Document Sample
					                        UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE

                  EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY
            (Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine)

                   IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA

                  A RAPID RURAL APPRAISAL OF
                   COMMUNAL FARMING AREAS

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                                     NOVEMBER 1994
                                   Jim Ellis-Jones (SRI)
                             Forbes Muvirimi (AGRITEX)
                             Edward Nengomashe (DRSS)
                             Philip Msara (IAE-AGRITEX)

                                         aD /94/20


                                                                                                                             A RAPID RURAL APPRAISAL OF
                                                                                                                         SEMUKWE, CHIKWANDA AND SEBUNGWE
                                                                                                                             COMMUNAL FARMING AREAS


                 1.1                       Summary
                 1.2                       Conclusions and hypothesis
                 1.3                       Further research activities                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3
         2       INTRODUC-'TION
                2.1                       Purpose                                        of               the                          Rapid                                     Rural                         Appraisal

                2.2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5
                                          Animal                                      traction                                                  in                 sub               Saharan                                      Africa

                2.3                      Methodology.
                                          Location                                           of
                                                                                      traction                the                               in
                                                                                                                                              RRA                  Zimbabwe.
                2.4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7
                2.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9
                3.1                      Natural
                                         Dominant                                     regions
                                                                                                   and                                                                     types
                                                                                                                                                                         rainfall.                  and                           main                     soils
      4         SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   .13
                                       Area,                        population                                                                    and                          household                                           size.                      ..
                                       Household                                                  objectives                                                               and                   income                                     sources
                                      Infrastructure             tenure                                      framework.
     5          FARMING SYSTEMS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                15
                5.1                  Anoverview
                                     Cropping                                             systems                                                      in                Semukwe,                                                Chikwanda                                            and   Sebungwe
                5.2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16
                5.3                  Livestock
                                     Ownership                                                  and
                                                                                              systems, use                                                 use
                                                                                                                                                             of                 and   management.
                5.4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22
     6          ANIMAL TRACTION ISSUES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         22
             6.1                    Costs,
                                     Draught                     benefitsand animal
                                                                                 power                 age               and availability.
                                                                                                                                 needs.      indicative                                                      profitability
                6.2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           24
                6.3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           24
             6.7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25
     7          IDENTIFICATION OF FARMER RECOMMENDATION DOMAINS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ?7

     8          POSSIBLE INTERVENTIONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        28
             8.1                    Increasing the supply of draft animals. ..                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                28
             8.2                    Decreasing the demand for draft animals                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   29
     9       RESEARCH ACTMTIES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                29
             9.1                    Development                                                                     of               recommendation                                                                                 domains                                                                                                                   29
             9.2                    Draught
                                    Implement                                     design management
                                                                              animal       and manufacture.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   29
             9.1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              29
     10      REFERENCES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       30
     Appendix    I      Programme                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  l...                       31
     Appendix    II      List
                       Selected                of       people    data                            on   contacted.        household                                                         and                    agricultural                                           production                     for             communal                 I   areas

     Appendix    III                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          33
     Appendix    IV    Cropping
                        Livestock                                          costs
                                                                          extension                                 of               owning     recommendations
                                                                                                                                                 recommendations                   and               using                                 draught   and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and       farmer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                farmer      animals.        practice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             practice         (Clivi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (Clivi                     CA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CA)   1'

     Appendix    V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            35
     Appendix    VI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           36


     AFC       Agricultural Finance Corporation
     AGRITEX   Department of Agricultural. Technical Services and Extension Services
     CA        Communal area
     CARD      Coordinated agriculture and rural development programme
     CMB       Cotton Marketing Board
     CRI       Cotton Research Institute
     CSC       Cold Storage Commission
     CTC       Cotton Training Centre
     DAP       Draught Animal Power
     DDF       District Development Fund
     DRSS      Department of Research and Specialist Services
     FRD       Farmer Recommendation Domain
     GMB       Grain Marketing Board
     HH        Households
     HoH       Head of Household
     NGO       Non Government Organisation
     NRI       Natural Resources Institute
     NR        Natural Region
     ODA       Overseas Development Administration
     RRA       Rapid rural appraisal
     SSA       Sub Saharan Africa
     VIDCO     Village Development Committee
     WADCO     Ward Development Committee
     ZESA      Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority
     ZFU       Zimbabwe Farmers' Union

                                            EXCHANGE RATES

                           Zimbabwe $12      =   £ Sterling 1 (September 1994)

                                       ha    =   2,54 acres



         1.1           SUMMARY

         This RRA was conducted in three semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe (Semukwe in NR V, Chikwanda in NR IV
         and Sebungwein NR III/IV). In Semukwe,donkeys provide most of the OAP requirements; in Chikwanda
         cattle are the predominant OAP source and in Sebungwedonkeys have largely been replaced by cattle as
         the main OAP source since tsetsewas eradicated from the area. Table 1.1 provides a comparative profile
         of OAP in the three areas.

                       Table1.1:         Cattle and donkey ownership

                                          A~~,          RAN~   TOTAL

                                                                                        RAN~   futAL
                                                                                                         N  GE    ~~
                                :~~         No~
                                                                No         ArGE

                                 6962            1.93   0-25   30771          3.25       0-6   59383     10.23    0-100

             Donkeys             15808           3.41   0-15   1519           0.16       0-6   6724      1.50      0-6

             Cattle: donkey                      0.57                         20.26                      6.61
             ratio     ""
             HousehoidS                          60%                          45%                           20%
             without'  I
                                             ~ ...
             Households                  .\':~ 75%                            60%                        50%

             Uvestock                      up to 75%                          28%                           10%
             deaths as a
             result Ofthe

         Household objectives in all three areas largely focus on food security giving priority to production of food
         crops under risk minimisation strategies,generating cash from food surpluses in good years (Chikwanda),
         growing a cashcrop (cotton in Sebungwe)or selling livestock (Semukwe)and seekingnon farm income when
         farming cannot provide (Semukwe and Chikwanda).

         Farming systems broadly similar in all three areaswith similar cropping patterns, managementpractices,
         livestock and implement ownership patterns. Major differences are:

                                Larger areas are cropped in Semukwe and Sebungwe
                                More donkeysare found in drier areas
                                Although maize is grown in all. three areas, small grains are more important Semukwe

         Crop and livestocksystemsare interdependent,with crop enterprisesbeing dependanton cattle and donkeys
         for manure, primary tillage and cultivation. Livestock are dependant on crop residues for their survival in
         the dry months. Both crops and cattle provide outputs for domestic consumption and cash generation.
         Donkeys provide input fgr crop production and are increasingly important for transport purposes.

         For the longer term cattle provide opportunity for capital accumulation. Cash surplusesare often invested
         in cattle, with there being a constantdemand for more cattle as few farmers are satisfied with their present
         herd size.
         The RRA revealed increasing shortagesof DAP following the 1991/92 drought. In all areas, cattle losses
         especially amongst older and larger animals were much higher than for donkeys. This has resulted in a
         general increase in the use of donkeys, although cattle remain the preferred source of draught power.

I   ..
     Donkeys are increasinglyused in heavier cropping operations suchas ploughing. Despite this, management
     of donkeys remains poor with little considerationgiven to health, nutrition or work ability.

     Although grazing is generallyof poor quality and quantity animals were in fairly good condition, partly due
     to the lower stocking rates resulting from high livestockmortalities during the drought as well as availability
     of largely mopane browse. Supplementationof animals with stover appears to be widespreadand although
     there are no apparent health problems, this area needs further investigations.

    As a result of the DAP shortagewith up to 60% (in Semukwe)of householdshaving no DAP, the area of
    crop production has decreasedsince 1991/92. Little information is available on the distribution of DAP
    between households but for those with inadequate DAP the biggest constraint is non availability when
    needed. In order to overcometheseproblems barter arrangementsare common, for instance herding cattle
    in exchangefor ploughingservices.Land may be lent for ploughing services.Although relatives and friends
    may assist, such practices are becoming less common. DAP contracting services are rare and are only
    provided when the farmer has completedhis own lands. Paymentsvary from Z$ 100 to over Z$ 300 per ha.

    Tractors are considered,unreliable, costlyand inefficient althoughdemand for their servicesalwaysoutstrips

    Particular points of concern raise by farmers included:

            ...     Draught shortageshad increasedhand tillage, encouragedgreater use of donkeys,cows and
                    young cattle, often in mixed spans

                    Hand till~ew~s unpopular as resulting yields were low
                              ,~ c

                    Shallow ploughing,because existing ploughswere too heavy,resulted in inadequatemoisture
                    conservation and low yields

                    Cow fertility as a result Jf their use for OAP was decreasing                    t

                    Non availability of adequate manure was leading to declining soil fertility and decreased
                    Inadequate time was available for undertaking primary tillage operations

    However, calculations indicate that there should be no shortage of DAP, if existing DAP was used more

    Ownershipof DAP is the overriding factor effecting the availability and managementof DAP. Farmers have
    been characterisedinto a number of recommendationdomainsas indicated in table 1.2.

            Table 1.2:        Farmer recommendationdomains

                                                         : '       : '
                                                URA L HO U S S H O L O'S
                                                    '      "       '   '

                                             """"",              ,

       NO ANIMA~OWNED                                                  ANIMAL OWNERS
                                                                           ;Ccc   cccCcc     ccc

                                                                                                   "c'""  ","";""""

      No accessto     Some Access       Donkeys          Donkeys             Cattle        Donkeys       Donkeys   Cattle
          OAP           to DAP             only            and                only           only          and      only
                                                          cattle                                          cattle

    Other important factors effecting the availabilityof OAP include the extent of non farm income, sexof HoH,
    area of land cultivated annually and the age of the farmer.



    As a result of the RRA a number of conclusionsor hypothesishave beenmade. These will be tested during
    the course of further researchactivity. These include:

                   Where there is predominance of donkeys cattle are still the preferred DAP source for
                   ploughing,while donkeysare preferred for cartage and cultivations.

                   Middle aged farmers are generally have adequate OAP

                   Female heads of household with no outside sources of income are likely to have inadequate

                   Farmers with adequateOAP will only assistothers or provide OAP contractingservicesafter
                   their own lands have been completed.This leads to those with inadequate OAP being late
                   in ploughing and planting leading to reducedyields.

                   The availability of OAP could be increased by encouraging contracting and exchange
                   arrangementsat off peak periods in particular early ploughing, increasingthe daysworked
                   per animal and increasingthe use of animals of limited draught capability

                   The presentshortageand high price of cattle and donkeysis a major constraint to increasing

    With the increasedimpQrtanceof the donkey in cropping operations, particularly ploughing, there is need
                             -."    -
    for more information on tfie':iCapabilities this species.Use and managementof the availablefeed resources
    especiallycommunalgrazingand home-grownsupplements, be improved.Appropriate recommendations
    based on researchfindings would then be made available to the farmer.
    A more detailed formal survey on th~~use of draught animals will provide the necessaryinformation
    necessary focus on areas of future studies.On-farm studiesare planned to test the applicability of results
    from on-station researchwork and to encouragefarmers to participate in the developmentof appropriate

    With specific regard to DAP implements the following conclusions/hypothesishave been made:

                    Farmers consider that ploughs presentlybeing used are too heavyfor a spanof 4 donkeys
                    or 2 small oxen and cannot easily be handled by women. In these circumstancesits use
                    results in inefficient and shallow ploughing. There is therefore a need for lighter ploughs.

                    However the fact that most farmers already own a plough make it unlikely that they will
                    readily purchasea new plough. Low cost attachments that can be readily fitted to existing
                    ploughs or plough beams are.more likely to be purchased.This will include rippers, tie
                    ridgers, weedersand seeders.

                    Most farmers weed using a plough, hoe or a combination of both. There is a need for
                    simple low cost single animal cultivation equipment.

                    The need to reduce OAP for ploughing make it essentialthat minimum tillage and ripping
                    techniquesbe examined

                    An evaluation of existing scotch carts and low cost improvements is required

                    Harnessing arrangements for donkeys are inadequate, despite the existence of improved
                    designs at IAE. An extension programme aimed at both harness makers and donkey users
                    is required to improve the availability and promote the use of suitable harnesses.



      Further research to be undertaken in terms of this project will include:


                      Testing the validity of the conclusionsand hypothesisof the RRA
                      Characterisationof the FRDs and interdomain linkages
                      Prioritising further researchareas

      Formal surveys will be carried out in Semukwe,Chikwanda and Sebungweand close monitoring of 24
      farmers, three (two male and one female) from each FRO over a 12 month period will be undertaken in
      Semukwe.This will allow detailed profiles of farmers in eachFRO to be developed.This will include whole
      farm analysis,income-expenditure-cash   flow patterns, enterprise gross-margins,use of purchased inputs,
      labour and OAP.


                      On stationwork output studies will evaluatethe draught capabilities of donkeys,cattle and
                      mixed donkey-cattle mixed spans, using the traditional ox and lighter donkey plough on
                      different soil types. Nutrition and other managementpractices will be similar to that
                      provided by CA farmers
                      On farm studiesrepeatingon station work usingfarmers' animals under their management.
                      The abilit>:of donkeys to carry out other draught tasks, such as carting, harrowing and
                      weeding'~will evaluated.
                      Informati'o~ that will assist in improving managementpractices will be investigated, in

                                       Donkey condition at key times during the year taking into account
                                       nutrition, health and workload
                                       The relationship betweencertain body measurementsand live weight
                                       The effect of work on feed and water intake and digestibility of roughage


      Evaluation on station and on farm of:

                      Primary tillage eguiQment

                               The main ox ploughs currently in use (the Zimplow Mealie Brand Champion and
                               BSP Silver\medal)
                               The WALCO donkey plough
                               A dryland tine that is.fitted to the beam of the ox plough
                               The "CONTIL" ripper, also attachedto the plough beam


                               The main cultivator presently in use (Zimplow S51)
                               The WALCO light donkey weeder
                               The CONTIL light weeder and other cultivation attachmentsincluding tie maker


                               Existing scotchcarts
                               Low cost modification to existing carts.

            2           INTRODUCTION

        2.1           Purpose of the Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA)

                             Nutrition, health and managementaspectsof draught animals of limited capability
                             The use of existing and possible new implements for draught animals of limited capability
                             Socio-economicissuesallowing identification of current practices and the characterisation
                             of specific target groups of farmers using draught animals

        The main purposesof the RRA were:

                   i)        To identify representativeareas in communalfarming areasof Natural Regions III, IV and
                             V, where the availability of draught animals is:

                                               primarily donkeys
                                               primarily cattle
                 ",;,                   0      a mix of donkeys and cattle

                 ii)        To describe within these areas farming systems particularly agronomic practices related to
                            the use of draught animals
                                   :, ~.:_.:~
                 iii)       To identifY iSsuesand constraints in crop production associated with the use of OAP
                            through discussionwith farmers, extensionstaff and other key informants in the identified
                 iv)        To identify and characterize with the available information appropriate recommendation
                            domains for possible intervention and related research

                v)         To ensure the correct focus of researchactivities in addressingfarmers' needs related to:

                                    0         nutrition, health and managementof DAP
                                    0         the useand availability of DAP implementswith respectto reduced power

                vi)        To establish those activities necessaryfor further quantification and development of
                           recommendationdomains for researchand extensionrelating to DAP

      2.2       Animal traction in sub Saharan Africa

      Worldwide it is estimated that 400 million draught animals (bovines and equines) are being used in
      agricultural operations. Starkey (1988) estimated that of these some 18.6 million animals are employed in
      SSA agriculture. These are predominantly work oxen but include donkeys,mules, horses and cows.


         Table 2.1        Estimated number of draught animals in SSA in 1985

                         Oxen                     Equines                    Total
                      11 315 000                 7 315 000                 18 630000
                        (61%)                     (39%)                     (100%)

                                                 Source: Starkey (1988)
A review by Mrema (1993) of the utilization of DAP in SSA showed that of the 11.3 million draught oxen
in use nearly 80% are found in five countries -Ethiopia (53%), Zimbabwe (7.1%), Kenya (6.2%) and
Tanzania and Uganda eachwith 5.3%. In thesecountries the % of draught oxen in the total cattle population
was greatest. This is shown in table 2.2.

         Table 2.2:       Cattle and draught oxen in selectedcountries in SSA ('OOOs)

                                         Mrema and Mrema (1993)

Very little information is available on the use of equines as the preferred draught animals is oxen. Those
countries with large populations of equines particularly donkeys have little information on current use,
management    and performance. FAD (1994)statisticsindicate thosecountries having the highestproportions
of equines relative to cattle are Ethiopia, Mali, Niger, Chad and Nigeria.

Mrema (1993) identifies tile main benefits generally associated\Vitll using OAP as being:

                Increasingthe productivity of labour
                Expanding the area under cultivation
                Increasingthe intensity of land use
                Improving the quality and timeliness of performing key farming operations
                Reduction in drudgeryassociatedwith hand tool agriculture which comprisessome 80% of
                the cultivated land in SSA

Problems associated \vitll adoption of DAP include:

                The lack of animals for traction
                Competing demands for livestockproducts
                Diseaseproblems, particularly trypanosomiasisin tsetse areas

                            Lack of available feed and environmentalconcerns of over utilization of grazing areas
                            Lack of suitable implements
                            Increasing the work burden for manual operations, especiallythat of women
                            A poor image of OAP among opinion formers and elites in SSA.
                            Preference for tractors even when they are not cost effective

           DAP has the potential to playa major role in increasing agricultural production in SSA providing the
           benefits can be realised and the problems avoided or minimised.

          2.3      Animal traction in Zimbabwe

           In Zimbabwe the use of draught animals is widespreadand long establishedoutside tsetse infected areas.
          There are some 900 000 householdsin the communal sector for whom mixed farming is the main activity.
          Arable plots are commonly.2-3 hectares.Livestock particularly cattle playa vital role in the farming system.
          The main economic roles associatedwith cattle are the provision of draught power, manure and milk for
          household consumption. Donkeys have limited value other than the provision of draught. This comparison
   ...    is shown in Table 2.3 following.

                   Table 2.3;       Estimate of economic output of CA cattle

                                                         .       9"o:OFctOTALVALUE
                                                                     (a)          (b)
                                     &.. -
                                      Draught                        63.6         95

                                      Milk                           13.6
                                      Manure                         3.9           2
                                      M~at                           8.5
                                                 "oWth               10.4         3-5

                                      kPTAP                          .100        i~
                                   Source: (a) Barrett (1992), (b) RRA team estimate
                                           through discussionwith farmers

          While cattle have important socialand cultural functions, which include wealth storageand sale to meet crisis
          payments, these are generally secondary to their economic functions. Donkeys have little use besides
          provision of draught and some use of manure.


Prior to the drought in 1991/92 the communal cattle herd exceeded4 million animals with stocking rates
exceedingsustainablecarrying capacitiesin manyareas. The number of donkeyswas estimated to be 3-4()()
0001.The drought reduced the cattle herd to less than 3 million and the number of donkeys to 2-300 000
as shown in Figure 1.

         Figure 1: Estimates of livestock in the communal areas (1970-1994)

                           Source:Cent~1 StatisticsOffice (Quarterly statistics)2

The main problems associated with cattie production in the CAs were consideredby Geza and Reid (1983)
to be:

                  Too many cattle for the amount of fodder available
                  Poor herd composition
                  Poor calving
                  Late weaning
                  Poor management
                  Too few cattle for draught, especiallyploughing and manure

The concept of carrying capacityis controversialand the concept that this is generally exceededhas been
questionedfrom both economicand ecologicalstandpoints.Neverthelesspressureon land through increasing
use of grazing and deforestation by way of increasing livestock and human populations is a matter for
concern in most CAs. At the same time shortage of OAP is recognized as being a major constraint to
increased crop production.

      1 Statistics on donkeys are generally unavailable. This estimate was derived through discussion with

AGRITEX      officials
      2 Detailed cattle, sheep and goat statistics are available up to 1990, thereafter AGRITEX   estimates

 Donkey statistics indicative only.

      2.4      Location of the RRA

      Three areas were se-lected,Semukwe CA in Matobo District of Matabeleland South, Chikwanda CA in Gutu
      District of Masvingo and Sebungwe CA in, Gokwe North District of Midlands province. These are shown on
      Map 1. These three contrasting sites, situated in Natural Regions III, IV, and V are broadly representative of
      conditions found in the semi-arid parts of Zimbabwe.

                                Map         Zimhahwe Naturdl Rel!ion and Farminl! Area Map
                                                lndicatinl! Location of the RRA



                                                    12'                             Harare



                                                                 JY                                  J:lr I

                                                    " semu:w:

                      More than l(XX)mmrainfall. Specialisedand divcrsified fanning rcgion. Suitablc for affor-
                      cstation, fruit, plantation crops and intcnsivc livcstock production.
                       7SQ-l(XX)mm     rainfall. Intcnsivc farming area. Suitablc for intcnsivc systcms of crop and
                      livcstock production.
                       6SG-SOOmm   rainfall. Scmi-intcnsivc farming region, suitablc for livcstock (assistedby pro-
                      duction of foddcr crops)and cashcrops undcr good managcmenton soils of high availablc
                      4SG-65Omm   rainfall. Scmi-cxtcnsivc fanning region. Suitablc for livcstock production and
                      drought resistant foddcr crops.
                      Lcss than 600mm rainfall. Extcnsivc farming rcgion. Suitablc only for extensivc cattle or
                      gameproduction. Rainfall is too low and crratic for cven drought resistant foddcr and grain


2.5           Methodology

                    Jim Ellis-Jones (Socio-economist-SRI)
                    Philip Msara (Agricultural engineer, IAE, AGRITEX)
                    Forbes Muvirimi (Agricultural economist, AGRITEX)
                    Edward Nengomashe(Livestock scientist, DRSS)

Information on household and farming systemsrelating to draught animal power was obtained. Issues,
constraints and developmentpotential imposed by other systemsand environmentswere also investigated.
The main informants and information obtained is shown in Table 2.4.

          Table 2.4:         Main informants and information obtained


     .'.;                      Agricultural resource base
                               Resource utilisation and farming systems
                               Issues,constraints developmentpotential and thrust
                               Other institutional support
  Department of             :'t~.~r.~alence and control   of diseases
  Veterinary Services         'stock numbers

  AFC                          Use of credit
                               Loans recovqy
                               Demand an&supply of different loan categories
  Chiefs and Headmen           Historical aspects

  VIDCO and                    Political framework
  WADCO Councillors            Development issuesas discussedin council

  Farmer groups                Similar issuesas above but giving farm~~s'_~Ee_cEves
  Individual farmers           An understandingof the farmer's environment
                               Confirmation of issuesaddressedin group discussions
                               Inspection of individual lands, livestockand implements

Following field visits,the RRA team met to discussfindings,identify recommendationdomainsand develop
hypotheses.A final meeting was then held at Matopos to summarise the findings and preparation of the
The detailed programme and a list of those consulted is shown in Appendix I and II respectively.


3.1      Natural region and rainrall

Table 3.1 following provides detail of the Natural Region, altitude and mean annual rainfall of the three
areas of the RRA.

         Table3.1:         Natural Region,altitude and mean annual rainfall

The location of each is shown on Map 1.

The distrib,utionof annual rainfall for the rainfall stations is shown in Figure 2. following.

             Source: Department of Meteorological Services(1977) as quoted in NRI (1993)

Most rain comes in heavy storms causing problems of compaction, high run off and erosion particularly on
heavier soils. Rainfall patterns are extremely variable and unpredictable with localised showers and long dry
spells occurring at any time during the season.
3.2      Dominant vegetation types, main soils and arable land classes

Each area has a variety of topographicalsettings,vegetationassociationsand soil types.These are shown in
table 3.2 following.

        Table 3.2: Dominant vegetationand soil associations

                                                       C"   C"
              ARPA                        VEG m .c "ll 0 N .c.. m
                                DO MINANr c'
                                -c   "c         Ac          TYP                             SOU;'IYP~

                                ~                                     G~~
              Semul-wc          Colophosoermum mooane                 Era!(rostis curvula   Sandy clay looms
              NRV               Terminalia sPQ                        HeteroOO2on           and clays
                                Combretum sQQ                         contort us            Sodic soils in the
                                                                      Arislida   spp        drainage lines

                                Acacia tortillis                                            Oays
                                Albinia spp

                                Combrelum SDD                                               Sandsderived from
                                Terminalia SDD                                              granite
              Chil-wanda        Brachvste2ia SDD                      Eragrostis spp        Gently undulating
              NRIV              Julbemardia 21obifiora                Androoogon spp        granite sands on
                                                                      Aristida spp          the toplands
                                                                      Digitaria pensii
                                Terminalia       spp                  Tristachvia spp       Medium textured
                                Burkea   spp                                                yellow red soils
                                                                                            increasing in
                                                                                            texture as the vlei
                                                                                            is approached

                                Parinari curatellifolia                Hyperhenia/          Sandy (oams and
                                                                      ~rthelia    spp       sandy clay (oams in
                                             ,                                              Ihc: w"lland areas

              Sebungwe          Colesohernummopane.                   Grass cover very      Sandy clay loan1S
              NR III/IV         Adonsonia di2itata                    poor, largely         and clays
                                (Baobab)                              annuals with          Sodic soils in the
                                                                      some perrennials      drainage lines

                                Acacia spp                                                  Heavy clays

                                Combretum spp                                               Sands

Rainfall variation combineswith variations in soil typesto make agricultural production risky and uncertain.
Heavier soils require more rain before effective crop production can occur. However their higher natural
fertility mean that in good rainfall conditions production will be higher than on sandiersoils. Sandysoils on
the other hand can be planted earlier and are more likely to provide some yield even in low rainfall
conditions. However low natural fertility mean that without significant inputs of fertiliser or manure yields
will be low evenwith good rainfall.
Variations in topography can be particularly important in providing a soil catena with a gradation from
topland through transition zones to vie; areas at the bottom of the slope. This is particularly important in
Chikwandawh.erethe vleis are an important resource allowing the production of two crops per year. Initial
planting occurs as early as mid August (Maize and groundnuts) with a second planting in mid December
(beans or maize).

      4.1      Area, population and household size

      Demographic statisticsof the three areas are shown in Table 4.1 following.

               Table4.1:      Area, population densities and rnean household size

                                                             "       ,

       ~~                     ~(ba)                     roPUlAllON
                                                                 ,       ~P~~ON
                                                                         Cc~   ~~      .)

       ~mu"~                       130752                  28 641              Zcl.9           4642         6.2

        Chik-wanda                 104500                  48 288              46.£            9457         5.1

        Sebl,ln~e                  102 125                 33 518              3Z,8            5805         5.8

                                             Source: Central Statistics Office (1992)

      The are~ of highest population densityis Chikwandawith considerableout migration having occurred from
                     areasof Gutu to Gokwe and Sebungweareas.This has resulted in heads of householdsbeing
      this and...o,ther
      considerablyyounger in the Sebungwearea.

      4.2      Household objectives and income sources
      Household objectives lar~~ focus on food security giving priority to production of food crops under risk
                             generating cashfrom food surplusesin good years (Chikwanda), growing a cashcrop
      minimization strategies,
      (cotton in Sebungwe)or selling livestock (Semuk\ye)and seeking non farm of income when farming cannot
      provide (Semukweand Chikwanda).
      In Semukwe sale of livestock (primarily cattle and goats) provide the major source of income from
      agriculture. Crops are grown by all farmers primarily for home consumption with occasionalsurpluses for
      sale in good years. The sale of mopane caterpillars for consumption also contributes to family income.
      However the major sourceof income is from remittances from within Zimbabwe, but increasinglyBotswana
      and South Africa.
      In Chikwanda maize salesprovide the main income from agriculture with cattle being sold mainly to meet
      crisis payments.Income from livestock provides less than 10% total income. Communal gardens provide
      some surplus vegetablesfor sale especiallyin the winter months, although most vegetablessold in the Gutu
      market are imported from Harare. Migrants remittances as with Semukwe are an additional source of


       4.3      Land tenure

  4.4         Institutional framework

 ~vernment        DeDartme~


District ;DeveloomentFund (DOE)
In aU the;areas DDF provides contract ploughing for farmers under the government drought recovery
programmc:.The work is limited due to constantbreakdownsand few tractors3. Farmers complained that
tractors are unreliable, often behind schedule,and frequently undertook work paid for up to two years
previously.                 ~ ~
                           :\~    c

Agricultural Finance Comb ration (AFC)

AFC provides loan finance to farmers at lower interest rates than commercialbanks. Funds are recovered
through stop order and direct farmer pi.iyments.    AFC has two arms, a commercialand a development one,
the latter catering for small farmers, at low interest rates,presently22%. The provisionof annual input loans
to individual farmers has largely beenabandoned.Instead credit is provided to loans groups (typically 15-20
individuals) on the basis that they will be jointly and severallyliable for the loan. This change in policy
resulted from the high default rates, (often over 80%) for individual loans during the 1980s.The change in
policy is resulting in lower default rates.

Many farmers in Chikwanda remain in arrears with loans and are not keen to borrow further from AFC.
Farmers try to avoid repayment by not sendingproduce to GMB marketing outlets, where AFC can easily
recover their money.Instead they market through shopseventhough they may be required to spend half the
total amount in the shop and receive the rest as cash.

In parts of Gutu, up to 40% of loans have been used for livestockpurchases.  The repayment can be spread
over two to three years dependingon the viability, and is expectedto come from crops. Generally the default
rate has been low but funds for this purposeare limited, eventhough farmers are keen to purchase heifers

In Sebungwe before the drought, medium term loans were available for draft oxen and tractors. At the
moment, loans are primarily short term for input purchaseon the understandingthat the farmers will build
a base from where he can purchasehis own animals.

In Semukwebefore the drought loans were available for crop production. However serious defaulting (over
80%) led to a switch in policy away from individual to group lending schemeswith greater emphasis on
livestock production. From mid '85 DAP has not beenfunded becauseof low crop yields. Donkeys have not

    3 DDF tractors comprise: two in Chikwanda, two in Matobo and 26 in Gokwe districts


          ~               orf!anisatiQ!b5.

          ~erS~J prganis~

          The   Zimb~bwe         Farmers'     Union    is active    in all areas     promoting     the   formation   of farmers'   groups   to voice

          development         problems      and   act as pressure    groups    for    local   improvements.

       4.5         Infrastructure

      5           FARMINGSYSTEMS

      5.1        An overview

      Selecteddata on householdand agricultural produce derived from MLARR (1993) for the 1998/89 season
      is shown in Appendix III. This indicates that farming systemsare broadly similar in NR III, IV and V.
      Similar cropping patterns,managementpractices,livestockand implement ownershippatterns are found. The
      major differences are:

                               Larger areas are cropped in drier areas
                               Increased ownership of donkeys is found in the drier areas.
                               Although maize is grown in all areas small grains are more important in NR V


           Components of the farming systemshavea high degree of interdependence.Crop enterprisesare dependant
           on cattle and donkeys for land preparation and provide manure. Livestock are dependanton crop residues
           for survivalduring the dry months. Both crops and cattle provide outputs for domestic consumptionand cash
           generation. Donkeys provide input for crop production and are playing an increasing role in transport of

           For the longer term cattle provide opportunity for capital accumulation. Cashsurplusesare often invested
           in cattle, with their being a constantdemand for more cattle as very few farmers are satisfied with their
           present herd size.

           5.2        Cropping systems in Semukwe,Chikwanda and Sebungwe

           The farming systemsin the three areasare similar with respectto the interdependenceof crop and livestock
           enterprises. There are important differencesdetermined by soils, rainfall and market opportunities.

           Table 5.1 overleaf compares data obtained, through discussionwith AGRITEX, on areas available for
      "'   cropping, cropped areasand the relative importance of eachcrop.

           The ma,in operations for which DAP is required are shown with a typical farming calendar in Table 5.2.

                      '.'Table 5.2:       Farming calendarindicating main periods for OAP requirement
                        '. ,

             opERArtON                J        F                  M
                                                                         iJ    J.     A        s        0..   ~   p
             Ploughmg                                                                                             ~
             Manurina c'"
                                                                                      .        .
                                                                                     ~       ..Ylili
             w""",maan  d
           The peak demandsfor labour are during the cultivation/weedingperiod in December, Januaryand February.
           Peak demand for DAP is for ploughing from the end of September, October, November and early
           Although AGRITEX recommendthat winter ploughingbe undertakenimmediately after harvest,to conserve
           man time and use animals in good condition, most farmers plough in September, October and November
           usually after the first rains.

           Land prepared by hand was common in all areas after the drought, though most farmers complained that
           yields were very low.
           Conservationtillage (pot holes and tied ridges) has been promoted by AGRITEX. On the lighter soils trial
           results have been disappointing. The constructionof ridges before planting requires additional OAP and is
           therefore not popular. Planting on the flat then ridging at weeding time with a plough is increasingly
           FSRU (1994) compared AGRITEX recommendationpracticesand farmer practices in Chivi CA (NR V)
           for both crops and livestock. These are shown in Appendices IV and V. These are included in full, as they
           demonstrate the extreme difference between recommendationsand farmer practices. If research is to be
           relevantto CA farmers it is essentialthat existingfarming systemsform the basefor researchimprovements.

                                      «o''"               0
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     f--                                                                                                                                         V)

      The favoured method of land preparation is ploughing using oxen during March or April and possibly a
      secondtime at planting time. Howevershortagesof OAP result in manyvariations from zero tillage (shallow
      holing out with a badza at planting), ploughing planting rows only, ploughing and henceplanting in January,
      the use of mixed animal teams (oxen, bulls, cows and donkeys in any combination) so long as a crop is
      planted. Winter ploughing is preferred though not often achieved.

      Seed is largely retained from year to year, exceptmaize, where hybrids are purchased from local shops.

      Due to the low rainfall, smaller areasare planted to maize and more for the drought tolerant crops. Typically
      maize will be grown on sandier or wetter soils. SorghUmand small grain are grown on topland soils with
      sorghum grown on heavier soils. Planting starts from the late September continuing until early or late
      January. Although not recommendedthis spreadsthe risk of crop failure, allows labour and DAP peaksto
      be reduced and can provide green crops over a long period. Intercropping with sweetmelons, pumpkins is
      widespread,with the crops being an important supplementaryfeed for livestock.

      Most farmers would use manure if available. However it is limited to livestockowners and therefore used
      by a minority of farmers,and even then in very limited amounts.

      Fertiliset~~seis largely confined to that donated as part of the drought recoveryprogramme. In Semukwe
      the burnlnk of crops by fertiliser, through use inadequate rain, has beena disincentiveto its use. As a result
      the plastic bag often has a higher value than the contents.

      Pesticide use is almost nR~,.e~tent.
      Weedingis usually undertakenby hand due to non availability of animals. Where OAP is available a plough
      with old share may be used some 4 weeks after emergence. Conservationtillage practices have not been
      utilised becauseof increasedOAP and ~bour requirements.
                                                  surplusesafter consumptionneedshave been met or when small
      Sale of crops is limited to either occasional
      amounts of cashare required. Groundnuts and beans are important in this regard.


      Arable and grazing areas are reducing as population increases.This has resulted in increase use of vleis,
      which are an important resource providing greater productivity than topland soils, with planting occurring
      from August and harvesting in December, when a second crop can be planted. Planting on toplands starts
      from October and continues into January,with farmers indicating that late planted maize can yield well.


      Average areas cropped are greater than Chikwanda with some6 ha ploughed annually, though the range is
      from 2-25 ha.

      Due to the higher rainfall and wider availability of DAP winter ploughing is common, especially after a
      maize crop. After a cotton crop ploughing after the first rain is normal.

      Wider availability of tractors provides a greater choice to farmers but in general tractors are regarded as
      costly, unreliable and no better than oxen.

      Crops grown are predominantlymaize and cotton, both being important cap crops. Cotton production was
      initiated in the early 1970's,at the time that tsetsewas eradicated. It is thought that income from cotton was
      largely invested in cattle, leading to the replacementof donkeysas the main source of DAP.


5.3             Livestock systems,use and management

The farming systemin all three areas is gearedtowards crop production, with the major role of both cattle
and donkeysbeing to support this activity. Goats and sheepare kept mainly for domestic meat consumption
but are sold when cash is required. Goats have an important part in socio-cultural activities particularly
when no cattle are owned. This and the in general hardinessleads to large numbers being kept, especially
in the drier areas.

Table 5.3 following provides detail on cattle and donkey ownership together with some indication of the
numbers of householdswithout adequateOAP

               Table 5.3:        Cattle and donkey ownership and households with inadequate DAP

    ...~                          ~UKWE                                CHIKWANDA                   SEBU~G~

                         TOTAL    AVERAGE      RANGE   rQ-rAL                      RANGE   JUrAL   AVERAGE" cRAN~c
                            No       ~                   No                                 No        ~        "
                                  tIouSd\oId                                                       hou$ehOId

      ~tt(ft             6962       1.93        0-25   30771             3.25       0-6    59383      10.23        0-100

                         15806      3.41        0-15       1519          0.16       0-6    6724       1.50          0-6
      Cattle:dd~ey                  0.57                                 20.26                        6.81
      Housenolds                    60%                                  45%                          20%
      anj~als                    \~'t~

      Households                    75%                                  60%                          50%

      jjW~tOj;k                   up to 75%                              28%                           10%

Livestock losses in Semukwe as high as 75% were reported, in Chikw.~~da30% and in Sebungwe 10%
Cattle losseswere generally higher than for donkeys.As a result there has been a general increase in the
use of donkeys for DAP in all three areas.

In all areas there is a shortageof DAP with up to 60% of HH in Semukwehaving no DAP. As a result the
area of crops grown has decreasedsince 1991/92. Little information is available on the distribution of DAP
betweenhouseholds,but for those with inadequateDAP the biggestconstraint is non availability at the right
time. Various arrangementshave been developedto gain accessto DAP. These include:

                         Barter arrangements,for instance herding cattle in exchangefor ploughing.
                         Land may be lent in return for ploughing services.
                         Close relatives may assistwith ploughing.

OAP contracting servicesare not commonand will only be provided whenthe farmer hascompleted his own
land. Paymentvaries from nothing up to over Z$ 300, with $8Ojha being often quoted.
OOF do provide limited tractor ploughing services at $160 per ha as against an estimated actual cost of
$3~ per ha, but are largely regarded as not viable or sustainable.

5               Based on the use of a new tractor. The age of tractors in the CAs is high. How does this effect the
     Typical structures of cattle and donkey herds before and after the drought are shown in table 5.4 below.

                  Table 5.4:       Typical structure of cattle and donkey herds

                                  CATfLE (% or tolal)                             DONKEYS (% of total)
       &~                 Before the drought      After the
                                                                'S'          Before the          After the
                                  (a)            drought (a)                 drought (b)        drought (b)

       Bu..~                     8.1                 65                           40                30

       0 ~~nc                   225                 17.8
       ~~                       34.5                21.9                          40                30
                                                                ,   ""
       s~~¥                      5.7                 8.1       ,'c¥9UP&'
       'c """'"                 20.8                37.7

       Fc~alec~.1.~              5.7                5.7

       Malecal~                  2.4                 2.4

                                 100                 100        :rQTAL            100               100

                  SOlJfce:(a) FSRU (1994) Chivi CA, (b) RRA team estimates

     The table shows that as il result of deaths of mature and larger animals during the drought there was a
     decline in older cows arjq,~x:e,nrelative to younger and smaller animals. A similar trend occurred with
     donkeys.                          ..
     Where there are sufficient oxen as in Sebungwe,DAP is supplied primarily by oxen, but as numbers
     decrease,the burden of DAP is shared b~tweenoxen,cowsand donkeys.Shortagesof DAP also reduce the
     manure available for crop production. "


     Traditionally hand hoe cultivation was widely practised, but as available labour decreaseddue to increased
     schooling, this resulted in increaseduse of draught animals.

     Prior to 1992 DAP availability was not an issue, but with up to 75% of cattle perishing in the drought,
     shortage of DAP has become the major problem in the district. Although averageownership per household
     is 2 cattle and 3 donkeys, over 60% of householdsare without DAP. This makes it extremely difficult for
     most householdsto undertake primary tillage.

     DDF and Jairos Jiri tractors provide subsidisedservices,but demand far exceedssupply and requests are
     often serviced late or not at all.

     Most farmers would prefer to use oxen for ploughing as they are faster and stronger than donkeys. Other
     lighter operations notably weeding and transport would be undertaken using donkeys.In householdswhere
     cattle are available they are used as far as possible for ploughing and donkeys for other operations. Where
     donkeys are used for ploughing, depth is often inadequateand moisture conservationpoor.

     Weeding is undertaken either by donkeysusing a plough, or by hand. General transport is almost entirely
     undertaken using donkeys.
     Contract DAP ploughing does occur, but at a high cost of $351 per ha (12m x 10m costs Z$30). For those
     without access to DAP zero tillage (holing out with hoe at planting time) is practised.

     Communal grazing constitutes the main feed source for animals, although most farmers supplement their
     animals with stover, pumpkins or melons as grazing becomesscarce. Grazing has improved as a result of
     decreased                                                is
               stocking pressuresbut improved \'eld management still required. AGRITEX land use plans have
     not yet been implemented.

     Little managementis applied to donkeys.Grazing is free range. No routine veterinary practices are adopted
     even though donkeys suffer from intestinal worms, blackleg, or (sores about the mouth) and harnesssores.
     Seriouswounds maybe treated. Males are usuallycastratedto stop them wandering, althoughno information
     on how and when donkeys should be castrated is available. There are no recommended breeding
     programmes, with the result that breeding is random and selectionof (male) jack-assesis based purely on
     phenotypic characteristics. Mistreatment of donkeys to make them work harder or faster is common.
     However, treatment has improved sincethe drought, as prices haverisen. Breastband harnesses donkeys
     and a yoke for cattle are normally used.

     Becauseof their higher economic value cattle are generally better managed than donkeys. However the
     increasing importance of donkeys as a source of OAP is contributing to some improvements in their

     Cattle ~nd donkey theft has become a widespreadproblem.

     CSC/ AF~/ Agritex are encouraging restocking but problems of scarcity of suitable stock, high costs, high
     interest rates (currently 22%) are major constraints to acquiring DAptI.

                              ." ~   -
     As a result of the drought,\fioftage of OAP led to hand hoeing minimum tillage techniquesbeing commonly
     practised. However yields w~re low and people are now keen to plough. Ploughingis consideredby farmers
     to be important to bury weeds and trash and conservemoisture, while zero tillage leads to early wilting.
     Insufficient DAP now leads to less land being ploughed. Lack of manure is also contributing to a general
     decline in soil fertility.               ';

     Cattle are the main source of DAP, although the use of donkeys,cows and young animals has increased.
     Cattle spanned with donkeysis now a common site with the number of donkeys increasingas they survived
     the drought better. Unfortunately yokes are extensivelyused on donkeys.This is attributed to both the
     unavailabilityof and high price of harnesses($20 each)and a belief by farmers that yokesare more efficient.

     Ploughing is undertaken, provided DAP is available from April onwards. DAP contract ploughing rates are
     typically $80-120 per ha by cattle and $145-280per ha by tractor. People with animals are said to dictate
     prices. Those without animals may herd for those with or pay cash in exchangefor late and usually shallow

     Where donkeys are used a span of 4 are capableof pulling an ox plough. Farmers say donkeys are harder
     working than oxen, being able to work all day.-In fact donkeys can endure longer working periods as they
     are usually in better condition. Supplementaryfeed is not purchasedbut crop residuesare stored for feeding
     to all DAP cattle, donkeys and goats.

     AGRITEX indicate that up to some 50% of farmers have inadequateOAP even though on averagefarmers
     own over 15 animals (cattle and donkeys) per household in the area. Poor distribution of OAP is apparent

             Before the drought donkeys were valued at Z$20-50. This has now increased to Z$400 and prices
             as high as $700have been obtained.


    with some areas having more than adequate whilst other areas have serious shortages.        Cattle   are the
    predominant OAP source, though donkeysare widely used primarily for transport.

    Recent migrants from Masvingo and Matabeleland are less supportive of donkeys although interest is
    growing. Availability, high cost and theft are howeverproblems, which reduce the demand for or desire to
    own donkeys.

    5.4      Ownership and use of equipment

    Ownershipand use of agricultural equipment in the three areasis similar. Most has been manufactured by
    the large scale animal drawn equipmentmanufacturers,Bulawayo Steel Products and Zimplow. Table 5.5
    provides an estimate of ownership of equipment by farmers.

            Table 5.5:         Farmers o\ming equipment

            Source:          (a) RRA team!estimate (b) DRSS/SRI (1993)

    Private tractors were only found in Sebungwe.However in all areas Jairos Jiri and OOF provide limited
    ploughing services,for those with no OAP, at a cost of $70 per ha, these often have to be booked 2 years
    in advanceand come after the ploughing season.

    Despite the lack of ownership of DAP nearly every householdowns a plough, from a time when animals
    were owned. Ownershipof other implements (cultivators, harrows and planters) is extremely limited other
    than in Sebungwe.Up to 50% of householdsown a scotchcart.

    The implement owned by most of the farmers is the mouldboard plough. The BS 41 adjustable cultivators
    the next more commonlyowned implement. Of significanceis the old age of equipment, especiallyploughs,
    many of which were over 15 years old. Most equipment is purchased out of non farm income and is
    regarded as an assetto be passedon from father to son.


    6.1     Draught animal availability

    In all areas farmers indicated that ploughing was the most critical OAP operation. Assuming that one third
    of cattle are working oxen, two thirds of donkeys are suited for work and that a span comprises 4 oxen or
    6 donkeys, the available spans would be:


                        AREA                    OXEN             DONKEYS            AVAILABLE SPANS
                                                SPANS             SPANS
                        Semukwe                    747                2634               3381
                        Chikwanda                2654                  253                2907
                        Sebungwe                 4948                 1454               6402

          However farmers indicated that they useyoung stock, bulls and female cattle. Assuming that 8.0% of cattle
          are too young to be used, the potential spansare therefore:


         The inclusion of all but 8% of the cattle increasesthe potential spans by between 140% and 250%.
         number of spans per ho~~OI9 will be:-

                                    '-AREA                OXEN AND           CATTLE
                                                          DONKEYS            AND
                                                          ONLY               DONKEYS
                                     Semukwe     .,"
                                                          0.57               0.79
                                     Chikwanda            0.31               0.77
                                     Sebungwe             1.1                2.6
         Assuming 12 days are available for land preparation, and one span can plough 0.2 ha per day, the potential
         land which can be ploughed in anyone seasonper farmer is:

                                   AREA                  OXEN AND            CAlTLE
                                                         DONKEYS             AND
                                                         ONLY                DONKEYS
                                   Semukwe               1.37                1.90
                                   Chikwanda             0.75                1.85
                                   Sebungwe              2.64                6.24

         These figures demonstrate that there would be no shortage of OAP, given evendistribution. This is however
         not the case. It means that most animals are in fact under worked. This indicates a need to:

                         Encourage DAP contracting and exchangeschemes.

                         Increase the number of days animals work.

                         Increase daily work output.

                         Investigate the most efficient meansof using animals of limited draught.


6.2      Nutrition

In all three areas inadequate animal nutrition appeareda common problem. This is mainly due to the
lack of resources(particularly communal grazing) and inadequatemanagementof those resources.
Animals have access the available grazing throughout the day, although in many caseswhere the
grazing areas are distant or the animals are working, the feeding time is restricted, leading to low
productivity. The quality of the grazing is generally poor, although observationsrevealed animals in fair
to good condition. Reduced livestock numbers due to high mortalities during the drought, have led to
lower stocking rates,and therefore improved grazing. Donkeysare usually in better body condition than
cattle at the start of the ploughing season.This reflects the donkeys' ability to thrive better in conditions
of scarce nutrient supply. Extensiveand strategic use of home-grownsupplementsmainly stovers and
melons (Semukwe)will also have contributed to maintain animals' body condition. Crop residues are
usuallyremoved from the lands and stored in racks above the kraals for easyaccess. Improvement in
storage methods could improve quality. There is very limited use of bought-in supplementsbecauseof
cost. However,the use of other supplementssuch as fruit pods and multipurpose tree speciescould
alleviate seasonalnutritional deficiencies.

6.3     Health

There appearto be few health problems, apart from occasionaloutbreaks of Lumpy Skin diseasein
cattle arl4 injuries causedby use of cattle yokes and poor harnessesin donkeys.Although cattle are
dipped regularly, this is not the casewith donkeys. Further investigationis required into the effect of
tick-borne diseaseson donkeys.Problems of tick-borne diseases     and internal parasitesare not apparent,
though the effect of these on the overall productivity of draught animals, particularly donkeys,needs
                                     purchase low cost medicines such as healing oils from the Veterinary
further investigation.SoriJe:.far}Ders
Department for treatingd-;hkey harness/yokesores, but in general the high cost of veterinary products is
a disincentive to improved animal health management,particularly donkeys.

6.4     Management                      ,1
Managementof livestock is inadequatedue largely to lack of resources,particularly finance. Lack of
information on the appropriate managementespeciallyof donkeyscontributes to poor management
practices.Donkeys receive little or no management,largely due to their low economic value and their
ability to withstand poor treatment. However, in Semukwe,where donkeys are the major source of
draught power, indications are that managementpracticesare improving. Due to the shortage of draught
power, when timeliness of cropping operationsis crucial, draught animals are often prescribed tasks
exceedingtheir capabilities. This is further compounded, particularly for donkeyswhere inappropriate
implements, such as the heavier ox-drawn plough, are used due to lack of lighter implements. In areas
like Chikwanda,farmers resort to using mixed spans of cattle and donkeys.The (in)efficiency of this

Housing for both cattle and donkeysconsistsof traditional kraals,with no roofing. This is likely to lead
to reduced OAP performance during cold and/or wet weather. Simple low cost improvements require
Castration of male cattle and donkeysis commonly practised,although little information on how and
when donkeysare castratedwas available. There are certainly no recommended breeding programmes
for donkeys,with the result that breeding is random and selectionof (male) jack-assesis based purely on
pheno-typic characteristics. Investigationis required on the selection of jack-assesthat will improve OAP
Only in the Kezi area is there widespreaduse of breast band harnessesfor donkeys and the traditional
yoke for cattle. In Chikwanda and Semukweyokes are extensivelyused for donkeys. This is attributed
                                       their high price and the belief by farmers that yokes are more
to both the unavailability of harnesses,
efficient. Much work has been done on improving the design of harnessing. This needs to be brought to
the attention of harnessmanufacturersand donkey owners in areas where yokes are still used.

6.5      Gender and age considerations

There appearsto be a direct correlation betweencattle ownership and age of HoH. HH with inadequate
OAP are likely to comprise younger families. HoH, between 40 and 50 years old, appear to own greatest
numbers of OAP, with older HoHs having smaller numbers having given animals to their sons (for
lobola) or slaughtering animals for funerals.

 Labour operations tend to be labour specific as demonstrated in Table 6.1.

         Table 6.1:       Labour differentiation betweenmen and women

Men und~vtakemost work with animals,while women undertake manual operations. If no men are
available women will handle the DAP with operations with donkeys being favoured becauseof their
easier handling.
                         -,;   .
It will be important to cOnsiderthe gender implications of new technologies. Reducing DAP through
promoting minimum tillage'(rippers, tynes, etc) may increasehand weeding at a later stage,

6.6      Reducing power needs

Tillage operations undertaken by farmers in all areas are similar. Ploughing with the mouldboard plough
has the highest draught requirement. Since most farmers use this tillage method, the risk of not
completing timeously is high. Spreadingof the ploughing period is best achieved by winter ploughing; it is
therefore important that methods of promoting this are investigated.

However, readily available implements are not necessarily   the most suitable especiallyfor animals of
limited draught capability. Small manufacturersare able to manufacture low draught equipment such as
cultivator tines, ripper tines, ripper blades and some innovative implements such as the low cost planter.
Such implements require evaluation,testing and modification if necessary.Local blacksmithsare able to
fabricate plough parts. Efficient distribution of such implements and parts require consideration.

6.7     Environmental concerns

Early work (Sandford 1982, Cleghorn 1964)estimated CA's to be seriously overstockedwith much of the
grasslandbare or in poor condition.

Such work has been criticised as being based primarily on veld condition and assessment commercial
farming areas and not taking into accountthe strategic use of high potential sites such as weis, drainage
lines and browse.

The concept of carrying capacity is unpopular becauseit alludes to overstocking and possible destocking.
It is, however, important that total biomass production and use by animals is optimised as one strategy in
increasing OAP availability. Suchinvestigationsare required to ensure that available fodder resources
can be sustained.

6.8       Costs, benefits and indicative profitability of DAP

The costs and benefits associatedwith the use of OAP are shown in Table 6.2 following:

          Table 6.2:           Costs and Benefits of DAP

There is little doubt that the potential benefits from cows exceedsthat of both oxen and donkeys,
provided that fertility and milk production do not suffer.

Farmers~!perceptionsof the relative performanceof cattle and donkeys as determined in the RRA and
confirmed; by Hagmann and Prasad (1994) is shown in Table 6.3 following:

          Table 6.3:            Farmers' perceptions or the relative performance of cattle and donkeys as
                              'draught animals
                              '-\~~~ -

    cc  RMANCB~n'ERIA                                            ~..~~
  Disease tolerance                                 Less                         More
  Need for feed supplement                          More                         Less
  Ability to withstand drought                      Less                         More
  Water requirement                                 More                         Less
  Condition at end of winter                        Worse                        Better
  Training requirement for work                     More                         Less
  Ease of handling for work                         Less                         More
  Ploughing ability/depth                           Better/Quicker/Deeper        Worse/slower
  Depth of ploughing                                Deeper                       Shallower
  Cultivating ability                               Suitable                     More suitable
  Use of scotch cart                                Suitable                     More suitable
  Availability of suitable implements               Plentiful                    Can use cattle implements
  Working life                                      Oxen 8 years,                Males up to 30 years
                                                    Cows 6 years                 Females up to 25 years
  Working females                                   Can effect fertility         Can effect fertility

Most people would prefer to plough by oxen ~nd weed by donkey if the animals were available.
A comparisonhas been made using indicative costs and benefits of owning and using alternative draught

                       2 large oxen
                       4 smaller oxen
                       4 cows or heifers
                       4 larger possiblymale donkeys
                       6 smaller possiblyfemale donkeys

A cropped area of either 2 or 4 hectareshave been assumed.Detail of the assumptionsand calculations
are shown in Appendix V, and the annual cost shown in Table 6.4 following.

                 Table 6.4:                Annual cost of alternative sources of DAP for cultivating 2ha and 4ha on a per
                                           ha basis

                                                                                                "      'c',
                        DRAUGHT ANIMAL
                          "                                                     ,CROPPED,AREA   "
                                                                                                          c         cc

                                                                    2HEq:rA~S                       4cHECTARES
                                                                                                       cCCcccc c

                              c       c

                        2~rgeoxen                                         435                                 229
                        "c""    ""

                       ".cCC"CC                                           377                                 200

                        ~COW$orheifers                                    440                                 232

                        ~}~i;'                         249                                 137
                                  c       .c        c

                        §~mal~/weake~doDkeys                              258                                 141

         Costs have taken into accountdifferences in the purchaseand resale values of the animals, the length of
                                                                           labour and feed supplementcosts.
         their working lives, depreciation on a plough, yokes and harnesses,

         On this 9asis,the cost of donkeys is substantiallyless than that of cattle.

         However, "thecalculations have not taken into account the value of manure, milk, herd growth other
         social benefits. Quite clearly oxen do not give milk nor they are responsible for herd growth. They are
         however part of a system.,of   cattle production and use and when all benefits are accountedfor on the
         basis that each draft team;~~~part a systema different picture emerges.This is shown in Table 6.5
         following.                  ..

                 Table 6.5:                Economic cost of alternative sources of DAP for cultivating 2ha and 4ha on a
                                           per ha basis. ,~

                          c       ,,;
                       ,        .
                       DRAUGHT ANIMAL                                           CROPPED"AREA
                                                                                '..   Cc",C"'"'

                                                                    '::::.cY~'.cco.     0.


                       fi~l:g~/strongpxep                                 307                                 166

                       :4::~m~ij/wea~9~e~                                 235                                 129

                       4::~9~~rhei1er$                                    275                                 149
                                                                          245                                 134

                       ~~m~tte (I weaker do ii kecyg                      253                                 139

         This demonstratesthe importance of other benefits of cattle in reducing DAP costs and once these are
         taken into accountthere is little difference between cattle and donkeys. Of particular note is the fact that
         cattle of limited draught capability are less costly than larger oxen.

         Donkeys could be substantiallyless costly if their meat were eaten, their milk was suitable for human
         consumption and had other social benefits.


         The RRA confirmed that those having accessto OAP had considerableeconomic advantageover those
         no access. Farmer recommendationdomains have therefore been identified on the basis of animal
         ownership and accessto OAP as demonstrated in Table 7.1.


                  Table 7.1:        Farmer recommendationdomains

                                                        RURAL HOUSEHOLDS

                NO ANIMAl.SOWNED                                         ANIMAL, OWNERS

                                                        JNAqEOUATEDAP                       AP~q~EPAr
             No accessto    SomeAccess 10     Donkeys        Donkeys     Cattle only   Donkeys   Donkeys      Cattle
                DAP            OAP              only        and callie                  only       and        only

       Tractors have not been included as their contribution to draft is small; they are unreliable, non viable
       and not sustainablewithin the farming systemsexamined. In Sebungwe,       where tractor numbers are
       greater, owners indicated that they were more important for transporting produce than contract

       Numbers of animalsalone do not indicate adequacyor inadequacyof OAP. Such terms are relative,
       dependingon the amount of land to be worked, the time available for working and the ability of the
       animals to undertake the work. Inadequacyhas been taken to indicate householdswithout adequate
       animals'to work an area of three to five hectaresin a season.Animals of limited capability are regared
       as those's;nimalsharnessedin a normal span, unable to provide adequate draft to undertake the work
       efficiently,;ft. normal span is taken as two, four or six cattle or four, six or eight donkeysable to work for
       at least four hours per day. An animal of limited capability is not capableof working effectively for this
       period.                   ..'
                                  :;"   ~
       8          ALLEVIATIONbFDAP
                               ..           SHORTAGES

       Two alternative strategies for alleviating the shorlagesof OAP are possible. These are:
       8.1        Increasing the supply of DAP :f


                           lmnroving the nerformance of existing animals. through improved feed quantity and
                           quality, improved health and condition of animals and improved power transfer (largely
                           through improved harnessesfor donkeys

                           Improved feed supplies can be achievedby restoring denuded land and improving plant
                           speciesthrough appropriate grazing management.At the same time measuresneed to
                           be taken to increasethe availability and quality of crop residuesand feeding these in
                           peak periods of OAP demand.The cultivation of additional fodder through introduction
                           of pasturesand fodder trees require investigation.

                           Increasingthe number of drau!!ht animals, through reducing mortalities, increasing birth
                           rates and utilising cows, youngercattle and donkeysmore efficiently.

                           The introduction of larger animals should not be considereddue to problems of
                           communal grazing, inadequate managementand the lack of available feed.

                           Encouragin{! the use of DAP outside the oeak months of October, November and
                           December is an important consideration.

                           Promotinl! the role of DAP contractinl!. exchanl!e and hirinl! schemes.


    In all casesthere is a need to improve nutrition supplies and ensure that health standards are
    maintained. Any increase in the number of animals, including restocking after the drought, needs to
    avoid further denudation of the veld and strive for long term sustainability.

    8.2      Reducing the demand for DAP

                     Promotin!! minimum tillage Qracticeswith implements requiring less power. Examples
                     are tyne rippers or cultivators to replace ploughing.

                     lntroducinl! imolements that can be used by smaller animals. in particular lighter
                     ploughs and single animal drawn weedersand cultivators.

    Such equipment should be affordable, low cost and compatible with existing equipment.


    9.1      Developmentof recommendationdomains

    This will give attention to characterisingeach domain and examining possible interventions, in greater
    detail, in particular:

                    Demographic aspects
                    Resource endowments
                    Farming practices, operations and labour management
                    Draugl\t\~aring and exchangearrangements
                    Animal ffi"Anagement practices
                    Output and productivity

    Other activities will include identifying ~nd quantifying limitations, determining the objectives and
    aspirationsof farmers, generating further hypothesiswhich can be used to carry out further research,
    identifying innovators and laggards in OAP systems,and determining researchpriorities.

    There is a conspicuousinfluence of the larger environment on recommendation domains. It is desirable
    to credit this larger environment but keeping the recommendation domains as simple as possible.The
    above domains would be referred to as HomogeneousAnimal Power Groups. The name is intended to
    reflect homogeneity of problems farmers face as a group. The larger environment will be described using
    the following nomenclature; The Draft Power Systemto reflect the regional differences in density and
    distribution of draft animals; The Draft power Sub-systemto reflect the particular animals used for
    various crop operations; and the HomogeneousAnimal PowerArea (HAP A) to reflect major constraint
    due to communally owned resources.

    9.2      Draught animal management

    Attention will be given to increasingthe supply of OAP through improved increased productivity of OAP
    through better manageemntpractices. This could include:

                    determining the draught power resource and capabilities of working animals available to
                    the farmer, particularly donkeys,cows and younger cattle.

                    determining the appropriate management and feeding practices -of draught animals.

                    determining the health aspects affecting the productivity   of draught animals.


      9.3          Implement designand manufacture

      This will give particular attention to reducing the demand for OAP through evaluation, testing and
      redesignof existing and innovative low cost implements, particularly ploughs,tyne rippers, cultivators and
      transport equipment.

      On-farm evaluation will be key to assessing acceptibility of such implements. The situation where
      different animals,animals of different sexesand sizesare harnessedtogether will be an important aspect
      in on-farm testing and assessing possible adoption.

      10           REFERENCES
      Barrett, J C (1992). The economic role of cattle in communal farminl! svstemsin communal farming
      systemsin Zimbabwe. 001 Pastoral DevelopmentNetwork. Network paper32b.

      Central StatisticsOffice (1990). Ouarterlv digestof statistig., Zimbabwe: Ministry of Finance, Economic
      Planning and Development.

      Geza, S and Reid, M (1983). Environmental conservationin communal lands with soecialreference to
      grazingtands. Zimbabwe'ScienceNews, 17, Nos 9/10:148-151.

      Hagman]:' and PrasaedV L (1994). The use of donkeysand their draul!ht ~erformance in smallholder
      farming in Zimbabwe. Project ResearchReport II, ConservationTillage for Sustainable Crop Production
      Systems. AGRITEX, IAf, ,Borrowdale,Harare, Zimbabwe, 8 pp.
                               ~'\f.   ~

      Ministry of Lands, Agricuii6re and Rural Resettlement(MLARR), (1993). The second annual re~ort of
      farm managementdata for'communal farming areas farm units. 1989/90 farminl! season.64 ~~.

      Mrema, G C and Mrema, M J (1993). ~raught animal technology and al!ricultural mechanisationin
      Africa: its ~otential role and constraints: In Network for agricultural mechanisationin Africa. NAMA
      newsletter Vol 1 No.2, P 12-33.

      Mudhara, M and Ellis-Jones, J (1993). A farmin!! systemssurveyof Sanyati. Gokwe and Sebun~e
      Communal Farming Areas. Zimbabwe Conservationtillage project. 00/93/18. 33pp.

      Natural ResourcesInstitute (1993). PhvsicalResource Inventorv of the communal lands of Zimbabwe.
      An overview. Bulletin 60, 149pp.

      Starkey P (1988). Animal traction director~ Africa. GTZ Friedr. Vieweg & John.
      BraunschweigjWiesbaden.   151 pgs.

      Department of Agricultural, Technical and ExtensionServices(1982). Farm Management Handbook.
      AGRITEX, Farm ManagementSection.

      Barrett J C. O'Neill, D H and Pearson,R A (1992). Strategic needs relatinl! to Draul!ht Animal Power:
      A diagnostic study in Zimbabwe. NRI working document.

             APPENDIX I       Programme
            14.8      Initial team meeting at Matopos Research

                     Travel to Kezi
                     0900 Hrs meet Agritex Officers
                     1100Hrs meet Animal Health Inspector
                     1400Hrs meet Chief and councillor in Semukwe communal area

                     Travel to Matobo
                     AM meet farmers and AEW at Sontala primary school Semukwe
                     PM meet farmers at St Anna primary school-Semukwe

            17.8    Travel to Esigodini
                    AM meet DAEO for Matobo District
    ...             PM travel to Gwanda meet provincial staff
                    Travel to Masvingo
                    Meeting to discussfindings on Semukwe

                    :AM meet provincial staff-Maswingo
                   "'pM travel to Gutu- meet District staff
           19.8     AM meet local leaders Chikwanda
                    PM meet farmers ~nd AEWs
                                    '\   f,
           20.8     AM meet individual farmers
                    PM travel to Matopos
                    Meeting to discuss findings from Chikwanda
          21.8     Free

          22.8     AM travel to Gweru and meet Provincial staff
                   PM Travel to Gokwe South and meet Animal Health Inspector
                   Travel to Sanyati

          23.8     AM meet Gokwe North District staff
                   PM meet local leaders Sebung\ve

          24.8     Meet farmers Sebungwe
                   Meeting to discussfindings from Sebungwe

          25.8     Travel to Kadoma Cotton training center
                   Meet CTC staff
                   Travel to Bulawayo

          26.8     Meeting at Matopos


APPENDIX       II   List of people contacted

Mr Grrek Ncube (District Agricultural Officer -Esokodini)
Mr Ali Baba (Crop Specialist, Matabeleland South)
Mrs Hunda (AGRffEX Officer, Matobo District)
Mr Ndlovhu (Extension Supervisor)
Mr R Ntini (extension Supervisor)
Mrs E Nyati (Extension worker)
Mr Mikha (AFC Matobo)
Mrs Ndlow (AFC Gwanda)
Chief Scmukwc (Scmuk-we)
Mr W Sibanda (WADCO Councillor)
200 farmers (Sontala primary School)
Alfred Dubc (Farmer)
Mrs Genesis (Farmer)
25 Farmers (St Anna's School)
Mrs Sibanda (Farmer)
Mr Sibanda (Farmer)

Mr E Danda (AGRrrEX, Chief Agricultural Extension Officer)
Mr Gutu ,(ConselV3tionSpecialist)
Mr J Ha~ann (GTZ-IAE Contil project)
Mr E Chu~a (GTZ-IAE Contil project)
Mrs Munyiirildzi (AGRrrEX, Acting DAEO, Gutu)
Mr Mpofu (AFC, Gutu)
Mr (AGRrrEX, AEO, Chil..-wanda)
Mr Damson (CSC, Livestock Meat Grader)
5 Extension workers (AG~:Mdwere.       Chil..-wanda)
4 Small scale commercial farmel\
10 farn,ers (Chikwanda)
Mr Shumbaimwe (District councillor)
Mr Jairos Mashambe(Rural blacksmith/farn,er) and 5 Carolers
Mr Tiraro (Farmer, Chil..-wanda)             ,1
Mr Makondo (Farmer, Chil..-wanda)

Mr Zishiri (AGRrrEx, Chief AEO)
Mr Gondo (Principal AEO AGRrrEX)
Mr Simbanegavi(AGRrrEX, Pasturesspecialist)
Mr Mahowa (AGRrrEX, Mechanisation specialist)
Mrs Chiwara (AGRrrEx, Crops specialist)
Mr J Shumba (Heifer Project International)
Mr Chikwitiri (Senior Animal Health Inspector, Gokwe)
Mr Machida (AFC, Gol.-we)
Chief Nembudzia (Nebudzia)
Mr Chiwara (councillor)
Mr Musavengana(AGRrrEX Supervisor Sebungwe)
Mr (AGRn"EX, AEW, Nembudziya)
Mr Matanga (AGRrrEx, Sanyati)
Mr Matsweru (AGRrrEx, Sanyati)
Mr Shumba(AGRrrEx, Nembudziya)
Mr Simon Ridzai (Fam1er, Membudziya)
Mrs Muchini (Fam1er, Nembudziya)

 Mr Graham Rabie (Head of Station)
 Mr Tf Mashavira (Cotton ResearchAgrononlist)

 Mr Bright Mombeshora
 Mr Maxwell Mudhara
     APPENDIX III Selected data on household and agricultural production for communal areas

      NattXaJRe9on       ~~~~                                II                IU            III         :N      IV           All areas

                                                            CR               cw             CM           81)    NY      zv

       No of households surveyed                            50                54            53           57     60     56       173

       Average No of members per household                  10               4.9            6.9          1.2           10.9     6.6


       Net farm income                                      269              204            301          714    211    001      50S

       Non farm Income                                      209              345            57           174    585    1477     484

       Total household income                               498              549            358          688    796    2378     993

       Average arable area                                 2.72             1.41           2.46          3.66   5.06   6.45     3.72

     I Crop area grownI                                    2.46              2.14           3.19         7.02   5.65   4.08    4.09

       % Winter ploughing                                   24%               7%            81%          58%    45%    50%      45%

       % applying manure                                   44%                7%            61%          49%    45%    50%      50%

       % buying inputs                 .I                  76%              100%            67%                 76%    52%      82%
                                                            12%              52%            8%           0%     3%     0%       12%
       % house!1Qlds receiving AFC loan

       % ~f croppe:tjar~aI

       Maize                                                81%              64%            59%          44%    47%    37%      49%

       Cotton                                               1%

     I GroundnutsI
                                            ,-.\            10%              16%            15%          15%    10%    9%       12%

       Sunflowers                                           5%                B%            2%           8%     7%     9%        7%

                                                                                                         1%     4%      7%       3%
                                                                                             1%          6%     5%     16%       7%
                                                            1%                4%            20%          9%     17%    3%        9%

       Bambara nuts                                                          22%             1%          13%     5%    38%       6%

       Allerage number ofl!vestock

       Uvestock units owned                                8.47              3.35           9.12         7.74   6.9    7.36     7.14

                                                                             55%            88%          78%    73%    67%      74%
       Cattle                                               66%

                                                            48%               16%           58%          85%    61%    91%      64%

                                                                                             2%          15%    10%     5%       7%
                                                            1()%              2%
                                                                              2%             4%           ~%    25%    48%       15%

     [percentage~ h!!}!Se!:,oJds
                                                                                            87%          62%     70%    79%      76%
                                                            62%               59%
                                                                                             26%          17%    7%     11%      14%
                                                            24%               19%
                                                                                             26%          7%     5%     20%      23%
                                                            50%               33%
                                                                                             45%         33%     27%    36%      35~
        Scotch cart                                         54%               20%

     Key: CR : Chirau. CW: Chiweshe.   CM: Chirumanzu.   BU: Buhera.   NY: (.jyajena. ZV: Zvishal/ane.

                              Source: Ministry of Lands,Agriculture and Rural Resettlement (1993)


     APPENDIX IV Cropping extension recommendations and farmer practice (Clivi CA)

             Cropping Activity                                Extension recommendation                                               Farmer practice
      Crop varieties                         Maize: A201, A200,A215; Sorghum;                                  As recommendations      mixed in with local varieties lor
                                             SV2; Mhunga; PMV1; Aapolo: 25C;                                   sorghum and millets
                                             Sunnower: Peredovtk, Musasa;
                                             Groundnuts: Plover, natal common, GMB spanish; cottOQ
                                             G501, K602

      Land preparation                       Winter plough (June-July) to 2O-25cm;                             5% of area winter ploughed, to c. 10-15cmdepth:               1=
                                             early manuring (August-September)                                 6% of area manured

      Planting                               Early planting dates from first effective rains in November       Staggered from dry planting of millets in October to late
                                             until late December                                               planting of replacement crops (e.g. sunflower) in
                                                                                                               Feb~ary/March.     Other crops stagger~

                                             Seeding rates (25kg/ha lor maize, 15kg/ha lor sorghum,            Variable seed rates and spacing according to seed
                                             10kg/ha lor millets, 8kg/ha lor sunflower) and 90 x 45cm lor      availability and field conditions. Row planting with hoes
                                             maize spacing. Plant with hand-hoe or ox-drawn planter in
                                             straight rows
                                                                                                               for maize, cotton: otherwise broadcast                        t:
      Fertility management                   For grain crops inorganic fertilizer (basal at 1DO-200kg D/ha I   6% of area with basal fertilizer applied; > 1% with top
                                             and top at 100kg AN/ha). Blanket D and split top dressing         dressing. Low concentration, spot applications for
                                             application. Oil seeds -sunflower:   150kg lftIa and 100kg        certain crops (maize, cotton); otherwise none
                                             AN/ha; groundnuts: 2OOkg SSP/ha and 2OOkg gypsum/haI

                                             8 tonnes of manure per hectare. 1 sack per 9m intervals           6% of area with manureapplied. Low application rates.
                                           I and s~"ow ploughed                                                careful rotation. focused on particular salls

      Weeding~~d     cultivation             Intensive weeding for first 6 weeks. 2-3 weedings                 80% of area with 1 weeding; 20% no weeding; 20%
                                             recommended. Use hoe. mouldboard plough or cultivator             weeded twice: > 1% weeded 3-4 times. Weeding
                                                                                                               depends on crop. Hoe weeding dominates. > 5% of
                                                                                                               farmers with cultivator
      Pest and disease control        ::   ; f.. -
                                            '~rious pesticides; e.g. for maize -Deptrex   or Thiodan 4.6       NO pesticiaes used, except on cotton
                                             ~eeks to control stalk borer

      Intercropplng relay cropping,          No recommendations                                                Common practice. 75% of maize area intercropped.
      late planting. in-filling                                                                                Relays following crop failure important. In-filling widely

      Rotations                              Alvord rotation: Maize (with manure37t/ha). then                  Various. but most common is maize-maize-maize
                                             sorghum/maize. then legume crop. then millet crop

                                             Previously all trees supposed to be removed from fields.          Indigenous trees (especially fruit trees) retained in
                                             Nowagroforestry encouraged. Boundary and home garden              fields. Growing trees protected and nurtured if valued
                                             planting with exotics recommended                                 highly. Some limited planting around homes

      Field water management                 Deep winter ploughing: ridges. tied ridges and furrows:           Use of microenvironments;       water harvesting using        t
                                                                                                               bunds; ridging on heavy soils; soil pits; winter
                                             early planting: weeding
                                                                                                               ploughing if possible; organic matter management (leaf
                                                                                                               litter, stover, etc.); manipulation of plant populations

      Soil conservation                      Standardcontours; construction of waterways and storm
                                             drains: planting on contour; manureapplication; green
                                                                                                               Contour bunds; planting along contour; soil harvesting
                                                                                                               in microenllironments   or pits; applications of organic      t
                                                                                                               matter (manure, I~af litter, etc. if available); high plant
                                             manure and cover crops

                                                                    Source: FSRU (1994)


APPENDIX V        Livestock extensionrecommendationsare farmer practice (Clivi CA)

   Livestock activity            Extension recommendation                       Farmer practice

 Breeds                   Exotic "improved" breeds                    Indigenous breeds
 Objectives               Beef production                             Multi-purpose use, especially draft
 Stocking rates           lOha per livestock unit                     2 ha per livestock unit
 Grazing management       Rotational grazing in fenced                Key resource grazing, use of high
                          paddocks-grazing schemes                    potential sites (e.g. dambos,
                                                                      drainage lines, etc.)

 Fodder management        Legume reinforced pastures in               Browsemanagement
                          grazing areas

                          Supplementaryfeeding, salt licks, etc       None, except in extreme drought
                          Stover collection and preparation           Stover collection and storage only
                          with urea

                          Agroforestry    including   planting   of   Some agroforestry planting; browse
                          kel(Cena,etc.                               management
Drought management 'Destocking -early sales; movement                 Movement to other areas;
                    discouragedand highly regulated                   supplementaryfeeding, distress
Disease control                               and
                          Weekly (wet~season) fortnightly             Dipping regime followed except in
                          (dry season)dipping; dosing;                drought; traditional herbs used to
                          antibiotics; movementcontrols               treat disease

Smallstock                Few recommendationswith respect                      practices
                          to management,diseasecontrol, etc.

Chickens                  Improved breeds;improved chicken            Indigenous breeds, free ranging,
                          huts; mash feed,etc.                        little management

                                                  FSRU (1994)

      APPENDIX VI Indicative costs of owning and using draft animals


           Small/weak oxen

      II   Large/strong     oxen                                                                                        2            2


           Smali/Weak donkeys

           Large/strong donkeys

           Pllrchase     cost                                                           600()          6(XX)         4000         4000          460             48            120        120           120            12
                                                                                                                                                  0             00              0          0             0            00

           Sale price                                                                   8000           6000          3000         3000          460             48                                                     a
                                                                                                                                                  0             00

                                                                                                          8                                      e              6             10          1C           10             10
           Working vear~

           Cultivationdays per year                                                       16             32                         )2          16              32            16          32           16             16

                                                                                                                                     4                                         l                        2             45
           Hectares cultivateo per year

                                                                                         450            450           450          450          450             45            ~50        450           450            45
           New plougn cost
                                                                                                                                                                0                                                     0               I;:
                                                                                          60             60            30           )0          60              60
           Yoke cost ($30 each1
                             ": ,                                                                                                                                             120        120           60             eo
           Harness cost ($20 ea~)

           A~~!cIAL EDUIPMENT COST                     l1~S

           Annual animal (ap)depreciation
                                                                                         250            ~50                        143                           0            120        120           120             12
           lC:ost -sale prlce/Workinq life)
                                                                                                                                                 45             45             45         45            45            45
                                                                   10%                     45             45
            Annual plough depreciation
                                                                                                                                                 12                            24                       16
                                                                   20%                                    12
            Annual yoke/harness depreciation
                                                                                                                       48            48                         51             57         57            53            53
                                                                   10%                                    45
            Repairs and maintenance
                                                                   25%                    814            814          560           560          664             66           ?21        221           216             21
            "'~erest on capital                                                                                                                                   4

                                                                                                                                                 60             60                             0            0
                                                                                            40            40            20           20
                                                                                                                                                                                           64           32             64
                                                                                                                        37          6t           32         I    64            32
                                                                                            32            64
            LBbour for ploughing ($2 per day)
                                                                                                                                                                 32            16          32           16             32
                                                                                            1f\            32           16           32
            Feed supplimentation ($1 per day                                                                                                                                                                               54
                                                                                                                                                                    92         515        563           498
                                                                                           754           602           670          916          660
                                                                                                                                                                     6                                                      6
                                                                                           3R             299          ~~$          ~29          4@                  ~~        ?~         14:1          \~4?;

             ~-'~~c                                            CA~        ~~~                                                                     31                31              2              2            ~              2
                                                                                                29            29            22           22
                                                                3.9%             2.0%
                Manure                                                                                                                                                13
                                                               13.6%             0.0%       102            102          111                          136
                                                                                                                                                                      6                                                                    (;:
                                                                                                                                                                                                   6            6              6
                                                                                                                            59           59           83
                                                               10.4%             5.0%           1~             76
                Herd groWth                                                                                                                                          60             ()             0            ()             a
             --                                                                                                             57           57           6C
                                                                                 0.0%             75           75
                                                                10.0%                                                                                                                                                          8
                Social benefits                                                                                                                                       3~            6              8            8
                                                                                                                        255              25~          330
                                                                                                264                                                                      0
                                                                                                                                                                                               -555             -49        -53
                                                                                                                        -fi14        -662              54             ~59
                                                                                            -470              518                                                      7                                         0           6
                  NET ANNUAL BENEFITjCOST

                                                                                                .~3~           125          307          ,16e          27
                                                                                                                                                                         14    ~
                                                                                                                                                                         9 \ -';
                  CO$t per ha tal\lngbenefits   Into account

                                                                                                          Cow         Large         Small
                                                                        350 kg                  45C
                  ANIMAL PRICE ASSUMPTlONS                                                               Heifler      Donkev       Donkey
                                                                         Ox                     kg

                                                                                                              1200          300          200
                                                                        1500                    2000
                  Purchase Price
                                                                                                1500          1200
                   Sale Price



                                                                                                               Semukwe     CA


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