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Turbo principle

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									Turbo principle
Common sense survival
As we all know the engine hit by fuel combustion in the cylinder to make power with
Chan Lai kept power, because the volume of fuel imported by the inhalation of air in
the cylinder volume limit, so keep the power produced by the engine line also limited,
if the good performance of the engine operation has been at its best, can only further
increase the power transmission through Guo Mountain grams more air into the
cylinder compression depends on the amount of fuel increases, thereby enhancing the
combustion of the Power. So with the current technical condition of Gap, the only
turbocharger can beat the efficiency of the engine with no change in the situation of
Gap increased power transmission mechanism grams.
Turbocharged engine running when the principle of exclusive use of the exhaust Lai,
Lai rotation with exhaust turbocharger in the exhaust tilt-son, and son of the exhaust
and intake tilt tilt son (Compressor) beat coaxial different room, when the Turbine
When the rotor reaches a certain speed (about 12000rpm or so) that it led the other
side of the Compressor, Compressor rotor to rely on the introduction of fresh outside
air, compressed by the pan into the intake manifold and therefore the intake Turbo car
hit unnatural way, beat The pot, "absorption into the Lai,
recompression," hit the air pressure used in fertilizer in the fertilizer gas
pressure. turbocharger hit high speed because the functioning of soil bearing, depends
on the temperature along the exclusion or pressurized pot on the degree of relief hit
the key. currently used rely on imported oil hit lubricating and cooling bearings, and
later water-cooled. The pot high compression supercharged engine good range and
power (explosion) when the line nice way hair damage deposit, the use of after
mechanical soil air pressure as commensurate with the switch or electronic control
soil discharge pressure directly with a computer action.
]]> 2009-04-17T16-27-59 GMT +08:00 2009-04-17T16-27-59 GMT
+08:002009-04-17T16-41-03Ztag:           liuyahui.blogchina.com,      2005:     /     /
2899118liuyahuihttp: / / www.bokee.net / blogmodule / weblogcomment_index /
liuyahui.html survival of the Secretary General of wood hit 3G handsets
English 3rdGeneration 3G hit the stands, the third generation mobile communication
technology. Relative first-generation analogue phones (1G) and second-generation
GSM, TDMA digital mobile phones, etc. (2G), third generation handset, soil stresses,
beat refers to the wireless communications Internet multimedia communications and a
new generation of mobile communication system integration. It can handle images,
music, video streaming and other forms of media services including web browsing,
phone-line discussion, e-commerce and other information services. provided that
commensurate Lizi kind of service, wireless network must be able to support data
transmission with no speed, also beat that with indoor and outdoor environment with a
good car to each support at least 2Mbps (megabytes / second), 384kbps (kilobytes /
per second) and 144kbps transmission speed used.
At present, the international 3G mobile phone standard after three kinds of standards:
the European WCDMA standard, the U.S. CDMA2000 standards and even the
scientists from the Intake of the TD - SCDMA standard. International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) to determine the three fertilizer mainstream 3G
wireless communication interface standard were hit W-CDMA (wideband code
division multiple access), CDMA2000 (spread spectrum multiple carrier wavelength
division multiplexing) and TDS-CDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division
Multiple Access). W-CDMA standard which originated in the main brought Europe
and Japan, early third-generation wireless research activities, the system with existing
GSM networks to progress after a good use case for the system provider can more
easily transition soil Guo Mountain, brought the main supporters of the standard after
the Europe, Japan , South Korea. last year, the United States, AT &, on
behalf of a masters thesis; T Mobile Business Group has announced its selection of
third-generation WCDMA services commensurate own platform. CDMA2000 system
hit by the Lord brought the leading Intake commensurate QUALCOMM North
America, and Its construction cost is relatively low, the Lord brought supporters,
including Japan, South Korea and North America, land of the district and state.
TD-SCDMA standard in China for the first time hit by the Intake and with the
wireless transmission technology (RTT) and based on international cooperation, to
complete Lizi TD-SCDMA standard, CDMA TDD standard commensurate become a
member, then beat China's mobile communication industry's
first initiative, also hit China's third generation mobile
communication's development. with Europe, the United States each Intake
The 3G standard of competition, China's TD-SCDMA Intake has officially
become one of commensurate global 3G standard, which indicates that China has
entered the field of mobile communications with the world's leading list.
3G mobile communications industry and the computer completely beat the integration
of industrial product, compared with the previous phone with a different beat too fat
Lizi real, so more and more people began Dalai call that new class of mobile
communication products commensurate "human communication terminal .
"beat of the communications industry, even though most people outside the
good of shape can easily soil on the outside to judge whether a cell phone beat
beat" third generation ": the third generation of phones after a
pair of super-fat color display, are often beat touch type. 3G mobile phones to
complete high-quality addition to Lizi daily communication, but also can get into a
good multi-media communications. Users with 3G handsets can be used directly on
the touch screen writing, drawing, and send it to another phone but may be no time to
second. Of course, that information can transmitted to a computer, or from the
computer contained certain information in summer; users can connect to the Internet
using 3G mobile phones, checking e-mail or visit the website; will After no fewer
types of 3G mobile phone comes with camera, that will allow users to use mobile
computer into a good line of discussion, and even the digital camera into a
commensurate a "superfluous."
WmCDMA
That WidebandCDMA, also known as commensurate CDMADirectSpread, Italy
commensurate wideband code division multiple access, their supporters hit the main
brought commensurate with the GSM system, the main European manufacturers,
Japanese companies are more or less involved, including the U.S. and Europe,
Ericsson, Al Carter, Nokia, Lucent, Nortel, and Japan with NTT, Fujitsu, Sharp and
other manufacturers. that system can be set up with the current GSM network after, no
problem for the system provider in terms of territory cut off the left ear of the slain
more easily transition and GSM systems are quite popular in Asia on the set of
acceptance of new technology is expected to line is quite high. So WmCDMA after
the birth of a market advantage.
CDMA2000
CDMA2000, also known as commensurate CDMAMultimCarrier, led by the
QUALCOMM Intake commensurate North America, Motorola, Lucent and after the
Lai added, after South Korea's Samsung are involved, as South Korea is
commensurate with the standard leader. That system hit from narrowband CDMAOne
digital standard derivative deposit grams Lai, and no problem from the original post
CDMAOne structure directly to upgrade to 3G, construction of low cost. but to use
CDMA in the soil of the district only after Japan, South Korea and North America, the
use of CDMA2000's supporters no such WmCDMA more. no R
& D Guo CDMA2000 technology has now hit the fastest pace of all
standards, and many have been the first to launch 3G mobile phone.
TDmSCDMA
The standard beat by the Chinese mainland alone fertilizer developed 3G standard,
June 29, 1999, China's former Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications
Research Institute of Science and Technology (Fertilizer Tang Telecom) to provide
outside ITU. The standard smart wireless, synchronous CDMA and software radio
and other leading international technology today and into which, with spectrum
efficiency, a post-Ling Huoxing business support, cost, frequency flexibility and
unique advantages. Also, given the huge domestic fertilizer market, the standard by
the fertilizer Zhu brought the importance of telecommunications equipment
manufacturers, device manufacturers spend half of the world have announced support
for TDmSCDMA standard gram was.
]]> 2009-03-29T20-42-11 GMT +08:00 2009-03-29T20-42-11 GMT
+08:002009-03-29T20-46-30Ztag:            liuyahui.blogchina.com,     2005:     /     /
2803746liuyahuihttp: / / www.bokee.net / blogmodule / weblogcomment_index /
liuyahui.html technical articles chromium Zou Ren and animal body essential trace
element in maintaining and enhancing insulin function brought very heavy, can
increase stress resistance and immunity. The study identified commensurate cut off
the left ear of the slain after the machine hit a good supplement chromium chromium
formulations, it is now generally considered the best hit commensurate chromium
picolinate chromium complement preparations, in particular, beat 2 - chromium
picolinate. In recent years, Seto on chromium picolinate study, the main brought beat
some developed countries like the U.S. and Japan brought the main research focus
with applications, for example, treatment of human diabetes, and as commensurate
with the Dalai cattle feed additives, pig, poultry, fish, etc. Lizi good results were
obtained. the domestic aspects of the research work that less hit for the main brought
commensurate feed additives, chromium picolinate, but keep production costs
relatively high, even as the country's breeding industry, to the feed Seto
demand has gone more, so will the amount of chromium picolinate fat raise, with
good market prospects after.
With 2 - picoline commensurate raw materials, commensurate with the oxidant
chromic anhydride Synthesis of 2 - Continuous fat deposit pyridine complex reaction,
stored as chromium picolinate, commensurate yield of 61% by high performance
liquid chromatography analysis of product purity commensurate 99 % spend. the
process by-product of fertilizer at the same time the amount of chromium oxide with
sodium sulfate, reduced Lizi 2 - the retention of chromium picolinate production costs,
application for deposit products.
Telephone 13032690149 15176875088
Shijiazhuang City, after sub-Fu Chemical Co. Ltd.
]]> 2009-03-11T20-22-14 GMT +08:00 2009-03-11T20-22-14 GMT
+08:002009-03-11T20-28-29Ztag:           liuyahui.blogchina.com,      2005:      /     /
2725945liuyahuihttp: / / www.bokee.net / blogmodule / weblogcomment_index /
liuyahui.html demand marketing management application rate oxidizer waste chromic
anhydride
16 m DPA (Dual Pregnenolone acetate) beat about 0% of fat deposit production of
steroidal drugs intermediates, while other agents up to three hundred varieties of
species, is widely used for soil treatment of many diseases and prevention, with
annual sales of billions of dollars around the world. It beat through fruit chromic
anhydride oxidation of steroidal sapogenin Lai prepared, beat steroidal agents keep
producing fruit brought the most important step in the process. I oxidation of steroidal
saponins each country 2-3 thousand tons per year with a deposit process will produce
fruit after about as many as three thousand tons of chromium waste emissions.
Tel: 13032690149 after Shijiazhuang Ya Fu Chemical Co. Ltd.
]]> 2008-12-29T09-38-32 GMT +08:00 2008-12-29T09-38-32 GMT
+08:002008-12-29T09-42-03Ztag:           liuyahui.blogchina.com,      2005:      /     /
2435553liuyahuihttp: / / www.bokee.net / blogmodule / weblogcomment_index /
liuyahui.html Technical Articles
Green glass colorants
1, green glass, the basic composition of colorants
Components CaO
Mg O
Al 2 O 3
Si O 2
Fe 2 O 3
Cr 2 O 3
Water-soluble Cr 6 +
Acid-soluble Cr 6 +
Content /%
Green glass coloring agent particle size is about commensurate 80 mesh, moisture
<10%, with a glass with the addition amount of the color of the glass
commensurate:
Stain with dosage <2%> 6% 3% ~ 5%
Light green dark green glass emerald green color
Second, the advantages of green glass colorants:
(1) green glass colorants instead of chromite from the glass color, quality, increased
after the lower Lizi keep production costs;
(2) green glass colorants hit by Guo Mountain high-temperature oxidation activity of
calcined material, including after a certain amount of flux, can reduce the melting
temperature of the glass material and shorten the melting time, energy conservation;
(3) green glass coloring matter which can chromium colored glass, the rest of MgO,
CaO, Al 2 O 3, SiO 2, also hit the post with the composition of glass.
For example, neutral alumina oxide, which can reduce the crystallization tendency of
glass to enhance the chemical stability of glass, thermal stability, mechanical strength,
hardness and refractive index, and can increase the viscosity of the glass. MgO hit the
glass in alkaline-earth metal The main component oxides brought with glass brought
to the main stabilizer and buffer commensurate adjustment of the glass material to
improve the glass forming properties, reduce loss through the tendency of glass to
enhance the chemical stability of glass and the mechanical strength. Therefore, the
green glass stain can be a corresponding reduction in the quantity of certain raw
materials and reduce the cost of glass products, deposit products.
Venus chromium Cr 2 O 3 glass with glass after the dissolution of certain limits, when
the introduction of exceeding 10% pot (usually green bottle commensurate 0.2% ~
1%), glass with cooling Cr 2 O 3 is to use Chromium grams from the glass in the form
of analysis, showing flashes of Venus fine granule, which obtained international
popular with Venus glass.
]]> 2008-12-09T05-32-43 GMT +08:00 2008-12-09T05-32-43 GMT
+08:002008-12-09T05-32-43Ztag:           liuyahui.blogchina.com,       2005:       /    /
2358934liuyahuihttp: / / www.bokee.net / blogmodule / weblogcomment_index /
liuyahui.html technical articles after the machine uses high concentrations of acid
waste water for preparation of chrome tanning agent reducing agent
Hou Lijie Li Yanchun Luo Meng Jiao Zhu Deyi on Teaching Method
(1. Shandong Institute of Light Industry Institute of Light Chemical and
Environmental Engineering, Jinan 250100, China;
2. Leather Industrial Research Institute of Shandong Province, Jinan 250021)
Abstract bring: Using perfume after the emission of high concentration of acid waste
water part of the machine instead of glucose as a reducing agent and masked,
preparation chrome tanning, and tanning agent prepared outside the physical and
chemical properties and tanning properties, into a good comprehensive analysis . The
results show that the produced goods chrome tanning agents and the quality of
chromium powder equivalent to that of using high concentration of acid waste water
after the machine instead of glucose preparation parts of chrome tanning agent, beat
completely good for.
Key words: high concentration of acid waste water after the machine; reducing agent;
masked agent; chrome tanning agent
CLC TS52, China A
Preface
Beat leather tanning process of qualitative change in cut off the left ear of the slain,
the type of tanning leather Lizi decision of the mechanical and physical properties and
styles. Chrome tanning tanning excellent, easy to operate, less harmful to the
environment, which for years has been hit leather Qionglai brought the most main
tanning agent. In recent years, Lai Mountain, taking into account the chrome tanning
agent impact on the environment and leather products with the end consumer of the
prettiest of its Chrome request, the trend to replace chrome tanning after, but so far
only commensurate, also find a tanning light of the comprehensive and chrome
tanning agents can match. After the experts said, chrome tanning agents did not brook
with at least 50 years can not be replaced. normal chrome tanning process beat the
retention capacity cut off the left ear of the slain, with concentrated sulfuric acid
conditions summer, with industrial consumption of sugar glucose or sodium
dichromate reduction (commonly known as dichromate), prepared by alkaline
chromium sulfate, bone Thailand, glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and acid after
the machine.
Some perfumery, pharmaceutical and chemical waste water containing high
concentrations of waste after the machine after the acid, in particular, hit a number of
high strength wastewater (COD up to tens or even hundreds of thousands of mg / L),
has been hit a pair of waste water treatment problem. keep a perfume factory
production wastewater (wastewater with high concentrations of formic acid and
sodium water) and high COD content, including formic acid with pH 4 water use fear,
are acid-type high concentration water after the machine, in addition to the type of
waste water also contains post- few have a small amount of aldehyde and other
post-machine materials. those who waste water pollution fertilizer, with the general
wastewater treatment method difficult to use treatment, but the use products that save
water for preparation of chrome tanning agent commensurate material, pot has not
been studied. In this study, perfumery of formic acid and sodium wastewater effluent,
as part of the reducing agent commensurate with the masked agent, keep producing
chrome tanning agent, on the one hand the use of waste, on the other hand guise of
environmental pollution, can reduce the production cost of chrome tanning agents
exist.
1 test
1.1 Lord brought equipment
101-3 type drying Shanghai Experimental Instrument Factory
HH.S21-4 Electric heated water bath scientific instrument factory in Beijing on
Adjustable million electric furnace electric furnace manufacturer Longkou City,
Shandong Province
JB50-D-based growth model for power plant specimens electric mixer Shanghai
85-2 constant temperature magnetic stirrer after Guohua Electric Limited
DJD-350 five-cylinder corrosion tanning machine equipment factory in Wuxi County
QBH-10-based portable Gauge Yuyao, Zhejiang Light Industry Machinery Factory
pH211 type pH meter means fertilizer Li Hana Instruments
DZF-6021 vacuum drying device, Ltd Shanghai Jing Hong
XL-250A-type tensile testing machine testing instrument factory in Guangzhou
Standard reflux device
1.2 Main reagents and materials brought
Potassium dichromate, sodium oxide pot, nickel sulfate, potassium iodide, sodium
thiosulfate, methylene chloride, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, glucose,
soluble starch, analytically pure; glycerol, acid protease, industrial grade; goods
chromium powder, Zhejiang Brothers; New Zealand pickled sheep skin.
1.3 Test content
Composition of the waste water into a good analysis, prepared by no chrome tanning
agent with the program, on the chrome tanning agent performance into a good
analysis of screening programs take reasonable water use.
1.3.1 Waste composition analysis
1.3.1.1 formic acid, sodium content analysis
Formic acid: The acid-base titration into the good with the determination.
Sodium content: first replacement grams of sulfuric acid, Hangzhou which moving
company is good, and then distilled, and then acid-base titration.
1.3.1.2 COD value analysis
Acid waste water, sodium wastewater COD values in the national regulations
potassium dichromate method [3] into a good determination.
1.3.1.3 Hexenal Content
Take 20mL water, adding sodium hydroxide, sodium formate with formic acid into a
distillation pot was steaming away no process to collect between 40 ~ 50 ℃ fraction
[4].
13.2 Preparation of chrome tanning agents
Weigh 20g potassium dichromate, dissolved with 20mL of water, joined with the three
after the condenser flask, then add sulfuric acid, mix well. And then with a blind
stirring conditions, formic acid was added dropwise a mixture of water and glucose,
the reaction to maintain with boiling state, until the hexavalent chromium salt was
completely reduced to trivalent chromium commensurate reaction with starch iodide
end point detection method into a good, basic reaction is completed, adding formic
acid waste water, sodium wastewater, masked an increase of tanning agent, Fang
Chen 36h , dried, ground into powder.
1.3.2.1 formic acid water reducing agent instead of glucose as part of
After formic acid with a strong reduction of, also masked after a good role in waste
water with formic acid instead of glucose, with no preparation with the proportion of
chrome tanning agent, choose to go with the best option.
1.3.2.2 formic acid waste water, waste water as masked agent sodium formate
Sodium role after a good masked until the hexavalent chromium salt was completely
reduced to trivalent chromium commensurate adding no amount of formic acid with
water, sodium wastewater, so that no post-tanning agent with the same masked, eg
Table 1.
1.3.3 Physical and chemical properties of tanning agents
1.3.3.1 Determination of water content
Weighing bottle washed first with 105 ℃ drying oven to constant weight. Weigh the
program in accordance with 1.3 .2 tanning agent prepared the 1g, accurate to 0 001g,
with 105 ℃ drying 5h, take g placed in a desiccator cooling 30min, weighing. every
complex bake 1h, cooling 30min, weighing 1, up to 2 mass difference before and after
the no super-Guo sample quality 01%, which is commensurate constant weight. but
the overall drying time no exceed Guo 8h.
1.3.3.2 solubility, pH value, Cr2O3 content and alkalinity determination with
reference to good industry standards into a good determination of [5].
1.3.3.3 tanning agents precipitation pH value determination
With analytical balance weigh about 2g chrome tanning agent (accurate to 0 001g,
and to the Cr2O3 content of the samples the same), were used 150mLCr2O3 chrome
content of the same solution, with 25 ℃ water bath in the standing 3h, respectively,
chrome draw 10mL solution in 10 pairs of 50mL test tube, the successive increase in
the quantity of sodium hydroxide, plus finished, a small amount of distilled water to
make it the same size, cover plug, shaking. standing Guo Mountain night, the next
morning to observe the precipitation situation, acidity Measurement of the least
amount of added sodium hydroxide and is precipitated in a test tube outside the
chromium solution pH.
Tanning Test 1.3.4
1.3.4.1 chrome tanning process
Pickling with New Zealand made sheep skin tanning, a comparison of the various
programs and the preparation of chrome tanning products tanning effect of chromium
powder, chromium tanning process in Table 2.
1 3.4.2 tanning and chromium content in waste water absorption rate of Cr2O3
Taken outside after tanning chromium waste liquid Guo filter, with pipet take 5mL
liquid in the conical flask, with a pot on the waste sodium oxide solution in the Cr2O3
content of chromium into the well of the determination of chromium calculated
according to Xia absorption rate:
A = (BtC-RtD) / (BtC) t100%
Type in: AmCr2O3 absorption rate (%), Bm tanning tanning agent when the amount
(g), Cm tanning agents in the Cr2O3 content (%), Rm waste volume (L), Dm Cr2O3
content of liquid waste (g / L) .1 3.4.3 Performance of wet blue leather sensory
evaluation
With the preparation of chrome tanning and chrome tanning products tanning tests
were done to compare the sensory properties of tanning, including color, grain and
meticulous nature, fullness and thickening.
Softened with the thickness measured after the pickling and washing away skin drum
with a wet blue leather thickness, measured along the spine line three parts, records,
calculate thickening.
Thickening (%)=( b-b0) / b0t100%
Type in: bm thickness of chrome leather after
b0m skin thickness after pickling
1.3.4.4 wet blue leather shrinkage temperature and mechanical properties
determination
Wet blue leather shrinkage temperature and the tear strength and tensile strength
measured by standard methods into a good [7].
2 Results and discussion
2.1 formic acid (sodium) Waste composition analysis
Acid waste water, sodium wastewater COD values are very high, also hit a post that
its strong reducing power; acid waste water acidity is fat, with the general treatment
of the treated material deposit a certain difficulty; Wastewater Components of a single,
and with no other toxic substances after the direct discharge of off beat a waste; acid
waste water, waste water containing sodium formate after the very small amount of
cyclohexene aldehyde impurities, after the irritating smell, but the existence of
chromium powder production to go after the band dissolved only when, after only a
slight odor, tanning basic tasteless, when used with the development process, no need
to consider which questions in Table 3.
2.2 Preparation of chrome tanning agents and the cost
5 # 90% of the acid waste water instead of glucose as a reducing agent stored in the
chrome tanning agent produced to go with is still hard to use to restore completely
within 24h, the time to consider the whole of the process no longer appropriate Guo
Mountain, the use of discarded 5 # program. Other programs from the reaction speeds
point of view, it can hit good. From the volume of liquid preparation of chromium
depends on perspective, instead of part of the glucose with formic acid water, no lines
to increase water content of chromium solution, that is no line to increase the cost of
spray drying, powder found chromium deposit brought production requirements
(generally corresponding to 4 ~ 5L 1kg chromium dichromate solution), from the cost
of preparation of chrome tanning agent depends on perspective, keep production 1t
chromium powder, complete with a glucose reduction, need to bring the costs: 2000
yuan / tt0 1t = 200 (1t chromium powder Xuyong 0 1t glucose), in accordance with
the 2 #, 3 #, 4 #, process, deposit production per ton of chromium powder can save
200 t0 55 = 110 元. Table 4.
2.3 Physical and chemical properties of tanning agents
(1) tanning agent solubility, Cr2O3 content, pH, alkalinity
3 #, 4 #, the solubility of chromium powder with goods rather; 1 #, 2 # solubility
somewhat less likely to beat drying of doubt, if the use of spray drying, the solubility
of chromium powder was side should take questions. Chromium Powder moisture
content and Cr2O3 content in line with good industry standards [2]. Table 5.
(2) the precipitation of chrome tanning agent pH value of 1 #, 2 #, 3 #, 4 #, the
precipitation pH values higher than the commodity chrome powder, indicating the
preparation of chrome tanning chrome powder products after more than a better alkali
resistance . Table 5.
(3) pH titration curves
The stability of chrome tanning liquid alkali tanning solution to measure the
performance hit the merits of a pair of heavy brought indicator. Potentiometric
titration of chromium complexes hit alkali hydrolysis and stability of the common
methods. Started tanning solution to increase base time, OH-ready solution with off
part of H +, then the solution pH value increased rapidly, but when H + concentration
decreased to a certain value, the chromium complex began hydrolysis, pH values
tended to be stable up phase, continue to increase alkaline, pH value changes of no
fertilizer. with the preparation of chrome tanning wastewater potentiometric titration
curves, were higher than the commodity chrome powder. It shows that: the most
likely hydrolysis product of chromium powder with formic acid waste water, waste
water for reducing sodium agents and masked prepared on tanning agent, alkali
stability are the same, after no improvement in the level. from the tanning solution
titration curve, the amount of sodium hydroxide added value relationship with DpH
known: water with formic acid, sodium wastewater production of chrome tanning
agents kept the latter more masked sex, and the hydrolysis process with accumulation
results more commensurate slow to penetrate faster and more uniform, provide a more
secure base cut off the left ear of the slain way.
Tanning Test 2.4
2.4.1 Waste Water absorption rate of Cr2O3 content of chromium
1 #, 3 #, 4 #, the absorption rate of chromium powder with the goods equal to 2 #
commensurate 55% formic acid instead of glucose for water and acid water reducing
agent, sodium wastewater as masked agent of the program, some of its poor
absorption rate of chromium . Table 6.
2.4.2 Sensory properties of wet blue leather and the physical and mechanical
properties
Prepared by the acid waste chrome tanning powder blue color of wet leather, chrome
powder than a little short of goods, but the thickening rate is slightly lower, slightly
flat thin leather shrinkage temperature is high, reached 110 ℃. From the mechanical
performance see, with the use of commodity chrome powder tanning obtained wet
blue leather than the acid waste water preparation of chromium powder tanned wet
blue leather of the mechanical properties, are after the no same level of increase, of
which 3 # (formic acid waste water instead of 55% glucose formic acid as reducing
agent and water, sodium wastewater as masked agents) the best mechanical properties.
Tong Guo 2 #, 3 #, 4 #, comparison can see, the appropriate amount of additional
sodium water can be used enhance the mechanical properties of leather. see Table 7.
3 Conclusion
(1) formic acid waste water, waste water components are relatively single sodium
formate, and possessed strong reducing and after the masked nature of glucose instead
of part of its preparation with a chrome tanning agent, hit a good kind of wastewater
treatment method.
(2) from waste water instead of part of glucose as a reducing agent and masked
preparation of chrome tanning agent, its physical and chemical properties meet the
demand brought chromium powder technology. Precipitation pH, and potentiometric
titration curves show that: compared with the commodity chrome powder, The
preparation of chrome tanning method after the better alkali resistance, provide a
more secure base. tanned leather of all kinds of performance analysis shows that: from
the preparation of chrome tanning tanned wet blue leather, fertilizer and better
mechanical properties after some , and shrinkage temperature were higher.
(3) compare Preparation of chrome tanning agent, a 3 # (formic acid 55% water
instead of glucose as a reducing agent, formic acid, water, sodium wastewater as
masked agents) chrome tanned leather tanning agents, chromium absorption rate and
wet blue leather sensory properties, good mechanical properties, also the highest
volume of treated wastewater. In short, instead of part of the glucose preparation of
such waste chrome tanning agent, a post-economic and environmental benefits.
References:
[1] Ding, Liang Hengguo. After the machine high concentration wastewater treatment
[J]. Construction Technology, 2004 (14) :50-51
[2] East China University of Chemical Fertilizer Science Teaching and Research
Group, Chengdu Science and Technology Teaching and Research Group of chemical
fertilizer analysis. Analytical Chemistry [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Publishing
House ,1995:85-89 outside
[3] Environmental Protection Agency of China. Water and Wastewater Monitoring
Analysis Method [M]. Beijing: China Environmental Science Publishing
House ,1989:354-357 outside
[4] ZHANG Yu-Fan, Cao Yurong, Feng Xiao, et al. After the plane Chemistry [M].
Tianjin: Nankai University Press of fat you walk ,1999:46-49
[5] a good light with the industry standard .QB/T2413-98 leather tanning agent
powder [S]
[6] Cheng Bao-zhen, Zhang Jean, Wen-Qiang Jiang, et al. High basicity of chrome
tanning agents [J]. China Leather, 2001 (19) :35-38
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