Occupational Ergonomics 2005
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OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS WELCOME! Go Ergo Risk Management Institute at COLLEGE Of The MAINLAND TEXAS MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY Stacy Rose, Loss Prevention Consultant Texas Mutual Insurance Company AGENDA Opening comments Quiz The Fundamentals of Ergonomics 8:00 – 8:10 8:10 – 8:30 8:30 – 9:30 9:30 – 9:40 9:40 – 10:45 10:45 – 11:15 Break Anthropometrics & Anatomy Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders 11:15 – 11:25 11:25 - 12:00 12:00 – 1:00 Break VIDEO LUNCH Stacy Rose, Loss Prevention Consultant Texas Mutual Insurance Company AGENDA Occupational Risk Factors Break Conducting An Ergonomics Review 1:00 – 2:20 2:20 – 2:30 2:30 – 3:15 3:15 – 4:00 4:00 – 4:10 Office Ergonomics Break 4:10 – 5:00 Industrial Ergonomics Stacy Rose, Loss Prevention Consultant Texas Mutual Insurance Company Course Objectives Develop an understanding of work-related musculoskeletal disorders Learn to identify ergonomic risk factors in the workplace Develop the knowledge necessary to conduct your own ergonomics review Learn how the principles of ergonomics apply to office & industrial environments The Science of Ergonomics Ergo 101 Objectives Introduce ergonomics & define common terms Review basic anatomy Identify common musculoskeletal disorders Define scope of the problem Workplace Safety Electrical Safety Medical & First Aid Lockout/Tag-out Asbestos Control Confined Space Personal Protective Equipment Hazard Communication Fire Prevention Chemical Safety Ergonomics Defined Early 1700’s, Ramazzini’s study of ill-effects of poor posture & poorly designed tools on the health of workers Greek Words Ergonomics “Ergon = work, Nomikos = law” Study of Work Laws What Is Ergonomics? Modern Definition Science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population What Is Ergonomics? Ergon – work Nomos – laws of Ergonomics is the laws of work that define the limits to human capability. What Is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is the science of improving employee performance and well-being in relation to the » job tasks, » equipment, and » the environment. Ergonomics is… » a continuous improvement effort to design the workplace for what people do well, and design against what people don’t do well. What Is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is fitting the job to the person. Applying Ergonomics 1. Study, research, & experimentation – Evaluate human traits/characteristics we need to know for engineering design 2. Application & engineering – Design tools, machines, shelter, environment, work tasks, and job procedures to fit and accommodate the human Ergonomics Human Machine Work Environment Utmost Goal: “Humanization” of Work Design with “E & E”: Ease and Efficiency The Basics of Ergonomics INDUSTRIAL ATHLETE SKILL WILL COACHING GREAT EQUIPMENT Applications of Ergonomics Anatomy Orthopedics Physiology Medicine Psychology Sociology Anthropometry Biomechanics Work Physiology Industrial Hygiene Management Labor Relations Industrial Engineering Bio-Engineering Systems Engineering Safety Engineering Military Engineering Computer-Aided Design Occupational Ergonomics Optimize worker well-being Optimize productivity Minimize workplace stress factors Minimize medical/workers’ compensation costs Increase Company Profitability Occupational Factors Affecting The Worker…….. Physical Hazards Chemical Hazards Biological Hazards Physical Hazards Heat Stress/Cold Stress Noise Illumination Ventilation Vibration Radiation Falling, Tripping, Slipping Chemical Hazards Liquids Solids Gases Dusts Fumes Mists Fibers Biological Hazards Needle Stick Injuries Blood Borne Pathogens AIDS Anthrax Tuberculosis Rabies Hepatitis Where Does Ergonomics Fit In? Physical Hazards Chemical Hazards Biological Hazards Ergonomics Human Machine Work Environment Common Ergonomic Terms Trauma Disorders (CTDs) Repetitive Motion Disorders Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) Cumulative Cumulative Trauma Disorders Bodily injuries or physical ailments that have developed gradually over periods of weeks, months, or even years as the result of repeated stresses on a particular body part Source: (Erdil & Dickerson, 1997) Repetitive Motion Disorders A variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work or other daily activities. RMDs may be caused by: – – – – – – overexertion incorrect posture muscle fatigue compression of nerves or tissue too many uninterrupted repetitions of an activity or motion friction caused by an unnatural or awkward motion such as twisting the arm or wrist Source: (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ) Examples of Repetitive Motion Disorders Carpel tunnel syndrome DeQuervain’s disease Raynaud’s syndrome (white finger) Tendinitis Tenosynovitis Trigger finger Musculoskeletal Disorders An MSD is an injury or illness of – Muscles – Nerves – Tendons – Ligaments – Joints – Cartilage – Spinal Discs A - articular capsule B - ligament C - tendon (section view) D - muscle E - tendons Anterior View: Muscles & Bones Posterior View: Muscles & Bones Musculoskeletal System “Left Anterior Forearm” “The Knee” Work-Related MSDs Disorders where the work environment & performance of work contribute significantly Made worse or longer lasting by work conditions Examples of WMSDs Lower Body – – – – – – – Low Back Pain Back Strain Disc Disorder Degenerative Disc Disorders Sciatica Knee Disorders Foot Disorders Examples of WMSDs Upper Body – – – – – – – – – Tension Neck Syndrome Rotator Cuff Syndrome Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer’s Elbow) Tendinitis Carpal Tunnel Syndrome DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis Trigger Finger Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome Common Physical Injuries/Illnesses A - inflammation of the shoulder tendons B - tennis elbow C - inflammation of the wrist tendons D - lesion of the knee cartilage E - inflammation or tearing of the Achilles tendon F - spraining of the thigh muscles G - backache (due to a lesion of the ligaments or muscles) Scope of Problem Why is Ergonomics Important? Financial Humanistic Regulatory Public relations Employee/labor relations $ Human Regulatory Agencies National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Department of Labor Workers’ Compensation Insurance Companies Bureau of Labor & Statistics The Bureau of Labor Statistics is the principal fact-finding agency for the Federal Government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics. Number of Fatalities Number of Non-Fatal Injuries & Illnesses Lost Workday Cases Injury and Illness Incident Rates Scope of the problem Bureau of Labor & Statistics (BLS), 2002 Total cases of non-fatal injuries and illnesses 4,700,600 1,436,194 Cases Involved Days Away From Work More about the injuries…… Carpal tunnel syndrome cases had more median days away from work (30) than either fractures (29) or amputations (26) Source: BLS 2002 Musculoskeletal Disorders Total musculoskeletal disorders 487.9 9 (1,000’s) Occupations Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants Truck drivers Laborers, nonconstruction Janitors and cleaners Assemblers Construction laborers Registered nurses Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations Cashiers Stock handlers and baggers Sales workers, other commodities Number 44.4 36.8 24.9 15.2 15.2 11.1 10.8 9.9 9.3 8.8 7.8 Median Days AFW 6 12 8 7 14 10 6 7 8 5 7 More about the injuries…… Sprains, strains, and tears accounted for over 75.8% of the musculoskeletal disorders that resulted in days away from work in 2002. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome accounted for over 4.6% of the musculoskeletal disorders that resulted in days away from work in 2002. More about the injuries…… A majority of injured or ill workers were 20 to 44 years old Workers 20 to 44 had a higher incidence of injuries or illnesses, while workers 45 and older had a lower incidence of injuries or illnesses than each of their hours worked shares suggest More about the injuries…… Two-thirds of the injured or ill workers were men, well above their 59 percent share of the nation’s hours worked. Most workers (37.2%) had at least 1 to 5 years of service with their employer when they were injured or became ill. Workers’ Compensation Claims Texas Mutual Claims for 2002 26,175 For 3 month period, small business policyholders (premium less than $50,000): Total Claims: Strains Sprains Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 3,774 664 424 17 (18%) (11%) (0.45%) Workers’ Compensation Costs Total Claims: Total Dollar Loss: Strains Sprains Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 3,774 $28,103,240 Total Incurred Cost Average Incurred Cost $5,044,619 $2,549,584 $180,232 $7,597 $6,013 $10,602 Financial Burden In year 2001, serious workplace injury & illnesses cost $45.8 billion Source: Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index, 2003; Published by The Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety Questions?