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Water Diversions

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									ENVS: Water Diversions-Case Studies                                                                Name:__________________
Purpose:
    Research the Internet and other sources to analyze the effects of water diversions on surrounding ecosystems and human
       communities.
    Compare and contrast the problems and successes of various water diversions and describe possible remediations.

Introduction:
Humans have been diverting water for irrigation, flood control, and a constant drinking supply for thousands of years. When
populations were small, the diversions were small. Over the last 150 years human populations have grown rapidly and our technical
abilities have vastly improved. These two changes, worldwide, have led to many large-scale projects that have altered the
environment of sizable regions. This investigation focuses on three major water diversions: the Salton Sea, the Aral Sea, and the
Colorado River.
                            Please research and answer questions for parts I, II, III on a separate sheet of paper.
Part I: The Salton Sea
1. Describe the location of the Salton Sea. What is the climate and geography of the area?
2. How did the Salton Sea form? Explain what role humans played.
3. What is the present condition of this body of water? How has it changed over the last 25 years? Why?
4. Describe several ways the Salton Sea has altered the ecosystem of the region. Explain the stability of that ecosystem. How is it
changing over time?
5. Outline three environmental and three economic reasons the Salton Sea is important.
6. What steps are being taken to remediate the Salton Sea? What are the chances of success? Explain.
7. Compare the similarities and differences between the Salton Sea and Lake Chad in sub-Saharan Africa.

USGS Geographic Names Information System Map Server
         http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnis/web_query.gnis_web_query_form For maps “Feature Name” field, type in “Salton Sea.”
Salton Sea Home Page. A page of numerous links.
         http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/salton/SaltonSeaHomePage.html
The Salton Sea
         http://www.desertusa.com/salton/salton.html
Provides history of the sea and information on bird die-offs.
         http://visearth.ucsd.edu/VisE_Int/aralseahtml/SaltSea.intro.html
Salton, A Sea of Controversy
         http://www.sciencecases.org/salton/salton.asp
General Info on Lake Chad
         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Chad

Part II: The Aral Sea
1. Find the location and other geographic information about the Aral Sea from a current atlas.
          a. Which former Soviet republics border the Aral Sea?
          b. Which rivers mainly supply the Aral Sea?
2. What government agency is responsible for the Aral Sea and its plight?
3. Why was the water supply to the Sea diverted?
4. What resources did the Aral Sea supply to the local inhabitants?
5. Describe three negative environmental effects of the fading of this sea.
6. Describe three economic impacts in the region because of the water diversion.
7. How is the situation of the Salton Sea similar to the Aral Sea? How is it different?
8. How would you describe this region today, other than as a “sea”?
9. Explain five health effects on people related to the vanishing Aral Sea.
10. How can the Aral Sea be realistically rehabilitated?
11. Compare the situation in Mono Lake California with that of the Aral Sea.
          a. How did the Mono Lake problem arise?
          b. Describe three ways the problems of Mono Lake are similar to those of the Aral Sea.
          c. Outline three ways the problems of Mono Lake differ.
          d. Summarize the proposals and actions to remediate Mono Lake.

Aral Sea web links
         http://geographyfieldwork.com/AralSea.htm
USGS Earthshots Program
         http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/earthshots/slow/Aral/Aral
Tons of info. on Aral sea including lots of links
         http://www.giscenter.ru/carpos/CLIMAN/links.htm
Short article on aral sea overview
          http://www.allthesea.com/The-Aral-Sea.html
State of the Aral Sea Information
          http://enrin.grida.no/aral/aralsea/english/arsea/arsea.htm
Mono Lake Committee web site
          http://www.monolake.org/
Mono Lake Ecology and Controversy
          http://www.fossweb.com/CA/modules3-6/Environments/activities/mono/content_old.html

Part III: The Colorado River
1. Compare water diversion influences on the Colorado River with those on the Salton Sea and Aerial Sea. Describe three ways they
are different.
2. Look at the image of the Colorado River Basin (link below). Where is the source of the Colorado River? What are some of the
main tributaries and their sources? What is the most important origin of the water in the Colorado River?
3. Who decides where the water in the river system goes? How is the resource divided between the various states in the watershed and
beyond?
4. How do the individual states use the water? Who are the top five consumers of the water?
5. Describe some of the conflicts that arise over water use. How are they usually resolved?
6. How are conflicts between public and private use managed?
7. Serious differences with Mexico exist concerning the amount of water the Mexicans receive from the river. Explain why this
problem exists and what can be done to work out this dispute between the countries.
8. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers cross international boundaries in their path to the Persian Gulf. Why is this problem potentially
greater than the one that exists in the Colorado River?
9. Compare the problem of water diversions on the Yangtze River in China with those of the Colorado River.
10. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is very controversial..
          a. Why was this dam built?
          b. Describe how this dam differs from dams on the Colorado River, such as the Glen Canyon Dam or Hover Dam, with
          respect to:
                the disruption of human life
                impact on the environment
                archaeology
                local culture and natural beauty

Image of Colorado River Basin with major dams
         http://crc.nv.gov/images/colorado_river_basin.gif
Colorado River Overview
         http://www.bobspixels.com/kaibab.org/misc/gc_coriv.htm
General Background on Colorado River
         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado_River
Colorado River Story
         http://www.edf.org/article.cfm?contentID=2644
Colorado River Storage Project (SRSP) from the Bureau of Reclamation                         Overview of SRSP
         http://www.usbr.gov/dataweb/html/crsp.html                               http://www.usbr.gov/dataweb/html/crbp.html
Water Development & Diversion History in Colorado Plateau
         http://cpluhna.nau.edu/Change/waterdevelopment1.htm
Sierra Club Overview of Colorado River Issues and Restoration
         http://www.sierraclub.org/rcc/southwest/COreport/
Info. about Lake Powell and the Glen Canyon Dam
         http://www.livingrivers.org/campaigns/drought/map.cfm
The Colorado River Compact
         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado_River_Compact
Ntnl. Geographic Article on Colorado River
         http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/weblink/water/materials/carrier.html
Water Resources Research Center (Univ. of Ariz.)
         http://ag.arizona.edu/AZWATER/main.html
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Issues Overview
         http://american.edu/TED/ice/tigris.htm#r1
         http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80858e/80858E04.htm
Water in the Middle East
         http://www.al-bab.com/arab/env/water.htm#TIGRIS
 Overview of Yangtze River                                                Three Gorges Dam Info. from International Rivers
         http://www.africanwater.org/yangtze.htm                       http://internationalrivers.org/en/china/three-gorges-dam

								
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