El Paso Air Quality Trends by keb35299

VIEWS: 91 PAGES: 43

									El Paso Air Quality Trends
          1999 - 2007

          Provided by the
   Joint Advisory Committee for
  Air Quality Improvement in the
      Paso del Norte Airshed
El Paso & Juarez Area Sites
   Emissions Inventories

Summarize air quality emissions by
   pollutant type and source
2002 CO EMISSIONS INVENTORY FOR EL PASO

                    NON-ROAD
                     MOBILE
                                  BIOGENICS
                      18%            3%

                                     POINT
                                      1%

                                     AREA
                                      2%




   ON-ROAD
    MOBILE
     76%
           2005 EL PASO
      CO EMISSIONS INVENTORY
           (WITH BIOGENICS)




                              NON-ROAD
                               MOBILE
                                22%
                                         BIOGENICS
                                            7%


                                    POINT
                                     1%
                                   AREA
                                    4%
ON-ROAD
 MOBILE
  66%
                 El Paso Area Emissions
                          2005 Emissions Inventory

             2005 EL PASO                        2005 EL PASO
       NOx EMISSIONS INVENTORY             VOC EMISSIONS INVENTORY

                ON-ROAD
                                        ON-ROAD                       NON-ROAD
                 MOBILE
                                         MOBILE                        MOBILE
                  62%
                                          34%                           10%



                                                                         POINT
                                                                          5%
AREA
 3%

                             NON-ROAD               AREA
        POINT                 MOBILE                 51%
         19%                   16%


        Total NOx: 56 tpd                         Total VOC: 52 tpd
PM in El Paso
                    24-Hour PM 2.5 Design Value
              24-Hour PM 2.5 NAAQS* = 35 mg/m3
                                                                   24-Hour PM 2.5 Design Value in El Paso**
             Site Name
                                          1999-2001         2000-2002        2001-2003         2002-2004    2003-2005   2004-2006

            Tillman C413                       30               31                30               30          30

        ELP Northeast Clinic                   16               22                25               27

  El Paso UTEP C12/C125/C151                   23               27                27               27          25          24

              Riverside                        17               23                23               23          23
               Socorro                         20

        Chamizal C41/C126                      23               25                25               26          26          29

              Lindbergh                        18               23                30               31          35

 El Paso Sun Metro C40/C116***                 47               50                49               48          42          40

  Ascarate Park Southeast C37                                                                                  18

            Socorro C49                        26               26                28               27          27

         Skyline Park C72                                       17                20               20          24

     24-Hour PM 2.5 NAAQS                      36               36                36               36          36          36
Data Source: Mark Schmidt, Air Quality and Trend Analysis, US EPA
*To exceed the 24-Hour PM 2.5 NAAQS, the design value must be greater than or equal to 36 mg/m3.
**The design values were calculated from incomplete data sets and cannot be used to compare to the NAAQS.
***The El Paso Sun Metro site is exempt from the NAAQS and is used here only for trend purposes.
                       Annual PM 2.5 Design Values
                    Annual PM 2.5 NAAQS* = 15.0 mg/m3

                                                                    Annual PM 2.5 Design Value in El Paso**
             Site Name
                                          1999-2001         2000-2002        2001-2003         2002-2004    2003-2005   2004-2006
            Tillman C413                      10.5              10.5             10.8              11.1       11.2
        ELP Northeast Clinic                   5.6              6.4               6.7              6.8
  El Paso UTEP C12/C125/C151                   9.4              9.8              10.9              11.7       11.2         9.3
              Riverside                        6.9              8.9               9.3              9.6         9.5
               Socorro                        10.5
        Chamizal C41/C126                      9.2              9.7               9.9              10.2       16.3        17.6
              Lindbergh                        7.7              7.9               8.6              8.7         9.2
 El Paso Sun Metro C40/C116***                20.4              19.3             16.9              17.8       17.7        16.9
  Ascarate Park Southeast C37                                                                                  9.5
            Socorro C49                        9.6              10.1             10.0              10.3        9.6
          Skyline Park C72                                      7.4               6.7              6.7         5.9

Data Source: Mark Schmidt, Air Quality and Trend Analysis, US EPA
*To exceed the Annual PM 2.5 NAAQS, the design value must be greater than or equal to 15.1 mg/m3.
**The design values were calculated from incomplete data sets and cannot be used to compare to the NAAQS.
***The El Paso Sun Metro site is exempt from the NAAQS and is used here only for trend purposes.
*PM 2.5 Design Values from Mark Schmidt of the EPA.
*PM 2.5 Design Values from Mark Schmidt of the EPA.
                                                 24-Hour PM 10 Design Values by Monitor in El Paso*
                        700



                        600



                        500
Design Value ( g/m3)




                        400



                        300



                        200



                        100



                         0
                                 1999             2000             2001             2002            2003       2004             2005
                                                                      Third Year of Three-Year Period
                              Tillman C413                                ELP Northeast Clinic               Ivanhoe C414
                              El Paso UTEP C12/C125/C151                  Riverside                          Vilas
                              Socorro                                     Chamizal C41/C126                  Lindbergh
                              El Paso Sun Metro C40/C116                  Ascarate Park Southeast C37        Socorro C49
                              Socorro C49 TEOM                            Skyline Park C72                   Clendenin School
                              24-Hour PM 10 NAAQS
*Data includes complete and incomplete data. Only complete data can be used for designation purposes.
**Data downloaded the EPA AQS database by Bryan Lambeth of the Monitoring Operations Division of the TCEQ.

     Data includes natural event days that are not used to determine the design value.
                      24-Hour PM 10 Design Value
                24-Hour PM 10 NAAQS* = 150 mg/m3
                                                    24-Hour PM 10 DV in El Paso Excluding Natural Events**
          Site Name                     1997 -      1998 -      1999 -      2000 -      2001 -     2002 -   2003 -   2004 -
                                         1999        2000        2001        2002        2003      2004     2005     2006
         Tillman C413                    121          118         118         123         123       116      116      102
     ELP Northeast Clinic                 77          61          93           93          93       84
        Ivanhoe C414                      89          74          76          118         118       167      167      167
El Paso UTEP C12/C125/C151                                                    147         135       212      210      210
           Riverside                      93          90          90          119         119       183      183      183
              Vilas                      134          121         121         123         136       136      136
            Socorro                       112         112         112
     Chamizal C41/C126                                                                                       120      201
           Lindbergh                      82          81          86           91          91       91       89
El Paso Sun Metro C40/C116               244          148         148         148
Ascarate Park Southeast C37                                                   119         119       244      244      282
         Socorro C49                                  97          127         127         127       213      213      213
     Socorro C49 TEOM                                                                     103       329      322      241
       Skyline Park C72                                                        51          57       57       57
      Clendenin School                                            81           83          83       83       75       85

Data Source: Mark Schmidt, Air Quality and Trend Analysis, US EPA
*To exceed the 24-Hour PM 10 NAAQS, the design value must be greater than or equal to 155 mg/m3.
**Design values include natural event days.
Ozone In El Paso
                                               El Paso Eight-Hour Ozone Trends
                                               El Paso -- Estimated Population and 8-Hour Ozone Design Values,
                       800,000
                                                                         1991 to 2007                                                                                                            100

                                                                                                                                                                                                 90
                       700,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                 80
                       600,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                 70
Estimated Population




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Design Value (ppb)
                       500,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                 60

                       400,000                                                                                                                                                                   50

                                                                                                                                                                                                 40
                       300,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                 30
                       200,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                 20

                       100,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                 10

                            0                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                 1991   1992   1993   1994       1995       1996       1997       1998        1999       2000       2001       2002       2003      2004   2005   2006   2007*
                                                                                                              Year
                                                                                 Population                    8-Hr DV                   8-Hr NAAQS
*Source: Ozone -- EPA and Mother database. 2007 data is current as of November 19, 2007 and is subject to change.
1991-2006 Population --http://w w w .census.gov/popest/archives/1990s/MA-99-03b.txt and http://w w w .census.gov/popest/counties/CO-EST2006-01.html, July 3, 2007
2007 Population --http://w w w .w indow .state.tx.us/ecodata/popdata/popfiles.html
               Eight-Hour Ozone Design Value
            Eight-Hour Ozone NAAQS* = 80 ppb
                                                Eight-Hour Ozone Design Value in El Paso (in parts per billion - ppb)
          Site Name
                                      2000-2002         2001-2003          2002-2004       2003-2005   2004-2006   2005-2007**

        Ivanhoe C414                                         72               74               72         75            75

El Paso UTEP C12/C125/C151                 79                78               75               76         78            79

    Chamizal C41/C126                      81                79               78               72         73            74

Ascarate Park Southeast C37                81                78               78               76         77            75

         Socorro C49                       74                70               71               73         76            76

      Skyline Park C72                                       76               76               74         75            74




 Data Source: EPA’s AQS Database
 *To exceed the Eight-Hour Ozone NAAQS, the design value must be greater than or equal to 85 ppb.
 **Design Values from 2005-2007 are estimates and are subject to change.
                                  Ozone 8-hour Design Values
                                         (2002-2007)
                      90


                      85
Ozone 8-hr DV (ppb)




                      80


                      75


                      70


                      65


                      60
                           2002                  2003                 2004                2005           2006              2007



                                  Ivanhoe C414                         El Paso UTEP C12/C125/C151   Chamizal C41/C126
                                  Ascarate Park Southeast C37          Socorro C49                  Skyline Park C72
                                  Cd Juarez Advance C661               Cd Juarez 20-30 Club C662    Cd Juarez Delph C663
                                  NAAQS

                                           * 2007 data is not complete avilable.
                                           2007 - Ozone 8-Hr Averages - Summary - Jan - Nov 5
                      100
                                        Highest 8-Hr Avg                    2nd Highest 8-Hr - Avg - SD
                                        3rd Highest 8-Hr. Avg - SD          4th Highest 8-Hr Avg - SD
                       90
                                                                                               US. 8-Hour O3 Standard - 85 ppb -

                       80


                       70
Concentration (ppb)




                       60


                       50


                       40


                       30


                       20


                       10


                        0
                            CAMS CAMS CAMS CAMS CAMS CAMS CAMS CAMS CAMS                La       SPCY     Chap D_View        ST
                             12   37   41   72   414  49   661  662  663               Union
Carbon Monoxide in EP
                                     Eight-Hour CO Design Values
                                   Eight-Hour CO Design Values in the El Paso Area from 1999 through 2006

                        14


                        12


                        10   NAAQS = 9.5 ppm
CO Design Value (ppm)




                             8.3          9.2         9.2           8.8

                         8
                                                                                   6.8
                                                                                                   6.4         6.4
                         6
                                                                                                                     5.4

                         4


                         2


                         0
                         1999          2000        2001          2002            2003           2004         2005    2006
                                                                          Year
                                                      8-Hour CO NAAQS       El Paso 8-Hour CO Design Value
                                                    2007 - CO - 8Hr Averages - Jan - Nov 2007
                      9

                             Highest 8-Hr Avg
                      8
                             2nd Highest 8-Hr Avg

                      7      3rd Highest 8-Hr Avg

                             4th Highest 8-Hr Avg
                      6
Concentration - PPM




                      5    Exceedence Limits
                           US – 9.5 ppm
                           MX – 11 ppm
                      4



                      3



                      2



                      1



                      0
                          CAMS 12 CAMS 37 CAMS 40 CAMS 41 CAMS 72       CAMS    CAMS   CAMS 49   CAMS   CAMS   CAMS
                                                                         413     414              661    662    663
Community Air Toxics
 Monitoring Network

      CATMN
             Community Air Toxics
              Monitoring Network
• 5 sites in El Paso (Womble, Ascarate, Chamizal, Sun Metro,
  UTEP), earliest in 1993, authorized by Legislature.
• Some 88 targeted VOC species.
• Mission: to determine potential community exposure & long-term
  health effects, to identify sources of targeted compounds, and to
  assess trends.
• Quality objectives = 95% confidence intervals:
   – Detection limit (DL) generally < 0.5 ppbV
   – +/- 25% precision (reproducibility)
   – +/- 30% accuracy (% difference to standard)
   – 75% minimum data return per quarter
                                     Annual Average Benzene Concentrations Reported in El Paso
                        2.5




                         2
Annual Average (ppbv)




                        1.5




                         1




                        0.5        UTEP
                                   CHAMIZAL
                                   WOMBLE
                                   SUN METRO
                                   ASCARATE PARK
                                                       Annual ESL = 1 ppbV
                         0
                              1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
                                Annual Average 1,3 Butadiene Concentrations Reported in El Paso

                        0.20

                        0.18

                        0.16

                        0.14
Annual Average (ppbv)




                        0.12

                        0.10

                        0.08

                        0.06
                               UTEP
                        0.04   CHAMIZAL
                               WOMBLE
                        0.02   SUN METRO
                               ASCARATE PARK                  Annual ESL = 5 ppbV
                        0.00
                               2002            2003              2004             2005            2006
       PAH Sampling Network
• PAH = Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon, large ring aromatic
  hydrocarbons. Exist in urban air in gaseous or aerosol phase
  from combustion processes.
• Samples taken with PUF sampler, 24-hour integrated sampling
  at Sun Metro (481410053).
• PAH levels are compared to ESLs.
• Highest species concentrations Phenanthrene & Pyrene.
• Method changes make trends not meaningful.
• Quality objectives = 95% confidence intervals:
    – Detection limit (DL) variable, up to 0.4 ng/m3
    – +/- 30% precision (reproducibility)
    – +/- 50% accuracy (% difference to standard)
    – 80% minimum data return per quarter
     PAH Phenanthrene Comparisons
          Annual
 means
 Units in ng/m3
 Sun Metro/QA
 Laredo/QA
 Brownsville
 Edinburg
 Mission


Annual ESL: 50ng/m3


     Notes: 2003 has 1st quarter only. Method change in 2003
     led to higher sample recovery, thus trend not meaningful.
                                 Annual Average Phenanthrene Concentrations at Border Sites

                         140



                         120



                         100
Annual Average (ng/m3)




                                                                          Brownsville
                                                                          Sun Metro
                          80                                              Edinburg
                                                                          Mission
                                                                          Laredo Border
                          60



                          40

                                 Annual ESL: 50ng/m3
                          20



                           0
                               2002            2003            2004             2005          2006
                                      Annual Average Pyrene Concentrations at Border Sites

                         16



                         14



                         12
Annual Average (ng/m3)




                         10



                         8
                              Brownsville
                              Sun Metro
                         6    Edinburg
                              Mission
                              Laredo Border
                         4
                                                                            Annual ESL: 50ng/m   3


                         2



                         0
                              2002              2003             2004             2005       2006
      PAMS (Auto-GC & Carbonyl)
              Network
Data used to understand O3 formation, track VOC, NOx EIs,
  trends, and nonattainment. Further:
• Assess feasibility & need for long-term or extensive toxic
  or photochemical monitoring.
• Identify & track hazardous compounds & identify sources.
• Are pollutants contributing factor to health problems?
• Assess temporal variations of pollutants
• Track point, mobile, area, biogenic sources.
• Identify trends.
• Provide database to plan, develop, evaluate & diffusion
  models & control strategies.
              Carbonyl Details
• Carbonyls = oxygenated hydrocarbons C1-C9
• 24-hour integrated samples, 16 species reported
• Quality objectives = 95% confidence intervals:
  –   Detection limit (DL) 0.01-0.06 ppbV
  –   +/- 25% precision (reproducibility)
  –   +/- 30% accuracy (% difference to standard)
  –   75% minimum data return per quarter
   Chamizal Carbonyl Findings
• Formaldehyde (HCHO) has highest levels,
  followed by Acetone & Acetylene.
• Levels comparable to other cities in TX.
• Trends appear to be flat.
• Levels below ESL.
• Following graphs show results of every 6th day
  sampling with a moving spline fit.
• Later graphs compare Chamizal to other cities.
Carbonyl every 6th day
           Carbonyl every 6th day II
Short-term ESL
= 12 ppbV
         Carbonyl every 6th day III
Acetaldehyde
Short-term
ESL = 50
ppbV
Acetone ST
ESL = 2500
ppbV
Carbonyl every 6th day IV
     Quarterly Mean HCHO in Texas
  Units in
  ppbV

Houston-Clinton Dr.
Houston-Deer Park
Houston-Haden Rd.
Houston-Channelview
Fort Worth-NW
El Paso-Chamizal
Dallas-Hinton Dr.



    Long-term ESL =
    1.2 ppbV
               Auto-GC Details
• Species = O3 precursor hydrocarbons C1-C10
• 40 min. sample each hour, 45 species reported
• Quality objectives = 95% confidence intervals:
  –   Detection limit (DL) 0.05-0.60 ppbC (note units)
  –   +/- 20% precision (reproducibility at DL)
  –   +/- 25% accuracy (% difference to standard)
  –   75% minimum data return per quarter
          Auto-GC Findings

• Trends for toxics (Benzene & 1,3 Butadiene
  appear to be downward. (RFG?)
• Following graphs show annual means for B &
  1,3 B. (B trend is stat. signif., 1,3 B not)
• Subsequent graphs show variability by wind
  direction… look at ratio w Acetylene, a tracer
  for vehicle exhaust, see constant levels.
• Conclusion: motor vehicles main source of
  HCs.
         Auto-GC Toxics Trends




1997-2002 annual mean          1995-2002 annual mean
1,3 Butadiene, units in ppbC   Benzene, units in ppbC
        Mean HCs by WDR
ppb-C
HCs Ratio to C2H2




                    Propane &
                    Ethane from
                    nat. gas,
                    others from
                    exhaust
               Conclusions
• Monitoring helps:
  – Assess human exposure to air pollutants and
    air toxics
  – Findings show some need for more attention
  – Assess trends related to pollution controls
  – Arrest concerns that may exist about potential
    exposures

								
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