Amazon Rainforest Action Reaction by lzy18804

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									Amazon Rainforest Action &
        Reaction

          Deforestation
          Conservation
        Indigenous Rights
         Climate Change



        Morgane Le Morzellec
What do we know about the Amazon?

                  Deforestation    &   Climate Change


               Are things being done to counter these issues?
                Why should the US care about the Amazon?

          Mostly independent media has drawn my attention to the
          positive actions occurring in the Amazon rainforest.
I have become more optimistic as governments & non-governmental
   organizations are working to fight deforestation, climate change &
     including indigenous peoples in conservation policies.

       For each topic, deforestation, conservation, indigenous rights &
  climate change, the facts will be presented, followed by the current
  initiatives & lastly the potential strategies for a hopeful future. The
  goal is to raise awareness on the positive things taking place in the
                         world’s largest rainforest.
           Deforestation Slowing Down

Year               Square Miles     Deforestation fell by 29% during
                   Deforested        2006-2007.

1989               6,861            Lowest rate in 3 decades
1993               5,751
                                    Over the last 3 years, Brazil has
1997               5,107             managed to cut deforestation by 59%.
2001               7,014            74% of indigenous lands have lower
2004               10,590            deforestation rates than their
                                     surrounding areas.
2005               7,256
                                    Approximately 85% of Amazon
2006               5,048             rainforest still exists.



Source of Figures: INPE National     Source: mongabay.com; ipsnews.net; ens-
                                     newswire.com; nature.org
Institute of Space Research
                 Where is Deforestation
                      Occurring?



 The 4 Brazilian states: Para,
  Maranhao, Mato Grosso &
  Rondonia account for 85%
  of deforestation & have
  lower human development
  indexes than Amapa,
  Amazonas & Roraima,
  where almost no
  deforestation has taken
  place.
  Source: Marc Morano and Stephan
  Schwartzman Media and the Amazon River-
  critical Essay
 Brazil released
                           Deforestation’s Effects
  approximately 1 billion
  tons of CO2 gases/year.

 More than 75% was
  caused by deforestation.

 The drop in
  deforestation has
  prevented 410 million
  tons of greenhouse
  gases & the destruction
  of 600,000 trees.
  Source: news.bbc.co.uk
 Government & NGOs Taking Action
                        The government of Acre embarked on a new
                         reforestation public policy:

                            Cattle ranchers must reforest land which
                             they have cleared for grazing.

                            Local economy must rest on forest
                             products.

                        Dozens held over in the largest corruption
                         scheme involving government employees.

Source: v-brazil.com    Greater controls of illegal logging & improved
                         certification of land ownership.

                        WWF-Brazil joined 8 NGOs to launch a pact to
                         reduce deforestation to zero by 2015.



                       Source: Brazzilmag.com Mercopress; Cecilia Jorge; msnbc
                          news services & droppingknowledge.org
   Fighting Deforestation: Next Steps?
 Land Policy Reforms

 Law Enforcement

 Rehabilitate & increase productivity of formerly forested land.

 Expand protected areas.

 Development based on concepts of sustainable use of some
  existing forests.

 Reconcile the expansion of agriculture with the preservation of the
  rainforest.

 Effective monitoring of logging (illegal & legal).

 Reduce cattle ranching.

 New technology would protect up to 75 million hectares from
   deforestation over next 15 years.
   Source: Milena Galdino, Brazzil.com & Rhett A Butler, mongabay.com
  United Nations & International Tropical Timber
          Organization (ITTO) Reforms


 Making forestry laws & policies more rational, equitable,
  transparent & streamlined.

 Improving monitoring & information gathering.

 Strengthening national capacities to enforce compliance.

 Ensuring that policies take into account socio-economic dynamics
  that underline illegal logging.



  Source: mongabay.com
       Countries Setting a Positive Example
 Ecuador ensures compliance of forest operators with laws &
  regulations.

    Violations lead to revocation of licenses or other penalties.

    Check-points were established between forests & locations where
     wood processing & marketing occurs.

    Resulted in a 6-fold increase in government seizures of illegally
     produced timber during its 1st year of implementation.


 Paraguay cut deforestation by 85 % since the implementation of
  the Zero Deforestation Law which prohibits the transformation &
  conversion of forested areas.

 Cambodia promoted community-managed forestry management
  which helped limit forest crimes.

  Source: mongabay.com & wwf.org.uk
Different Levels of Protection




                         Source: Capobianco et al
                         2001 & World Resource
                         Institute Washington DC
          What are Protected Areas?
 Brazil has the largest protected areas system in the world with more
  than 110 million hectares.

 Strictly Protected Areas: managed mainly for science & wilderness
  protection; home to 54% of animal & plant species.

 Indigenous Lands: house the only large areas of standing forest & act
  as refuge areas for biodiversity. They occupy 1/5 of the Amazon, 5
  times the area under protection in parks.

 State Forests: managed for the recreation & nature conservation to
  protect water catchments & to provide for sustainable resource use
  (timber production, wildflower picking).

 Environmental Protection Areas: combat illegal logging & violent
  landowners who seek to control the rainforest.

 Sustainable Use Protected Areas: allow local communities to
  manage the natural resources & permit limited logging under strict
  management.


Source: mongabay.com; nature.org; sciencedaily.com; abc.net; The Associated Press
How is the Amazon Protected?




                  7 New Protected Areas in
                   Para (approx 57,915 sq miles),
                   larger than the states of New
                   York & New Jersey

                  2 of these Protected Areas
                   (22,239 sq miles) are off limits
                   to the general public & only
                   accessible to researchers.
                    Source: Newsroom worldwildlife.org;
                      USA today
     Conservation in Indigenous Lands

 Mapping in the Xingu Indigenous Park, an area
  that encompasses 7 million acres & has brought
  together 14 tribes.

 Brazil-Surinam Border Region Biocultural
  Project seeks to protect 20 million acres of land
  forested on indigenous lands.



Source: Amazon Conservation Team amazonteam.org
                     Achievements

 In 2002, Amazon Conservation Team &
  indigenous partners completed maps of
  Kamayura & Yawalapiti areas, covering
  1,250,000 acres.

 GPS units were provided to indigenous
  researchers as well as training in
  ethnographic map composition.

Source: Amazon Conservation Team amazonteam.org
            Balancing Economic Growth with
                     Preservation

 Law Enforcement

 Rehabilitate & Increase Productivity of Formerly Forested Land.

 Rehabilitate Habitat & Species.

 Expand Protected Areas to Maximize Survival of Biodiversity.

 Sustainable Development

 End Subsidies Granted to Large Landowners.

 Land Policy Reforms to Remedy Wasteful Land Use.


Source: rainforests.mongabay.com Amazon Conservation: How to save the Amazon
               Who Lives in the Amazon?




   Source: wikipedia.org     Source: latinamericanstudies.org   Source: realadventures.com

 20 million people live in the Amazon including 400 different indigenous
  groups.

 Between 280,000 and 350,000 indigenous peoples of which 180,000
  depend on forest for their sustenance, spiritual & cultural life.

 Indigenous populations are major stakeholders since they depend on
  the forest for survival.

 There could be as many as 67 un-contacted tribes.
  Source: Greenpeace.org; mongabay.com; washingtonpost.com Monte Reel
   Including Indigenous Peoples in
        Conservation Policies

 Advocates argue that logging & mining should
  be limited in unexplored areas to prevent
  the disruption of tribes.

 New policy is to leave initiatives of contact
  to isolated groups but to protect areas
  where they are suspected to live.


Source: Reel Monte washingtonpost.com & Nature Conservancy nature.org
                      Indigenous Tribes
                           & Media

 The Kayapo tribe have become very
  involved with the media & are very
  active in social action projects that
  threaten the Amazon Rainforest & their
  culture.
                      Source: fmpsd.ab.ca/schools-brazilian tribes




Source: fmpsd.ab.ca
Amazon Indigenous Training Center
             (CAFI)


Amazon Indigenous Training Center
 (CAFI) promotes the conservation of
 indigenous lands, nearly 22% of the
 Amazon Basin, an area 6 times the
 size of the state of New York (294,648
 sq miles).

Source: Nature Conservancy nature.org
                      Mission of CAFI

 Strengthen local &
  indigenous
  organizations by
  training indigenous
  technicians in land
  management of                          The 1st group of
                                         indigenous students
  their own                              graduating from CAFI
                                         in Manaus, Brazil.
  territories.                           Source: Margaret
                                         Francis/The Nature
                                         Conservancy
 Source: Nature Conservancy nature.org
               Modernity Meets Tradition
                                       Surui tribe in Amazonas
                                        signed an agreement with
                                        Google to include their
                                        village on Google Earth to
                                        better monitor illegal
                                        loggers & miners.

                                       Free internet access via
                                        satellite provided to 150
                                        native Indian tribes.
Source: whyfiles.org/images/brazil;
nationalgeographic.com
                                      Source: rightsandresources.org News on Forest Policy
                                         and Tenure Reform; San Francisco Chronicle, Jack
                                                              Epstein
 Indigenous Peoples Taking a Stand

 Indigenous Amazonians
  blocked a major
  highway in the Brazilian
  state of Mato Grosso to
  protest a series of
  hydroelectric dams
  planned on the Xingu
  river.                                             Source: survival-
                                                     international.org


 Source: The Associated Press; brazzil.com Brazzil
 Ecology
  Using Indigenous Practices to Cure

                       Poisonous Tree Frog could bring
                        wealth to tribe in Brazilian Amazon.

                       The Katukina Indian tribe uses the slime
                        of a poisonous tree frog, Kambo, to
                        cure illnesses, pains & strokes.

                       This could be promising for the
                        pharmaceutical industry.



Source: nytimes.com   Source: nytimes.com Paulo Prada; Jordan E Erdos, planeta.com
Moises Barbosa de
Souza
       Promoting Indigenous Rights

Government is fighting biopiracy, the
 theft of biological resources from
 country’s native habitats for
 commercial use.

Delegates from developing countries
 called for governments to block or
 share profits on biological resources
 found in their country.
Source:nytimes.com Paulo Prada; Jordan E Erdos, planeta.com
    What Does Climate Change Mean?

 Decrease in deforestation has prevented 410 million tons of
  carbon emissions.


 Amazon gets warmer by +0.63 degree Celsius every 100 years.


 More rainfall over deforested areas.


 Deforestation alters regional climate.


 Healthy ecosystems contribute to stabilize the world’s climate.

  Source: Reuters planetark.com; Kate Barnett conservation.org Conservation International
 Amazon Deforestation’s Impact on
        the United States

                                         Deforestation in Amazon
                                          reduces rainfall from
                                          Mexico to Texas & the Gulf
                                          of Mexico during the spring
                                          & summer when water is
                                          crucial for agriculture.


                                                 Source: panda.org

Source: gulfscapes.com/gulf_of_mexico
  Brazilian Public Pressures Politicians
             to Take Action
 1st time that Brazil talks about the issue of
  climate change.

 Brazil will launch a Fund for the Protection &
  Conservation of the Brazilian Amazon in
  2008 to save rainforest & cut climate
  change:

    Plan will offer financial incentives to
     developing countries that slash carbon
     emissions.

 Brazil invested $37 million in company           Source: hsbccomittochange.com
  initiatives to reduce carbon emissions &
  finance new technologies to curb
  greenhouse gases.

  Source: scidev.net & stopglobalwarming.org;
        yellowcackewalk.org
           Taking Measures to Fight
               Climate Change
 Governor of Amazonas announced a new
  climate change law, the 1st in Brazil that
  compensates for “environmental services”
  to farmers & river dwellers who avoid
  deforestation.

 Ethanol has reduced greenhouse gas
  emissions & pollution.

Source: scidev.net & stopglobalwarming.org
 What Future Strategies?
Need national policies on climate change.

Boost use of bioenergy.

New environmentally & socially sustainable
 business opportunities.

Need to adopt modified models of
 consumption.

Stem advancement of agriculture & mining.

  Source: ipsnews.net
           Information on Sources
 Mongabay: an environmental science website that raises
  awareness on wildlife & forests.

 Nature Conservancy: a conservation organization working
  globally to protect lands and waters.

 World Wildlife: aims to stop the degradation of the planet's
  natural environment by ensuring sustainable renewable
  natural resources & by promoting the reduction of pollution &
  wasteful consumption.

 Conservation International: a nonprofit organization that
  seeks to protect high-biodiversity wilderness areas &
  important marine regions around the globe. Also known for
  its partnerships with local NGOs & indigenous peoples.

 Amazon Conservation Team: works in partnership with
  indigenous people in conserving biodiversity, health, and
  culture in tropical America.
     Concluding Points


By educating the general public &
 forcing governments to take crucial
 measures as well as the hard work &
   dedication of non-governmental
organizations deforestation is slowing
 down & preventing the emission of
greenhouse gases which contribute to
           climate change.
      Concluding Points

     Involving indigenous peoples in
conservation policies empowers, sustains
     & promotes the respect of ancient
      practices in forest management.
After all, who is best fit to understand the
rainforest than its inhabitants? The world
  must respect the Amazon’s indigenous
  peoples ways of life & must in no case
   impose, dictate & implement policies
     without their consent & approval.
       Concluding Points

 If we truly want to preserve our planet’s
   longevity, we must unite to protect its
        rainforests, lands, cultures &
       biodiversity by teaching future
      generations fair & positive values.
  Hopefully, this presentation has raised
  awareness on the positive actions
  occurring in the Amazon rainforest.
                  Photograph Citations
•   Slide 1: sheppardsoftware.com
•   Slide 2: jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu
•   Slide 3: donabrasil.com
•   Slide 4: lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/brazil.jpg
•   Slide 5: whyfiles.org
•   Slide 6: internationalpropertyinvestment.com ; v-
    brazil.com/graphics/acre.gif
•   Slide 7: fading-hope.blog-city.com
•   Slide 8: condorjourneys-adventures.com
•   Slide 9: guardian.co.uk
•   Slide 10: image.guim.co.uk
•   Slide 11: unep-wcmc.org
•   Slide 12: Conservation International, bbc newsimage
•   Slide 13: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_in_Brazil
•   Slide 14: explorationsinc.com
•   Slide 15: wayfarring.info
               Photograph Citations
• Slide 16: smh.com.au; wikipedia.org; latinamericanstudies.org;
  realadventures.org
• Slide 17: fijimuseum.org
• Slide 18: photographersdirect.com; fmpsd.ab.ca
• Slide 19: answers.com; fmpsd.ab.ca
• Slide 20: heartofgreen.typepad.com; nature.org
• Slide 21: visitandlearn.co.uk; whyfiles.org/images/brazil;
  nationalgeographic.com
• Slide 22: news.nacla.org; survival-international.org
• Slide 23: worldrevolution.org; nytimes.com
• Slide 24: curanderos.ru
• Slide 25: edie.net
• Slide 26: environment.yale.edu; gulfscapes.com/gulf_of_mexico
• Slide 27: alohana.com; hsbccomittochange.com
• Slide 28: vijali.net
• Slide 29: rosiefisher.staff.shef.ac.uk/brazil_map.jpg
• Slide 30: virtourist.com

								
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