Technology education and manpower training
in traditional industry from the perspective of
the small manufacturing business
Mr. Baruch Snir
Director of the Economics Department
The association of craft and industry in Israel
“ Vocational Training in Traditional Industry”
Characteristics of government system approach to
high-school vocational-technology education
Professional aspect – cancellation of imparting vocational skills
and training, combined with education. Preference for training
the student to integrate in a technology environment.
Social aspect - give each student the opportunity to realize his
ability, while developing mobility of students to the highest
possible level of theoretical education.
Practically adopting the approach claiming that vocational
studies do not belong to the realm of schools but rather to the
No clear methods to vocational education.
Resources allocation aspect - preference for the theoretical
track over vocational/technology track.
Continuous cut-backs in technology education budgets.
Budgeting vocational education array
(within framework of Ministry of Education)
Technology educaiton budget - Actual performance budget
Ministry of Education Budget - 2003-2007
70 62.9 60.4
NIS m 50
2007 2006 2005 2004 2003
Status of vocational-technology
education in Israel
Drastic decline in number of vocational schools.
Drop in number of graduates from the education system with
practical technology training.
Low potential of students who turn to post-high school studies
(university and college) in engineering and science fields, in
industry related aspects.
Low number of students who continue with technician/ practical
engineering studies, and reach fields of industry.
Lack of training/practical experience in industrial production
Lack of focus on fields related to advanced traditional industry
(metal, printing, plastic).
Change in number of vocational
high schools over time
Segmentation of schools in high school education in Israel according to type
of studies 1980-2007
voc/ tech No. schools 600
theoretical 882 341
2007 2000 1990 1980
Metal branch – Technology education
in vocational high schools
Metal branch - technology education in vocational high school 2005
welding Machine Tooling structural General metal
Change in number of students in high
school vocational education over time
Change in numbe r of stude nts in high school v ocational
e ducation ov e r time
No. s tude nts (k ) 150
2007 2000 1990 1980
Segmentation of students in vocational high
schools supervised by Ministry of Industry in
cus is fee
k yh d ott
s so e Sn
r tg nn
l t i
n etgn ortntbv
i c nyt fy Myp
tb drI shse
s ad ii er
u cu ed
2006 (total: 14290 students) in industry-centered tracks
gi t iP
r a el
s io tcl dyt ici rtcE
r n no
u ua W
e t i r f dd 1%
Segmentation of students in high schools for
technicians and practical engineers in industry-
centered vocational-technology subjects
Segmentation of students in schools for technicians and practical engineers
according to stream - 2007 figures (total 21,300 students)
Instrumentation and control
Other streams 67%
Advanced metal branch – post-technology
education – Schools for practical engineers
Post-te chnology e ducation - no.
stude nts in training tracks for adv ance d
me tal branche s in practical e ngine e ring
des ign, production
and control track
m echatronic track 598
Total s tudents in 21299
Segmentation of degree recipients in
institutes of higher learning
Segmentation of degree recipients from universities and academic colleges in 2006
according to study field (43,717 people)
Mathematics and 8%
Engineering and 38%
Status of vocational training in Israel
Sharp cuts in public expenditure on vocational training for
adults in past years.
Significant decline in number of participants in adult training
programs (from 32,000 in 2002 to 5000 in 2006).
State training centers closed.
Growth of private training systems and intra-plant training
Budgeting vocational training
budgeting vocational training for adults,
2002-2007 (in 2005 prices )
2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002
Characteristics of shortage in vocational-
technology manpower for traditional
Technology leaders: engineers and developers
“master” infrastructure - professional instructors with expertise
in training skilled manpower.
Technology operators in industry: computerized machine
operators, robot operators, quality control, digital control
Professional employees related to manual work: welders,
metalworkers, form workers, etc.
Fields: core professions lacking in industry: electronics,
mechanics, mechatronics, computerized machine tooling
Long learning curve in the plant required from a practical
engineer/engineer who completed his studies
Total shortage of thousands of employees in traditional
Lack of programmers in
Demand for programmers in metal branch in short term
No. employees 100
Measuring Electronic Lathing Milling
equipment (CMM) accessorizing
Principles of involving industry in developing
vocational-technology education system
Elementary education – initial stimulation of students in high
classes in aspects related to the world of machines and
computerization (automation, robotics), while creating interest
through visits to industrial plants.
High-school education – create study tracks suited to high
schools in the technology-vocational track focused on the
needs of the industry, accompanied by an adoptive plant.
Post-high school education – enhance cooperation with
academic institutes and colleges regarding R&D and curricula,
and incorporate practical projects in plants.
Principles of involving industry in developing
vocational training system for adults
Training focus on professions required in the labor
market, while maintaining contact with the industry to map
Training provided by private entities in the private sector,
financed by the government, and providing a recognized
Planning the training with employers in the manufacturing
sector with emphasis on theoretical studies + practical
experience in plants, and screening the candidates.
Creating threshold conditions required to operate intra-
plant training centers.
Desired specialization tracks in
training programmers for
Desired specialization tracks in training programmers for the metal
Percentage 40 25
Measuring Equipment f or Lathing Milling
equipment electronic machines machines
Principles of involving the small
manufacturing business sector in developing
vocational technology education system
Train teachers in industry topics.
Enhance the contact between plants and the
technology education system in the
Educate towards industrial entrepreneurship.
Operate one-day training workshops.
Technology reserve in the plant.
Intra-plant training center.
Model for cooperation: industrialists, government,
institutes of higher learning, private companies,
training center for printing professions (prototype)
Organization of employers: Build a vocational training system,
place the center graduates, promote and upgrade veteran
Government (Ministry of Industry Trade and Labor - Division of
Vocational Training): Approve and supervise curriculum, locate
and screen candidates for vocational training, finance costs of
training hours (for unemployed and academic retraining), official
diploma for center graduates.
Academic colleges: Venue, ongoing operation of the center,
administrative management, academic and professional
Hidelberg – experience and reputation in fields of establishing,
equipment, teaching assistance (curriculum, training materials,
The government should take part in training for
technology and its incorporation into labor markets,
through dialogue and cooperation with employees
Vocational-technology education should be
recognized as a legitimate educational branch for
students found suited to or interested in it.
Industry itself should contribute its part and be
involved in the process of upgrading vocational-
technology education and the vocational training