Xie Youshun script: Humanistic Education Concerned _short version_ by fdjerue7eeu


									Xie Youshun script: Humanistic Education Concerned (short version)
Source: "Southern Metropolis Daily" September 27, 2009
Worries Humanities Education
              - On the spirit of the spirit of the Adult Contemporary
Xie Youshun
China has been the emphasis on education of the great powers

   In China, history, education has occupied an important position. More complete
educational philosophy and educational ideas, including the significance of education
has a model of practice, as early as two thousand years ago the Duke of Zhou,
Confucius, where already there. Qian said, "China's education,
it also can be called a religious cause." This is not exaggeration. Because
in the Chinese cultural system, and does not create a universal influence of religion in
secular life, educate people to play the role, and that is education. Particularly
Confucianism, has been teaching people how to life, how has the character of man as
man, the spirit of this educational tradition, through a kind of character concept - the
so-called gentlemen and villains, Masato and laity, who are related to products, also is
related to a person's life meaning. In view of this, we find that
China's education, does have a religious spirit, it is also preaching, but not
as the inevitable result has been the world or the kingdom of heaven, but to achieve
the ideal in this world, and to understand life Boulevard to supreme goal.
   Therefore, the previous education in China does not attach importance to the school
and curriculum, but emphasis on the teacher who is re-teaching by example, Yukinori.
Like Confucius, though everywhere lectures and apprentices, in fact he has not a
regular school, the money from the Chinese poem "The more pity disciples
Yichun clothes, flowers in search division to Xingtan", I thought,
"Xingtan" But it is an ordinary place, but this does not prevent
the teaching of Confucius; Wang Yangming to give lectures around the bureaucratic
for their own place, do not affect his mission Tuition. As long as there teacher, who
will be gathered, as to the form of education, back in the second the. It is clear that
people are too heavy weight division Road, knowledge, keep the teaching profession,
the education exist, it can be said that the essence of ancient Chinese Education.
   In fact, even to the modern, this idea also is respected by everybody. Yiqi during
any Tsinghua University, the University had a well-known under the definition:
"A university, non-a building that also only, is a master of that
also." Soul of a master as a university, that university should be
people-centered , rather than blindly than the hardware, than the environment, or more
than the number of scholarly articles. Today more and more emphasis on
China's education for students with learning the skills they limited to the
books, literally, light teacher education, teaching by example, while man teacher who
also lost a role model, or even dry out things to many Siwen sweeping education
showing the face of a chaotic start.
   This chaos, we have witnessed, but also have heard about the. Of course, the reason
for this confusion, and can not be borne entirely by teachers, in fact, institutional
issues, historical long-standing problems, social problems in the wind and the lost
value of the whole country, and so on, are in chaos University of direction. About the
chaos, the University has a lot of internal debate, the media, there are many reports
that exposure to the news which, I feel more and more, the present system of
university education there is a fatal lack of university teachers so professional, nor
what an honor to words, but more like a defeatist symbol. Whenever the prospect of
university education in China harbor a sense of responsibility, I think, will have a
status quo in education anxiety and pain, and even a do not know what evening, the
eve of feeling.

Humanistic education is a basic education

   Demands for change in this background came up. Especially in recent years, the
change of university education, the highest voice, humanistic education is going to
talk today, or call general education, general education, in the English-speaking world,
also known as free education. More and more people began to realize that college is
not just a place to learn professional knowledge, but more should be the character,
shape the spirit of implementing the ideal place. In addition to surgery, specializing,
students also need a human being's basic education, to overcome the
over-specialization caused by lack of spirit. So, what is difficult is not humane
education content of education, nor only for the purposes of liberal arts students, on
the contrary, it is common on college students conducted by education, quality
education, is to spread a basic, common-sense Classical Reading and Cultural.
   If a university only paid attention to science, technology and expertise to learn, but
forget the human spirit, Mr. Liang Sicheng's words, this is the
"semi-personal world." China is an old saying, "look
at astronomy, to detect time-varying; look at the humanities, to into the
world." Only know how to astronomy, I do not know the humanities, not
"round", only half a person, but rather the real education is all
human education. Humane education, general education proposed is to bring people
who shape the Shing Chuen, adults, and not crippled man. Now the university, the gap
between the department and the department, discipline and between disciplines to do
with very serious. Do not say arts, science, between our culture, history, philosophy
intimate subjects such blood, and very few links. As historian, it does not know
Nietzsche, Philosophy of people, you do not know the vernacular movement. This
reminds me of 1925 when the Institute of Chinese Studies of Tsinghua University set
up for appointment of teacher requests, the first is to ask the teacher "who
know all the Chinese culture," but also called him a considerable
understanding of foreign cultures. Therefore, Studies Institute organized only four
years, it has trained a large number of talents of Literature, which can not but say that
some teachers and Wang Guowei generalist, general knowledge about. In fact, when
the teacher, can be described as mostly liberal-oriented, professional expertise to the
end, like Guangqian, Feng Zhi, Tang-tung, who not only taught Western philosophy,
aesthetics, they are also Chinese classical literature, even as Master Hong Yi, former
monk, is also music, painting, calligraphy, drama, and both proficient. The present
situation, it once was, not only do not have such a generalist, and that the present
educational system is not encouraging, only use such a generalist, even with a literary
subject, between classical and contemporary literature is sharply divided , to open up
links between the two, almost no.
   Emphasize humanistic education, general education is to emphasize among people
in different professions, there are things in common, that is, the history of classical
civilization and the human spirit in those eternal values. Particularly in this rapidly
changing world, changes in almost all people believe in the value of humanities
education is to remind students that the world is still the same things, there are
ambient temperature and the new value - for each undergraduate student in this kind
of core education, to help them establish a healthy spiritual vision, and thus connected
to a blood and past civilizations. Reconstruction of the human spirit of its pedigree,
the knowledge of the rigid rejection of indoctrination, and the educated as a vibrant
life on the idea, is to restore education to people-oriented outlook.
The rise of the University relating to the rise of great powers

   University is the place to nurture talent, it has nurtured talent, their spirit of strength
how, knowledge, innovation and capabilities, will directly affect a
country's fate. Professor Ding Xueliang, according to the Hong Kong
University of Science and Technology Research, University of the rise and fall, will
be directly related to the rise and fall of a country. The so-called big countries, must
have a good college, not first-rate universities, great power dream is elusive. To look
at the history of the case, where there is the rise of first-class universities, the
University of the country where it may become a first-class country. University of the
West, first appeared in the Italian peninsula, probably around 1100, the University
appeared, soon appeared in the Italian Renaissance, the first rise of the capitalist
economy is also the lead Italy. 13, 14 century, the rise of the universities in Britain,
began the industrial revolution. 19 centuries later, research university began to rise in
Germany, the German became the second industrial revolution of the leading
countries. Later, these operate in the United States spread to the United States
appeared in Harvard, Yale, MIT and other universities, the rapid development of
national power and the economy, until now, the United States is the world's
largest economic center, is the only superpower. China's universities
originated in the Imperial College, it is the predecessor of Beijing University, and the
founder of Peking University is China a sign of the modern society, it is itself the
product of the Reform Campaign, known as the University of Tokyo, Japan set up,
also the Meiji as a product of reform. Shows that the rise of the University, also
changed the face of those of us in Asia.
   China is highly developed on the way, to the power and influence have not upgrade,
sell China-made of light material and products to all over the world, is not enough, we
need to build more world-class universities, can we dream of a powerful China
becomes more and more content.
   Who do not deny that, over the years, the expansion of the Chinese University of
speed is amazing, but really need our attention, or the quality of education, and
education are nurtured, in the end is how the people. Talent Education is different
from the knowledge of education. Knowledge and education more focused on to
enable students to master a skill, and talent education it is simply more training both
skills, but also spiritual inspiration and the ideal personality of people, that is the
sound development of the people. It now appears that such a talent, we are very short.
After graduation, many students have the ability to do things, but not necessarily a
man of charisma and skills, but the lack of value beliefs, can not satisfy the
community spirit of a college student it would have been expected.
   To better understand the importance of humanities education, we need to look at the
history of the formation of the modern university, and university and changes in the
evolution of ideas.
   Around 1100, the University before the rise in Italy and then spread to France,
Britain, Germany and Russia, after then, and later to the United States. Rise to the
Industrial Revolution from the University of the early stages of university education at
this stage, the basic idea is to educate its people. To the hot period of the industrial
revolution in Germany, to Berlin, Humboldt University, represented by a group of
people that the university is not only an educational institution, it should be research
center. Peking University, Cai Yuanpei is Humboldt's followers, so he
should be a good university research university this concept into China, and put into
practice, China's college education has laid the basic direction. Into the
twentieth century, the United States is a strong start to the United States as the center,
there has been a new understanding of the university: the University is not only
educational institutions, knowledge innovation, the place, it should also serve the
community organization. From educational institutions to the research center, from
the research center and then to serve the community, these three stages can be said
that the University embraces the modern concept of evolution.
   University of the change idea, not the latter denied the former, on the contrary, a
good university, has always stressed the unity of the three, it is necessary to educate
people, they do research, but also in need of services in the community, can be
neglected. Cai also believe that the ideal education should cover four points: the first
is the spirit of Confucius and Mozi, attention to special education, but also attach
importance to cultivate virtue; the second is a British gentleman of education, that is,
the cultivation of character education; third, Germany and France's special
deep education and training research; the fourth is American-style education to serve
the community. This is a comprehensive educational point of view, not only to absorb
the Europe and the United States for so long, did not forget China's own
concept of education, promotion of cultivation "full of
personality", both the main Zhang Meiyu and intellectual - of these
insights and ideas, it is still a reference .
Humanities current crisis facing the University of

   For a long time ago, the spirit of the heritage of this University and the variation of
the fracture occurred, met the crisis. I present the human crisis facing the University,
with a five sentences to summarize.
   First, imitation of knowledge doctrine tends to harden the University. Since the
1952 reform in higher education, our university system entirely by the Soviet Union,
beginning in the first year on the professional, the most savings, economic, and rapid
way, the people into professional and technical personnel to engage in work. It should
be said, the early days, the production front, a large number of practical training are
needed, this mode of education has a rational point, but the system's
shortcomings, and now are beginning to emerge, especially in the professional over
the breakdown limit student creativity, imagination, also limits their field of vision
and spirit of the vision. But in recent years, China's university education
system emulating American University, focusing on departments, focus on discipline,
emphasis on research, as well as the number of articles published in articles,
comments, format, etc., while the British style of humanistic education, emphasizing
the classical cultural cultivation and moral character, training them, we have not
learned. Efforts to promote a general education is, in fact, imitation is the United
   Must be noted that there are some public discipline, it can imitate, such as
economics, management and so on, but literature, history, philosophy is a national
conditions and national boundaries must comply with Chinese students to design their
own reality. Out of specific national conditions, contrary to the logic of the Chinese
people's soul, humanistic education will lose the basis of reason, but why
be so hard to convince the recipients and not so. China's existing
educational design, such as the weight is too heavy English language learning
atmosphere, there is no Marxist philosophy course, "Chinese
Philosophy" course, are worthy of reflection. Indulge in other countries in
the form of imitation, imitation of other countries in terms of ideology, while ignoring
the original "great book", so that education is no way out.
   Second, utilitarianism to the University of increasingly poor mental outlook.
Today's universities, pragmatism, utilitarianism idea has penetrated into
every corner of the school. You can see that the students reported that the professional
will know, like international trade professional, administered by the profession,
including journalism, are overcrowded, resulting in poor university again, all set up
with these professionals. Students into the university campus after a few days not too
quiet, pure heart and reading time, the University was such a mall, the battlefield
every day in full swing. Why the emphasis on humanities education? Is to make
students aware that the level of both the material world, but also the mental side.
Whether this is the essence of the world with students - I say, all things are born of the
world, something from nothing. Only have the expense of re-view of the world is
incomplete without. Many times, we read, university, and not only to use, and
sometimes also need to learn a bit useless study.
   We are very familiar with the "Analects of Confucius" in a
story. Confucius allow their students to the words his mind, there are students that go
to an official, a student said that the army and the government going to manage to
these aspirations, Confucius did not do too much comment. He asked once point, what
is your ambition. Have been speaking, late spring comes, I want to wear spring
clothes, invited some teenagers and children, to the Yihe River to swim, the shore hair,
and then go back to singing. The results, Confucius Kuiran sigh, saying: "I
and the point also." Aspirations have points where the air was filled with a
kind of Qingyuan, and have truly satisfied the sentiment, he provided another
dimension of thinking, that is practical, utilitarian, the people can have a useless
pursuit itself. This is like the poetry we read those wonderful poem, you say what is
the use? But a little mood, read a bit like it. But it is because life is more to this state
of mind and read, have a dream and poetic quality. Now our country is not to say
What to revitalize the cultural industry, in fact, the core principles of the cultural
industry is out of nothing. Rowling to write at home, "Harry
Potter", consuming very little resources, but the number of dead brain cells,
plus a computer service, but she created the "Harry Potter"
movie from Novel , profit is said to have reached 1.6 billion U.S. dollars. 1.6 billion
U.S. dollars this profit figure, how many workers in Dongguan, the number of
factories, the amount of resources spent to achieve it? Therefore, do not underestimate
the value of no, no there will be students, useless sometimes have far-reaching effects.
   3, scientism to the humanistic tradition of the University of prolonged pressure.
Humanities and sciences, are now the two most important university knowledge. That
year, Mr. Hu said the city and Mr. Science, namely, democracy and science to come to
China, may be a century, the fate of democracy in a very rough, but the fate of
scientific fame. In many people's minds, science is omnipotent, even we
who do the humanities, are asked to use scientific methods, but I still do not know,
research literature is how the scientific method. Literature is the beauty of the world,
is the whisper of the spirit, if not through experience, experience, how do you enter
the literary world? The feeling and experience, is a spiritual narrative, it is simply
unscientific. Or even our lives, are also unscientific. Stress the value of scientific
neutrality, calm and collected, but we in life, but often swayed by personal feelings,
indulge sensual. Does life have to be regulated by scientific value? If life in the blood
and feelings have been washed clean, leaving only pure reason, so life is really
   In fact, a kind of science against superstition, the working quietly to establish a new
superstition, the superstition is science. Science dominate, resulting in constant retreat
humanism, and even pushed to a corner, this may not be fortunate university. Many
times, science convenience of our lives, our lives may become boring and
monotonous. A few days ago is the Tanabata Festival, and I think everyone received
some blessing or a humorous message, I also received one, said NASA is recruiting
Chang, please send your photos and life experience the information sent to the space
agency, also Special added a note: its own rabbit. Is a Chinese, can understand this
humor, on the Chang and rabbits, which is a lot of Chinese people to the moon a good
imagination. However, since the Americans on the moon, the flag on the moon, the
reason to tell us that the moon does not Chang'e and rabbits, this is how
unpleasant thing, "Change must regret stealing the elixir, Bihaiqingtian
heart every night," so The mood is also hollow. Thus, feelings, imagination
of the world, sometimes scientific, rational world is opposed. Literature as carved
feelings, imagination legend, its main motive is to be free of it, you can return to the
past, you can imagine the future, but also envisaged the possibility of endless life. It is
not material and rational constraints. "Waterfalls three thousand
feet," "Sailing is over 10 thousand of hills", these
verses, if a scientific ideology to understand it, is ridiculously exaggerated;
"thinner than yellow", more like the author of lies the. However,
the richness of life, not precisely because the diversity of feeling and imagination of
the infinite Why?
   "You live at The River, The River End, day and think you ever noticed
that Jun and drink from the Yangtze River", this beautiful miss, I am afraid
it is difficult to be repeated in the future, 3G phones for a pass, in order to
"not see Monarch" is said than done . Life is not the pitch, not
the imagination, a "moon across the mountain, the world knows the
vast" (Du Fu), did not exist, this is the sad thing. Respected the world over
scientism, the feelings and imagination of space is greatly reduced. Therefore, I
oppose the blind superstition of science, but also against the scientific doctrine of the
humanistic tradition of the oppressed, after all, the human spirit is a three-dimensional,
must be fully cultivate the spirit of a person can call a person from the ashes of the
value, affect social. Humane education, general education proposed is to bring
pressure on the humanistic tradition has been to re-liberate the students in the sciences
and humanities, the re-find a balance.
   4, vulgar Marxism to the University of little remaining dignity of the division.
Vulgar Marxism is a value, a lack of beyond the point, the interests of all purport to
real values. Such values, has penetrated into the hearts of many teachers, so that it
points to a number of university teachers can do petty profits to many absurd things.
Why the University administration, bureaucratic tendency of so serious? Anomie is
that this value is very popular. To an executive position, to compete with dozens of
hundreds of professors, in order to gain a little interest, or a title, anonymous letter,
complain letter everywhere, people face grim now, feel then? Some university
teachers, success is not high, but one to class, and speak about their research on how
to influence, even to the students touted their online posting, he even
"Shengwen over the situation, shame of a gentleman" ( Mencius)
that the basic reason do not know, how as teachers? Unfortunately, the
"person suffering from the good to be Teacher", a teacher sitting
in this position, many people who only know how Taoism does not know how the.
The teaching profession does not exist, humanity does not exist also.
   5, gushing students at the University of Marxism to extreme psychological
vulnerability. One is the parent of the student's emotions, to what to what,
even beyond the family's ability to create too comfortable with their
university years. Guren Jiang's tutor, family tradition, is a rigorous
education, today turned into a kind of connivance, an unlimited indulgence. Such
emotions, so that students do not have the capacity to cope with hardship, under
pressure of the index greatly reduced. The other is the teacher-student emotions. In
order to have a reputation among students, or to let students give you trouble, many
teachers have condone students skipping classes, playing score also scores as much as
possible to meet the demands of students, even if that student was handed a copy of
the operating suspect, are no longer seriously, such emotions, the students were
reading books that are no longer any sense of honor. Another is the
student's emotions. In the learning process, students lost the debate
between the interest, but the lack of an academic question, an ideas win heated
passion. Between teachers and students, the relationship between students too sweet,
faulty and uncontrolled feelings, the feelings in such an atmosphere, students must
increasingly fragile psychological line of defense, extreme.

Imagine the future of humanities education

   How to get out of this human crisis, I also mentioned about some comments.
   First, reserve two kinds of knowledge. According the Danish philosopher
Kierkegaard's view, two types of knowledge, one is about the world of pure
knowledge, one is concerned with the world for people to be meaningful, people must
be meaningful knowledge of the world. The former relates to the world of common
sense, which concerns the life of common sense. University education is designed not
only to guide the students to acquire knowledge and skills, but also guide the students
thinking about the value of life, questioning the meaning of life, explore why people
live and how to live out this meaning to other issues. Only two reserves of knowledge,
one can find as a man of value coordinates to establish a sound mind in a vision.
   Second, uphold the moral priority. Confucian four subjects, moral, language,
political affairs, literature, led to virtue. The goal of humanistic education is the
cultivation of personality, but personality is the core virtue. What is the spirit of adults?
Mainly refers to the inherent virtue of a person's growth, eventually,
"Desmond moving in the inside", "Li (Li), made all
things", making it valuable to uphold, but also a moral appeal to people.
Moral education is a real common education. Why is an old saying that everyone can
become Yao and Shun, everyone can become a Buddha, but do not say everyone can
become a Li Bai, Du Fu everyone can become? This shows that Li Bai, Du Fu, the
only, not copied, but the text Wise Man, but everyone can learn. Virtue is a common
human nature, is achieved through education, but will they be differences, but may
never erase. Text can be handed down, and Germany more influence on later.
   Third, the implementation of comprehensive education. Comprehensive education,
that is, moral education, do not neglect education, professional education. Qian said
that young people in school to have four treasures: the knowledge, skills, character,
ideals. He said that the adult is a person, not only have to do live by, but also
understand the way to work, but also have a self-awareness, self-improvement
capability. UNESCO established the Board of Education in the 21st century, also
made the four knowledge dimensions of education: first, to learn how to understand
and to learn how to practice, and third, learning how to get along with others, four are
learning how their achievement. Comprehensive education is also stressed. Even if
there is partial only, but also to the moral support so that we can make the best use.
One can mediocre, but do not do the best spirit of dwarf.
   Fourth, foster good spirit. Stresses humane education, spiritual adults, which in
itself is a thing full of idealism. Practical interests in this era of physical and sexual
can talk about it openly, but became a kind of ideal of privacy, and ashamed to be hide.
This is a tragedy. Today's universities, forced power, social and
employment pressure, increased loss of the spirit of the ideal, but I think, a kind of
future vision of education, must start from the ideal recast. When the university began
to emerge more and more of the ideal personality, the University can forge a hopeful
life, and can Jiyu a nation of hope.
   In fact, I talked about the theme itself is idealistic. To promote cultural education,
general education, it really can play what the current make up for missing the role of
education, my heart did not end, but I would like to constantly ask the question, is
always right. Society, even if another vulgar and snobbish, and there are always
people to talk about ideals, uphold the ideal of a small number of people as long as the
spirit of defeat stopped a nation, he is the backbone of this nation. Therefore, I admire
those who are promoting education reform, and educational disadvantages of the past
to fight, I believe their work will not be in vain, in time, the outcome, humane
education, moral training of the outcome, will the new generation of students body
revealed. With character education, based on the spirit of adult talent, is the future of
talent available in China; the output of a sound human resources, is a sign of a good
university; and the rise of good universities, China's big power dream will
truly become a reality. Let us work together to pursue.
   (This is on August 29, 2009 in the "Lingnan Forum Public
Forum" on the speech, was compiled under the recording, a large number
of deletions.)

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