Module 9. Presenting Results by wzq10206

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									                       The World Bank Group
                          Carleton University
  IOB/Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands




         International Program for
Development Evaluation Training
                                   (IPDET)




               Building Skills to Evaluate
               Development Interventions




 Module 9. Presenting Results
                                Preface

The International Program for Development Evaluation Training (IPDET)
program was initiated by the World Bank to meet the needs of evaluation
and audit units of bilateral and multilateral development agencies and banks;
developed and developing country governments, and evaluators working in
development and nongovernmental organizations

The overall goal of this training program is to enhance the knowledge, skills,
and abilities of participants in development evaluation. It is our intention
that by the end of the training program, participants will:

      •   Understand the development evaluation process
      •   Be familiar with evaluation concepts, techniques, and issues
      •   Be able to weight different options for planning development
          evaluations, including data collection, analysis, and reporting
      •   Be able to design a development evaluation

The training program is organized into twelve modules as follows:

      Module 1.    Introduction to Development Evaluation
      Module 2.    Evaluation Models
      Module 3.    New Development Evaluation Approaches
      Module 4.    Evaluation Questions
      Module 5.    Impact, Descriptive, and Normative Evaluation Designs
      Module 6.    Data Collection Methods
      Module 7.    Sampling
      Module 8.    Data Analysis and Interpretation
      Module 9.    Presenting Results
      Module 10.   Putting it all Together
      Module 11.   Building a Performance-Based Monitoring and Evaluation
                   System
      Module 12.   Development Evaluation Issues
Each module is intended to stand alone, and includes:

         −   an instructional introduction
         −   at least one case example
         −   application exercises
         −   references to further reading and resources
         −   powerpoint presentations from IPDET

Comments and suggestions for improvement of these training modules are
invited and may be addressed to:

      Dr. Linda Morra-Imas
      Operations Evaluation Group
      International Finance Corporation
      World Bank Group
      2121 Pennsylvania Ave
      Washington, D.C. 20433

      Dr. Ray C. Rist
      Operations Evaluation Department
      The World Bank
      1818 H. Street, N.W.
      Washington, DC 20433, U.S.A.
          International Program for Development Evaluation Training


                      Module 9: Presenting Results

Overview:

   An evaluation that is not used to inform decisions is of little value. As one
   designs an evaluation, it helps to begin with the end in mind: to provide
   usable information to stakeholders that lead to program improvements,
   funding decisions, accountability, and/or learning. Therefore, it is essential
   that the results of an evaluation be communicated clearly, accurately and
   appropriately for the audience to make use of the information.               A
   communication strategy is an essential ingredient in development evaluation.
   It is helpful to involve the stakeholders in planning the evaluation as well as
   to engage them in developing a process for feedback and communication.

Communication Basics:

      •   Goal is to communicate, not to impress.
      •   Make it easy for your reader to get your point.
      •   Keep your purpose and audience in mind.

Writing Evaluation Reports for Your Audience:
         • Keep it simple.
         • Provide enough information about your research methods so others
            can judge its credibility.
         • Place technical information in an appendix.
         • Always provide the limitations of this study with cautions to
            interpretations.
         • Provide only the background needed to set up your report.
         • Organize around major themes or research questions.
         • Place major points up-front. Lead each paragraph with your point.
         • Leave time to revise, revise, revise!!
         • Find a person to be a cold reader. Ideally, this should be a detail-
            oriented person, who is looking to make sure every " i" is dotted and
            every "t" is crossed. The cold reader can also tell you when you
            have left things out or where things are not clear.
         • Support conclusions and recommendations with evidence.


                                      9-1
Communication Strategy:

     The whole point of doing evaluation is so the results can inform policymaking,
     program changes or program replication. When planning your evaluation, you
     will want to develop a communication strategy. This strategy should include
     who needs to receive the results of your evaluation, in what format, and
     when they should receive it. You may find that you will need several
     different products. The donor might want to receive an in-depth formal
     report but your local stakeholders want to receive a shorter report with a
     briefing. Finally, the participants themselves might want to receive a
     presentation.

     You can do it as a checklist:
     AUDIENCE          PRODUCT         WHO IS                    DUE DATE
                                       RESPONSIBLE
     Donor            Formal Report    Team leader               6/1/02
     Advisory board   Oral Briefing    Team member A             6/1/02
     Local            Executive        Team member B             6/1/02
     stakeholders     Summary
                      Oral Briefing
     Program staff    Copy of formal   Team member C             6/1/02
                      report
                      Executive
                      summary
     Local government Oral briefing    Team leader               6/5/02
     officials
     Participants     Oral briefing    Team leader               6/5/02
     Development      Article for      Team leader               8/1/02
     Evaluation       publication
     Community




                                       9-2
The Executive Summary 1

An executive summary provides a quick overview of the study: the issues,
questions, methods, findings, and recommendations. It provides a way for the
reader to quickly get the major highlights and points. The executive summary is
not just a condensed version of the “conclusions” chapter – a take some evaluators
use.

Length:

    It should be short: one page is great and more than four is too much.

Set up with Headings to the left:

       Indent narrative like this sentence. Headings are visible so it is easy for the
       reader to scan the report.

Basic Components of Executive Summary:

       •   Brief Overview or Introduction
           • Purpose of the study, situation or issue of concern
           • Grab your reader's attention.
       •   Description of the Study
           • Major questions, brief statement about how the study was conducted.
       •   Background
           • Provide enough information to place the study in context.
       •   Major Findings:
           • These should relate to your purpose or research questions. This is
              your judgment here: what would your audience think is most important
              or interesting?
           • You can present in bullet format.
           • Use simple, clear, jargon free language.
           • Refer readers to the text or appendix for more detail.




1
 Check with your requestor to see if they have a particular format they prefer. Use what you
requestor/audience prefers.


                                               9-3
     •   Conclusions/Recommendations
         • These should flow from the findings.
         • Present the key evidence to support               any   conclusions   or
            recommendations.


Charts and Tables

  Use Charts and Tables to:

         •   Communicate complex ideas clearly, precisely and efficiently.
         •   Present data in a way that makes it easy to understand
         •   Give your message impact
         •   Increases audience acceptance
         •   Increases memory retention
         •   Show the big picture, patterns and trends
         •   Provide visual relief from narrative

  A table or chart should:

         •   Show the data simply and accurately
         •   Entice the audience to think about the information
         •   Avoid distortion
         •   Make large data sets coherent
         •   Encourage the eye to compare different pieces of the data
         •   Enhance the statistical and verbal descriptions of the data
         •   Serve a clear purpose:
                • To describe
                • To explore
                • To tabulate
                • To elaborate
                • To compare

  Selection Options:

     Tables: better for presenting data
     Charts: more effective in communicating the message.




                                        9-4
Tips and Tricks for Effective Charts

     •   Typeface:
         § Use upper and lower cases
         § Avoid too many sizes and types of lettering
         § Make it easy for audience to read
     •   Avoid busy and unnecessary patterns
     •   Use white space to provide visual relief
     •   Keep scales honest
     •   Present sufficient data to tell your story
     •   Your message should make sense to a reasonable person
     •   Include data tables to support your charts in an appendix

Chart Options

     Line Chart:               Trends over time




     Pie Chart:                Parts of a whole.




     Single Bar Chart:         Percent distribution of a single variable.




                                       9-5
      Cluster Bar Chart:        Comparing several items.




Oral Presentations:

      Key questions to ask yourself before your prepare an oral presentation:

            •   What’s your point?
                  • What are the three things you want the audience to
                      remember?
                  • Who is your audience?
                  • What do they expect? How much detail do they want?

            •   How much time do you have?
                  • As a general rule, short is always better than long.

            •   Tell them what you will tell them, tell them, tell them what you told
                them

            •   What are the resources of the room for delivery: slides,
                overheads, PowerPoint, poster boards?
                   • Always bring a backup plan. If you are going to do
                      PowerPoint, bring overheads too.

            •   When   developing overheads and handouts:
                  •    Few words
                  •    Clear visuals
                  •    Lots of white space

            •   Have a few, well-chosen handouts.
                  • You might pass out when needed or at the end of the
                      presentation.




                                         9-6
       •   If you are presenting complex data or tables, hand out
           tables as you talk about them.
       •   Make handouts if you have a lot of information on your
           slides.

•   Talk to the people, not to your notes. It is important to make eye
    contact with many people in the audience.

•   Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse. Get feedback on your rehearsal




                            9-7
                            Application Exercise 9-1
                            Review Evaluation Reports

Instructions:

      Develop a list of criteria for judging an evaluation report in terms of how
      well it conveys evaluation findings to its intended audience. Ease of reading,
      clarity, use of tables of charts, and visual appeal might be factors.

      Based on those factors, assess a report that has recently been written in
      your field (in a group, if possible). You should give it an overall grade based
      on the report’s quality on the dimensions you identified: A for excellent, B
      for very good, C for adequate and NI for needs improvement.

      Next, identify the most important improvements that could be made to the
      report so that it communicated the evaluation findings more effectively.

      If possible, present your findings to a group of colleagues.




                                         9-8
                           Application Exercise 9-2
                          Tailor Reports to Audiences

Instructions:

      For the report you reviewed in Exercise 9-1, identify the various audiences
      that might be interested in the evaluation findings and/or the methodology.
      What information needs and other characteristics distinguish each audience
      group you have identified? Consider:
         v Which aspects of the evaluation will be of greatest interest to each
            audience group and why?
         v At what point would this information be most useful to them?
         v What level of detail will be of interest to each audience group?
            [Consider the likely levels of expertise in international development,
            research methods, and evaluation; also the probable time available to
            peruse the report; you may think of other factors.]
         v What mode of communication fits best with each group’s needs and
            preferences? [Consider: literacy level, time available, likelihood of
            wanting to raise questions, any communication mode preferences you
            might be aware of, etc.]

      Based on your analysis, create a checklist like the one on p. 9-2 to show
      which audiences should receive what kind of report, when, and from whom.




                                       9-9
Further Reading and Resources:

Torres, R., Preskill, H.S., and Piontek, M.E. (1996). Evaluation strategies for
      communicating and reporting. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wallgren, A. et al (1996). Graphing Statistics and Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.



Websites:

National Center for Education Statistics. Create a graph.
      Online: http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/Graphing/

Oldfield, F. (2001). Learning about charts and graphs. Online:
      http://www.elmlane.com/erfora/readtext.asp?txtfile=communications/chart
      s.toc

OSHA Office of Training and Education (1996, May). Presenting effective
    presentations with visual aids. U.S. Department of Labor. Online:
    http://www.osha-slc.gov/doc/outreachtraining/htmlfiles/traintec.html




                                        9-10
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