Important Figures in Chapters 1-5 Heinrich Schliemann – German archaeologist who identified the site of Hissarlik, Turkey as Troy of the Illiad. Charles Darwin – 1859 – “Origin of Species” John Frere - (1740–1807) was an English antiquary and a pioneering discoverer of Old Stone Age or Palaeolithic tools in association with large extinct animals at Hoxne, Suffolk in 1797. John Lubbock – Utilizing the work of Charles Lyell, in 1865, Lubbock took Thomsen’s Three Age System and redefined the stone age into the Neolithic and the Paleolithic, where the Neolithic (New Stone Age) is characterized by polished stone tools, and the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) is characterized by human occupation in association with extinct animals. Ian Hodder – lead proponent of Post-processual archaeology V. Gordon Childe – recognized patterning in archaeological collections in Europe…proposed the occurrence of two worldwide societal revolutions. (Technology changes through time and you can describe process of cultural evolution.). 1) Neolithic revolution – led to the emergence of settled villages and agriculture; 2) Urban revolution - led to the appearance of cities and complex forms of government. Lewis Binford – lead proponent of New archaeology Sir Flinders Petrie – pioneered the methods of stratigraphic excavation and seriation in the development of culture histories through formalized schemes that classified sites into culture groups. Julian Steward – anthropologist in the 1940s who argued for multilinear cultural evolution wherein, cultures develop on many courses and at different rates not just on one universal track. Steward added the environment as a cause for cultural change – Cultural ecology – three principles: 1) Similar adaptations may be found in different cultures in similar environments. 2) No Culture has ever achieved an adaptation to its environment that has remained unchanged over any length of time. 3) Differences and changes during periods of cultural development in any area can either add to societal complexity or result in completely new cultural patterns. Walter Taylor – archaeologist who, in 1948, wrote A Study of Archaeology, a devastating critique of American archaeologists’ preoccupation with chronology. Taylor called for shifting emphasis from chronological sequences and distributions to detailed, multi-level studies of individual sites and their features, such as cultural layers, floors and hearths. This approach brought together all possible sources of evidence on a site— technology, style, ecological evidence, architecture, and information on social life—to focus on the people who lived at the site and on the changes in their culture. Studying the people meant seeing the artifacts in context as products of the entire cultural system…a anthropological archaeology as opposed to Childe who focused attention purely on artifacts. Abbe Henri Breuil - He is generally known for his work on cave art, and was widely regarded as an expert on the subject during his lifetime, often being one of the first to investigate new sites, such as Lascaux Cave. Giovanni Belzaoni - sometimes known as The Great Belzoni (1778 -1823) was a prolific Italian explorer of Egyptian antiquities. He also pushed his investigations into the great temple of Edfu, visited Elephantine and Philae, cleared the great temple at Abu Simbel of sand (1817), made excavations at Karnak, and opened up the sepulchre of Seti I (still sometimes known as "Belzoni's Tomb"). He was the first to penetrate into the second pyramid of Giza, and the first European in modern times to visit the oasis of Bahariya. He also identified the ruins of Berenice on the Red Sea. Gustav Kossinna – used a culture history approach to reinforce German nationalism, and his work became central to the ideology of Nazi Germany. Pere Jean Lamarck - Lamarck's contribution to evolutionary theory consisted of the first truly cohesive theory of evolution, in which an alchemical complexifying force drove organisms up a ladder of complexity, and a second environmental force adapted them to local environments through "use and disuse" of characteristics, differentiating them from other organisms. Gregor Mendel - (1822–1884) was an Austrian Augustinian priest and scientist often called the "father of modern genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that the inheritance of traits follows particular laws, which were later named after him. Jean Courtin – born in 1937, Courtin is a prehistoric archaeologist in France known for his work with the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods, specifically, a cave in France, that shows occupation from the Upper Paleolithic to the end of the Neolithic period, where there exists evidence of cannibalism. Gabriel de Mortillet – (1821-1898) French archaeologist who formulated the first chronological classification of the epochs of man's prehistoric cultural development. His ordering of the Paleolithic (Stone Age) epochs into Chellean, Acheulian, Mousterian, Solutrean, Magdalenian, and so on, continued into the 20th century as the basis for anthropological… Raymond Dart – the first person to identify the remains of Australopithecine. Convinced that they had made tools out of fractured pieces of bone, thus depicting these creatures as savage hunters. In the 1970s, his theories on Australopithecine hunters were debunked due to the understanding of taphonomy of the locations where the bone “tool” were found. Eugene Dubois – believed that there was early fossil evidence to be found in Asia. He was the first to discover and name fossils belonging to Homo erectus in Trinil, Java, Indonesian in 1891. Donal Johanson – Johanson was among the team who first discovered the 40% complete skeleton of the australopithecine, “Lucy” in 1974. Lewis and Mary Leakey – the researchers responsible for the majority of the work done in the Olduvai Gorge region in Africa. They have exposed countless fossils in the time that they have worked in this area.
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