World Heritage

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					World Heritage
【Category】 Cultural Heritage
One is the historical monuments, archaeological sites, the second category, the third
category is complex.
Then of course this concept finalized after the convention to write after itself it is also
constantly evolving, constantly changing, so how can make such a kind as far as
possible we are more part of our common human cultural heritage protection is also a
problem in human thinking, these concepts are not able to completely cover the
protection of our cultural heritage, such a basic need.
Fact, from the 70's, particularly since the late 70s, for the entire
international community, the protection of historical cities, the protection of historical
sites, for which they themselves may be composed of the city it is important that these
buildings are not buildings, but together they form a common historical background.
And the historic environment and reflects the culture of a nation or a regional
development process, like some of the heritage, the international community to give
more and more attention. So from our "World Heritage List,"
which can see such a trend, in this case, in fact, the protection of cultural heritage,
then it is covered, it becomes more and more extensive, more Great.
Evaluation Criteria】 【Cultural Heritage
The first is that we are facing the heritage item, if the World Heritage List, it must
represent a unique artistic achievement, is a masterpiece of creative genius. For
instance, we give an example, like the Acropolis in Athens, it represents at the highest
artistic achievements of ancient Greece, reflecting the creativity of the Greeks, a
reflection of their intelligence. Acropolis, the project will meet the first of our World
Heritage criteria, especially among the temple by some of Greece's most
famous artists completed.
The second criterion is about heritage items in a certain period of time or in the world,
a particular cultural region, which reflects the architecture of this monumental
building, or such an art, including landscape design, urban planning, This reflected a
change of human ideas. If we simply summarized it, you can say it is an expression of
the human concept of a change. For example, if an example like this as a legacy
project in Germany, called the Bauhaus School, which is a mere 10 years of existence
for an art school, but in its short existence ten years to which this schools in the
classical or traditional architectural education and art and design education into a
modern doctrine of education. It reflects 20 years of the twentieth century, when the
concept of human thought, aesthetic concepts, including the transformation of
educational concepts, so even though it only existed for a short period of time than ten
years, but its schools were included in the "World Heritage List .
" Because it reflects a period of great change in human time, attitudes
The third standard, we face the legacy of the project it could have disappeared into a
cultural tradition or civilization, it can provide such a witness. For instance, like
Jerusalem, this is a very important legacy project, which reflects ancient human
civilization in the origin and development here, it may be part of that civilization, or
such a culture, today has changed, has disappeared, but the Jerusalem their place of
origin, there is a history they have witnessed, if we can meet such a standard, we also
included in this project to the "World Heritage List," which.
The fourth standard is that it can be regarded as an important stage in the history of
one, it's a representation of a typical building, to reflect the times, this time
an outstanding example of construction or landscape. If we simply outstanding
example of an era. Such as the Forbidden City, as we in fact like this, everyone spoke
of the Ming and Qing, the Chinese feudal society, a period later, you can immediately
think of the National Palace, the Forbidden City in Beijing Lenovo, Lenovo to
Shenyang Imperial Palace, they have become such a symbol of an era, then another
instance, like the Kremlin and Red Square, is the "World Heritage
List," on a project, one spoke of the Russian Revolution, spoke of the early
development of socialism, the Kremlin this red Field is a symbol, has become a
symbol of the times.
The fifth standard is the legacy we face, it can be regarded as a traditional habitats,
and how kind of use of land, human beings how Juzhu an outstanding example of
such. In particular, it may reflect one or several cultures. And this culture are in a
process of historical development of mankind is now very vulnerable. For instance,
we give an example, like Venice, Italy Venice, this city, it is one such example. From
the Middle Ages, some people settled here to escape war, and then build it in such a
city, with the Italian economic development, with the economic development of
Venice, Venice as a strong, progressive development of the city, and then establish a
great many very distinguished building. Then here cultivate a large number of artists,
like Venice painting, such a large number of artists, then with the changes in the world
trading system, with the rights of the world in a gradual sea change in the original
Venice was lost position that it may once have faded glory today, but the city of
Venice itself, witnessed such a civilization, a city like this can also be included in the
"World Heritage List," which, in fact, our Lijiang, Pingyao we
also belong to such a type of project, which reflects the relationship between man and
nature and how kind of use of land. For example, Lijiang, how, and snow-capped
mountains and the relationship between Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, and the
relationship between the surrounding wetlands, then these can verify the balance
between man and nature.
The sixth standard is an exceptional standard, this standard generally speaking, not
directly as a separate standard to evaluate whether the inclusion of a world heritage
item to the "World Heritage List," which come, then this is has
special significance with the current world or the traditional, ideological or a direct
relationship between literature and art. This project and in front of our five criteria
mentioned somewhat in different, as long as the first five criteria met one, 就 be
included in the Dao, "the World Heritage List" available,
Danshi For the sixth item, it needs to meet before One of five of the then sixth, as a
supplementary item can go out. For example, the Forbidden City, as we, because
many of our very important historical figure in the, so it can satisfy the requirements
of a standard.
"World Heritage List," first published in 1978, a total of 12,
then developed to now have 754, the number of great changes have taken place.
World heritage in such a change process, heritage projects are emerging, some new
types. For instance, we just talked about the city, from Heritage Convention
monuments, sites and buildings, the development of the city later, but then I only have
the buildings the city still is not enough, we hope to further expand, so when the 1992
propose a new grade, the cultural heritage which belongs to a new grade, is the
cultural landscape, proposed the concept of a cultural landscape. Actually reflects the
contents of the cultural landscape and the natural interaction is a result of which
produce a particular human culture and such an appearance.
Culture consists of three types, the first type is designed and built by humans, with a
clear plan of the landscape, including aesthetic value, such as a garden square such a
landscape, which is a type.
Another is that it evolved gradually, people may not be the first designed, and
gradually evolved, which is based on a socio-cultural or even an administrative or
religious requirements, and the environment to adapt to the final formation of a kind
of landscape, another class is actually a combination of class, for example, it includes
some natural style, while there are a number of common human things together, form
a heritage with the adoption of certain substances shown strong religion or the arts
and culture of an effect. Of cultural landscapes which are the three types, then we
Lushan, actually consider it from this angle gradually formed the development
process, may be more Shige's Yingdang is the second type, because it is a
gradual organic Fazhan formed due to social and cultural or religious requirements,
and the environment, and gradually adapt to the formation of a we see today has a
very unique outstanding universal value of such a landscape environment. This
heritage is still a relatively new type.
】 【Cultural Heritage classification
1, Heritage: from the historical, artistic or scientific point of view, with outstanding
universal value of the buildings, sculpture and painting, the composition of
archaeological significance or structure, inscriptions, caves, settlements and the
synthesis of various types of heritage
2 buildings: from the historical, artistic or scientific point of view, because of its
architecture, and identity and its position in the landscape, with outstanding universal
value of the individual or group of interconnected buildings;
3 sites: from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view,
with outstanding universal value of man-made works or masterpieces of man and
nature and the common areas of archaeological sites.
All nominations in the "World Heritage List" of cultural
heritage projects must meet one or more of the criteria be approved.
1, represents a unique artistic achievement, a masterpiece of creative genius;
2, the world in a certain period of time or culture in the region of architectural art,
monuments art, urban planning or landscape design of the development of excessive
3, could have disappeared as a civilization or cultural tradition to provide a unique or
at least special witness;
4, can serve as a building or buildings or the landscape of the outstanding examples to
demonstrate the history out of class one (or several) important stage;
5, can be used as a traditional human settlement or land an outstanding example,
representing one (or several) culture, especially in the irreversible change to become
easily damaged under the influence,
6, with a special event of universal significance or the existing tradition or ideology or
belief, or literary and artistic works have a direct or substantial contact. (Only in some
special cases or with the standards and the role of other standards that this section can
be listed in the "World Heritage List" of reasons.)
Intangible Cultural Heritage】 【
"Intangible cultural heritage" means the various groups,
organizations or individuals as its cultural heritage, sometimes a variety of practices,
performances, expressions, knowledge and skills and the tools, objects, artefacts and
cultural spaces.
The "intangible cultural heritage" includes: oral traditions and
expressions, including the media as the language of the intangible cultural heritage;
performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; the nature and the universe
of knowledge and practice; traditional craftsmanship.
Intangible Cultural Heritage refers to people of all generations each other, closely
related to living with people of various traditional cultural expressions (such as folk
literature, folklore, performing arts, traditional knowledge and skills, and related
instruments, kind, artefacts, etc.) and cultural space (the regular display of traditional
cultural activities or focus areas of traditional cultural expressions, Cantabile Wei,
temple, traditional festivals, etc.).
Intangible Cultural Heritage, also known as intangible cultural heritage, mainly
referring to the human form is said verbally or in action, with a wide range of national
heritage and history, outstanding representative of the folk cultural heritage, history
and culture it has been regarded as a "living fossil",
"national memory The Shadow. " It includes folklore, customs,
language, music, dance, rituals, festivals, cooking and traditional medicine.
The biggest intangible cultural heritage is not from the national special features of the
life mode of production, is the national character, national aesthetic habit of
"live" show. It relies on the existence of man himself and to
voice, image and skills as means of expression, and to itself as a cultural chain of oral
legend and continuity, is a "living" culture and tradition of some
of the most vulnerable. Therefore the process of transmission of intangible cultural
heritage, the people is especially important.
UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage that is to determine the cultural
identity, stimulate creativity, and an important factor in the protection of cultural
diversity, tolerance of different cultures, plays a vital role in coordination, which was
established in 1998 by resolution Cultural Heritage Award. The project report has
three basic conditions, one is artistic value, one is in endangered status, and a
protection plan is complete. The only approved every two years once a declaration of
a State allows only one. Since 2001, the evaluation has been conducted twice
approved a total of 47 oral and intangible cultural heritage, including
China's Kun Opera and Guqin and the Maqam and Xinjiang and Mongolia
Mongolian long-tune the joint bid.