Birth Defects Web Quest by zbk75252

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									Birth Defects
 Web Quest
                          TEKS and Objectives
2) Prenatal care and development. The student determines hereditary and
   environmental factors affecting prenatal development. The student is expected
   (A) discuss the role of genetics in prenatal development;
   (B) determine environmental factors affecting development of the fetus;
   (C) discuss the impact of technological advances on prenatal care and

Upon completion of this webquest, students will be able to:

1. Define the term “Birth Defect”.
2. Define various birth defects and their causes and treatments.
3. Discuss the important role that Genetics plays in the formation of the human
   being during pregnancy.
4. Compare and contrast structural defects, metabolic defects, and defects caused
   by congenital infections.
5. Complete the handout which will used to review for our quiz on birth defects! !
    “What do I do?” you may ask.
 As you go through these slides, you will
  be completing the worksheet provided.
 This worksheet is due on _____________.
 Be sure to visit the websites listed to find
  out more about each defect so you can
  get the bonus points!
 Happy hunting!
                Birth Defects
 are defined as abnormalities of structure,
  function, or body metabolism that are present at
 These abnormalities lead to mental or physical
  disabilities or are fatal. There are more than
  4,000 different known birth defects, ranging
  from minor to serious, and although many can
  be treated or cured, they're the leading cause of
  death in the first year of life.
   The American College of Obstetricians and
    Gynecologists (ACOG) says that 3 out of
    every 100 babies born in the United States
    have some kind of major birth defect.

   Birth defects can be caused by genetic,
    environmental, or unknown factors.
    Structural or metabolic defects
 are those that result when a specific body
  part is missing or formed incorrectly or
  when there is an inborn problem in body
  chemistry. The most common type of
  major structural defects are heart defects,
  which affect 1 in 100 babies in the United
 Why do some babies have congenital
  heart defects?
Structural or Metabolic Defects, cont.

 Other common structural defects include
  spina bifida and hypospadias, a condition
  in which the opening of the male urethra
  (where urine exits from the penis) is in the
  wrong place.
 What is Myelomeningocele ? How does
  it affect a child?
              Defects Caused by
             Congenital Infections
   result when a mother gets an infection before or
    during the pregnancy. Infections that can cause
    birth defects include rubella (German measles),
    cytomegalovirus (CMV), syphilis, toxoplasmosis,
    Venezuelan equine encephalitis, parvovirus, and,
    rarely, chickenpox. None of these affect 100%
    of babies whose mothers are infected during
    pregnancy. If the mother is infected during early
    pregnancy, rubella carries the highest risk for
    birth defects (approximately 20%).
    Other Causes of Birth Defects
 Other causes of birth defects include
  alcohol abuse by the mother and Rh
  disease, which can occur when the
  mother's and baby's Rh factors (the
  "positive" or "negative" part of a person's
  blood type) are different.
 What type of blood would a child have if
  it’s parents were A+ and O- ? Click Here
         Causes of Birth Defects
   Most babies with birth defects are born to
    two parents with no obvious health
    problems or risk factors. A woman can do
    everything her doctor recommends to
    deliver a healthy child and still have a
    baby with a birth defect.
            Causes, continued
 How do genetics play a role in some birth defects?
 Environmental causes of birth defects have more
  to do with the mother's health and exposure to
  chemicals or diseases. When a mother has certain
  infections, such as rubella, during pregnancy, it
  can cause birth defects. Alcohol abuse by the
  mother causes fetal alcohol syndrome, and certain
  medications taken by the mother can cause birth
          Causes, continued
 Multifactorial birth defects are caused by a
  combination of genetic and environmental
  factors and include neural tube defects
  and cleft lip and palate.
 Although you can take steps to prevent
  birth defects, a birth defect can happen
  even if you or your partner have no
  history of birth defects in your families or
  if you've had healthy children in the past.
       Common Birth Defects
 Cleft lip and/or palate occurs when the
  tissues of the mouth or lip don't form
  properly during fetal development. A cleft
  lip is a long opening between the upper lip
  and the nose. A cleft palate is an opening
  between the roof of the mouth and the
  nasal cavity.
 What are 3 types of clefts?
    Common Birth Defects, cont.
 Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in the first
  month of pregnancy when the structure that
  develops into the brain and spinal cord is
  forming. Normally, this structure folds into a
  tube by the 29th day after conception. When the
  tube doesn't close completely, the baby has an
  NTD; many babies with these defects are
  stillborn or die soon after birth.
 Click here for a cool animation of the closure of
  the neural tube!
     Two most common forms of
      Neural Tube Defect (NTD)
 Spina bifida, which happens when the
  spinal column doesn't close completely
  around the spinal cord. It ranges from
  mild to severe and can be associated with
  loss of bladder and bowel function,
  paralysis, and, in some cases, death.
 Anencephaly, which occurs in 3 out of
  10,000 births, involves the lack of
  development of parts of the brain.
    Importance of FOLIC ACID!!!
 NTDs are multifactorial defects, which according to the
  March of Dimes occur in about 2,500 babies a year in
  the United States, or 1 out of every 2,000 live births.
  Studies have shown that many of these defects may be
  prevented when the mother gets enough folic acid
  before and during pregnancy, especially during the first
 Women must make sure to receive enough folic acid
  before they become pregnant because the neural tube
  closes about 1 week after the first missed menstrual
  period — so mothers cannot wait to start folic acid when
  they first realize they're pregnant. For this reason, it is
  recommended that women take folic acid throughout
  their reproductive years.
                        Heart Defects
   Atrial and ventricular septal defects, which are holes in the walls that
    separate the heart into left and right sides.
   Patent ductus arteriosus, which is present when the tubular blood
    channel that allows the blood to bypass the lungs while the baby is in the
    womb doesn't close (as expected) after birth.
   Aortic or pulmonary valve stenosis, which are narrowings of the valves
    that allow blood to flow from the heart to the lungs and other parts of the
   Coarctation of the aorta, which is a narrowing of the aorta, the major
    blood vessel carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
   Transposition of the great arteries, which is the reversal of the
    connections of the aorta and the pulmonary artery with the heart.
   Hypoplastic left heart system, which is when the side of the heart that
    pumps blood to the body is underdeveloped or nonexistent.
   Tetralogy of Fallot, which is a combination of four heart defects that
    involves restriction in the flow of blood to the lungs.
             Cerebral palsy
 usually isn't detected until weeks to months
  after birth, depending on the severity of the
 The term actually refers to a group of conditions
  affecting control of movement and caused by
  brain damage.
 People with cerebral palsy have difficulty
  controlling the motions their muscles make —
  which muscles and how severely they are
  impaired varies from person to person.

How many children and adults in the US have CP?
          Cerebral Palsy Continued
   In most cases, the cause of cerebral palsy isn't known, but some
    causes include:
   rubella (German measles) infection during pregnancy
   Rh disease (a blood problem in the baby that results from a
    difference in the mother's and infant's blood types)
   prematurity
   brain damage during the last trimester of pregnancy or around the
    time of birth
   Cerebral palsy can also have a genetic cause or may be due to head
    injuries or meningitis that occur after birth. Therapy to improve
    motor skills, surgery, and braces and other types of equipment and
    assistive technology can help improve mobility and muscle control.
    Speech therapy and occupational therapy can help as well.
 Clubfoot is a term used to describe a group of
  structural defects of the foot and ankle in which
  the bones, joints, muscles, and blood vessels are
  formed incorrectly. These defects range from
  mild to severe and may affect one or both feet.
  Feet affected by this defect point down, turn in,
  and usually have a limited range of motion.
 What are 4 characteristics of clubfoot? Click
        Congenital Hip Dislocation
   occurs when the round upper end of the thighbone
    doesn't sit inside the socket of the pelvis properly. This
    can happen in one or both hips. It happens in about 1 or
    2 in 1,000 births, more often in girls, and tends to run in
    families, although the exact cause is unknown. Usually it
    is detected at birth and treated immediately by placing
    the baby in a soft sling for 6 to 9 months. If it's not
    recognized and treated early, surgery may be necessary.
   Which hip is more often involved?
   Which country has least occurrence, and why?
   Which race is more often affected?
                 Cystic Fibrosis
 is a disease mainly affecting the respiratory and
  digestive systems. An inability to carry chloride (one of
  the chemicals in table and body salts) from the cells that
  line organs such as the lungs and pancreas to their outer
  surfaces causes the body to produce a thick, sticky
  mucus. Children with CF can have trouble breathing and
  digesting food; symptoms include chronic respiratory
  problems and pneumonia, bulky stools, and poor weight
 How does genetics impact Cystic Fibrosis?
 How many people in the US carry this gene?
 Which race is most often affected?
 How is CF treated?
      Gastrointestinal defects
   are structural defects that can occur at
    any point along the gastrointestinal tract,
    which is made up of the esophagus,
    stomach, small and large intestines,
    rectum, and anus. The incomplete or
    abnormal development of any of these
    organs can cause obstructions or
    blockages that can lead to swallowing
    difficulties, vomiting, and problems with
    bowel movements.
            Down’s Syndrome
 is a group of abnormalities that occur in children
  who are born with an extra (third) copy of
  chromosome number 21 in their cells. Children
  with the syndrome have mental retardation and
  distinctive facial and other physical features;
  these problems are often accompanied by heart
  defects and other health problems.
 Who is Down’s Syndrome named for?
 At what age does the mother’s chance for
  having a DS child increase?
           Phenylketonuria (PKU)
   is a disease that affects the way the body processes
    protein; it can cause mental retardation. A baby born
    with PKU appears normal, but if the disease isn't treated,
    the child will suffer from developmental delays that are
    apparent by the first birthday. About 1 baby in 10,000 to
    25,000 in the United States is born with PKU.
   When is testing for PKU done on a newborn?
   How is it done?
   What is done for a newborn which tests positive for
   Is genetics involved in having a baby with PKU? How?
           Fragile X syndrome
 is characterized by mental impairment, ranging
  from learning disabilities to mental retardation,
  autistic behaviors, and attention problems and
  hyperactivity. Physical characteristics of children
  with Fragile X include a long face, large ears, flat
  feet, and extremely flexible joints, especially
 How is Fragile X passed?
 Are boys or girls more often affected?
 List some signs or symptoms of Fragile X.
              Muscular dystrophy
   is a general term that's used to describe more than 40
    different types of muscle diseases, all of which involve
    progressive weakness and degeneration of the muscles
    that control movement. Heart muscles and some other
    involuntary muscles are also affected in some forms of
    muscular dystrophy, and a few forms involve other
    organs as well. The disease is genetic and cannot be
    cured. Treatment includes physical and respiratory
    therapy, the use of assistive technology, and

 What are the symptoms of Muscular Dystrophy?
 What does the term “Jerry’s Kids” have to do with MD?
           Sickle Cell Disease
 is a disorder of the red blood cells in which an
  abnormal shape of the cells results in chronic
  anemia (low blood count), periodic episodes of
  pain, and other health problems.
 In the United States, sickle cell anemia affects
  mostly African Americans and some Latinos. The
  disease occurs in about 1 in every 500 African-
  American births and 1 in every 1,000 to 1,400
  Latino-American births.
 What happens if only 1 sickle cell gene but the
  other gene is normal?
              Tay-Sachs Disease
 affects the central nervous system, causing blindness,
  dementia, paralysis, seizures, and deafness; it's usually
  fatal within the first few years of life. Babies with this
  disease appear normal when they are born; the
  symptoms develop during the first few months of life.
 It is genetic and occurs most often in Jews of central or
  eastern European descent; when two parents are
  carriers, a child has a 1 in 4 chance of having it.
  Although there isn't any treatment for this disease,
  there's a test to help parents determine if they are
  carriers of the gene.
 What are 2 forms of Tay-Sachs Disease?
        Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
 is characterized by slowed growth, mental
  retardation, abnormalities in facial features, and
  problems with the central nervous system. Every
  year between 2,000 and 12,000 babies in the
  United States are born with defects caused by
  alcohol. FAS cannot be cured or treated, but can
  be prevented by avoiding alcohol intake during
 How can Fetal Alcohol Syndrome be prevented?
      Infections During Pregnancy
   can cause a variety of birth defects. Examples include:
   Congenital rubella (the infection posing the highest risk
    for fetal damage) syndrome is characterized by vision
    and/or hearing loss, heart defects, mental retardation,
    and cerebral palsy.
   Toxoplasmosis infection of the mother can result in eye
    infections that threaten vision, hearing loss, learning
    disabilities, enlarged liver or spleen, mental retardation,
    and cerebral palsy in the infant.
   How is Toxoplasmosis spread?
      Infections During Pregnancy
   Genital herpes virus infection of the mother can cause
    brain damage, cerebral palsy, vision or hearing
    impairment, and death of the baby if the virus is
    transmitted to the infant before or during the birth.
   What cure is available for Herpes?
   Fifth disease can cause a dangerous form of anemia,
    heart failure, and, in some cases, fetal death,
   Congenital varicella syndrome, which is caused by
    chickenpox, can lead to scars, defects of muscle and
    bone, malformed and paralyzed limbs, a smaller-than-
    normal head, blindness, seizures, and mental
    retardation. This is an uncommon occurrence in
    pregnant women who become infected with chickenpox.
        Diagnosing Birth Defects
   Routine prenatal screening can do two
    major things: it can help determine if the
    mother has an infection or other condition
    that is dangerous to the fetus, and it can
    help determine if the fetus has certain
    birth defects.
Defects that may be detected during
       a prenatal screening.
   neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly)
   Down syndrome
   other chromosome abnormalities
   inherited metabolic disorders
   congenital heart defects
   gastrointestinal and kidney malformations
   cleft lip or palate
   certain birth defects of the limbs
   congenital tumors
                You’re done!
   Be sure to turn in your worksheet to your
    teacher so you can get a grade!

   Good job on your quest for information on
    Birth Defects!

   Be ready to review your answers for a

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