the data (key figures, time characteristics, characteristics) is updated into the InfoProvider from the communication structure of an InfoSource. You are therefore connecting an InfoSource with an InfoProvider. Update rules connect an Infosource to a data target allowing it to specify additional transformations from a business point of view. An update rules specifies how data will be updated into their targets. If the update rule is applied to data from an infosource, the update rules technical name will match the infosource technical name. If the update rules is applied to data from an ODS object, the update rules technical name matches the ODS objects tech name prefixed wit number 8. Update rules establish a many to many relationship between infosource and data targets. An Infosource can be used to update multiple data targets and a data target can be updated from multiple infosources. While transfer rules are used to eliminate technical differences, update rules are used to perform transformations from a business point of view. • Perform additional data validity and integrity checks • Skips unnecessary data • Aggregate data • Convert currency and unit of measure • Performs data enrichment i.e adding fields read from master data tables. Update type for Infocube: 1. Addition 2. No Update Update methods / Update rules for Key figures: 1. Source Key figure 2. Formula 3. ABAP Routine Update methods / Update rules for Characteristics: • Source Characteristics • Constant • Master data attribute of characteristic • Formula • ABAP Routine • Initial value Update methods / Update rules for Time Characteristics: • Source Characteristics • Constant • Master data attribute of characteristic • Formula • ABAP Routine • Time distribution (Normal Calendar, Factory calendar) • Initial value Note: by default system is having key figures update rules.