Sustainable Development Indicators for Island Taiwan

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					  Sustainable Development
Indicators for Island Taiwan


            Jiunn-Rong Yeh
 Professor of Law, National Taiwan University
www.law.ntu.edu.tw/sustain

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Jiunn-Rong Yeh
  Professor of Law, National Taiwan University
Shang-Lien       Lo
  Professor of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University
Ling-Ling     Lee
  Professor of Zoology, National Taiwan University
Jin-Tan    Liu
  Professor of Economics, National Taiwan University
Chin-Shou Wang
  Professor of Sociology, National Tsing-Hua University
Shu-Li    Huang
  Professor of Urban Planning, National Taipei University
Hui-Min Tsai
   Professor of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal
   University
Wen-Chen       Shih
   Professor of Environmental Policy, National Dong-Hwa University     3
                             Sustainable Development Indicators for Taiwan
                                                                                                                           Sustainable Development Indicators
                                                                                                                                       for Taiwan


                                                                                                                      Island Taiwan                                                                                                                                            Urban Taiwan


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   S-P-R
                                        State                                                                                       Pressure                                                                       Response

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Production
Environmental pollution                          Ecological resources                                  Social                                             Economic                                           Institutional response

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Per Capita urban productivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ratio of service industry to urban
A. Air                                          A. Land use                                   A. Environmental alienation                          A. Type of consumption                                   A. Allocation of Government Expenditure                              productivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Urban productivity growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Self-reliance on local expenditure
         SPA1 Amount of CO2 emission                   SRA1 Ratio of areas depleted                  PSA1 Consumption of plants as medicine               PEA1 Family water consumption per capita                 RA1 Ratio of the environmental budget to the
         SPA2 pH value of acid rain                       of natural resources                          or spice                                          PEA2 Family electric consumption per capita                total budget
         SPA3 Ratio of days with PSI < 100             SRA2 Ratio of natural coastal length          PSA2 Betel nut consumption index                     PEA3 Cement consumption per capita                       RA2 R&D expenditure for the Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Living
         SPA4 Noise index                                                                            PSA3 Consumption value of leather product            PEA4 Wood consumption per capita                         RA3 Growth rate of financial measures taken as
                                                                                                     PSA4 Amount of waste produced per                    PEA5 Average housing price /annual family                    economic incentives for "green industries"
                                                B. Biological resources                                 person per day                                       income ratio                                                                                                        Ratio of urban area
B. Water                                                                                             PSA5 Density of automobiles                          PEA6 Computer per family                                                                                               Increase rate of urban area
                                                                                                     PSA6 Environmental miserable index                                                                     B. Organization and Policies                                         Car ownership
                                                       SRB1 Ratio of healthy forest                                                                                                                                                                                              Motor bicycle ownership
         SPB1 Light-polluted rivers and                SRB2 Ratio of healthy arable land
                                                                                                                                                   B. Structure of industries                                                                                                    Efficiency of public transit
            streams percentage                         SRB3 Fisheries yield per unit effort
                                                                                              B. Friction of space                                                                                                 RB1 Ratio of female officials in the environmental            Metropolitan population density
         SPB2 Reservoir quality index                                                                                                                                                                                agencies                                                    Ratio of urban population
         SPB3 Coastal areas quality                                                                                                                       PEB1 Consumption of pesticide/agricultural               RB2 Domestic legislation reflecting international             Per capita residential floor area
         SPB4 Groundwater quality index         C. Biodiversity                                      PSB1 Population density                                 production value ratio                                  environmental treaties                                      Metropolitan air pollution
         SPB5 Drinking-water qualified                                                               PSB2 Estimated amount of medical waste               PEB2 Consumption of water on agriculture/                RB3 Percentage of cases being rejected in the EIA             Metropolitan noise pollution
            percentage                                                                               PSB3 Area of betel nut plantation                       agricultural production value ratio                     reviewing process                                           Urban slum
                                                       SRC1 Ratio of protected area                  PSB4 Total area of non-urban land over 10            PEB3 Consumption of water in industry/                                                                                 Ratio of public facility area
                                                                                                          hectares being developed or converted               industrial production value ratio                                                                                  Park area per person
C. Land                                                                                                                                                   PEB4 Production value and export value of hog     C. Specific Policies
                                                D. Soil & Water                                                                                           PEB5 Import and export value of coastal fishy、
                                                                                              C. Social anomie                                                 production value of aquaculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Environment
         SPC1 Soil quality                                                                                                                                PEB6 GDP of manufacturing                                RC1 Percentage of actual utilization of industrial
         SPC2 Unwell-treatment of industrial           SRD1 Degree of erosion                                                                             PEB7 Production value of polluting industries              parks
            waste                                      SRD2 Supply of water resources                PSC1 Rate of casualty caused by traffic              PEB8 Production value of environment protection          RC2 The extent to which water price reflects the              Green coverage ratio
         SPC3 Solid waste recycling and reuse                                                           incidence per 100,000 persons                        industries                                              actual costs                                                Metropolitan agricultural area
         SPC4 Generation of low-level                                                                PSC2 Rate of drop out in secondary schools           PEB9 GDP of service industries as percentage             RC3 Percentage of installation of sewage systems              Ratio of polluted stream length
            radioactive wastes                                                                       PSC3 Rate of crime per 100,000 persons                  of GDP                                                RC4 Percentage of utilization of fishing ports                ﹪of CO2 emission
                                                                                                     PSC4 Rate of divorcement                             PEB10 Labor productivity index of manufacturing          RC5 Number of regulated chemicals                             Construction waste
                                                                                                     PSC5 Mother miserable index                                                                                                                                                 Ratio of accessible water front
                                                                                                     PSC6 Number of accepted pollution complains                                                                                                                                 ﹪of waste water treated
                                                                                                     PSC7 Number of anti-pollution protests
                                                                                                                                                   C. Environment and Energy Consumption                    D. Information and Participation                                     ﹪of public expenditure on environment
                                                                                                     PSC8 Rate of laborer disputes                                                                                                                                                protection
                                                                                                     PSC9 Rate of penalization against polluted                                                                                                                                  Frequency of environmental education
                                                                                                        factories                                         PEC1 Amount of nuclear power generation                  RD1 Popularity of Eco-Labeling                                 activity
                                                                                                                                                          PEC2 Amount of thermal generation                        RD2 Number of non-government organizations                    No. of environmental NGO
                                                                                                                                                          PEC3 Energy usage efficiency                               (NGOs)
                                                                                              D. Time compression                                         PEC4 Energy consumption per person                       RD3 Institutional capacity of local environmental
                                                                                                                                                          PEC5 Number of factories per km2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     agencies
                                                                                                                                                          PEC6 Number of personal vehicles registered
                                                                                                     PSD1 Turnover rate of stock market
                                                                                                     PDS2 Number of illegal highway shoulder
                                                                                                                                                          PEC7 Number of domestic flights
                                                                                                                                                          PEC8 Length of highways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ﹪of natural hazard area occupied by
                                                                                                        driving                                           PEC9 Rate of regenerative energy                                                                                       urban use
                                                                                                     PSD3 Children environmental right index                                                                                                                                     No. of death due to urban hazard
                                                                                                     PSD4 Cancer clock
                         Scenario B

Scenario A
                                              Scenario C


                Business As Usual




        Not Towards SD           Towards SD



                                Taiwan 2000
                                                      5
Developing Sustainable Development
    Indicators for Island Taiwan
    Institutional
                               Extended PSR System
  Capacity-building

     In Reference             Incorporating Taiwan’s
  to UN Framework                Salient Features

  Goal and Functions           Criteria for Selection


      Process                     Demonstration

                 Interpretation and
                Policy Incorporation                    6
   General                   Taiwan’s
 Construction                 Salient
    of SD                    Features



  Institutional
                                PSR
Capacity-Building
     for SD                  Framework


             SD Indicators
                  for
                Taiwan
                                         7
    Beyond Definition: Four Conceptional
    Models for Sustainable Development
• Intergenerational Justice Model (Brundtland Report):
  development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
  future generations to meet their own needs

• Carrying Capacity Model (IUCN): improving the quality of life
  while staying within the carrying capacity of supporting system

• Economic Internalization Model (D. Pearce): a
  maximization of the net benefits of economic development, subject to maintaining the
  services and quality of natural resources over time, where economic development is
  broadly construed to include all elements of social welfare

• Institutional Capacity-building Model (J. Yeh, and
  others): the dynamics of social capacity building, through which the ex post regret of
  collective decisions can be minimized.

                                                                                           8
                                 Sustainable Taiwan


                 Probability


                   Capacity building



Indigenization                             Internationalization

                       Process




                                 Taiwan 2000
                                                            9
 Institutional Capacity-building


Policy, Behavior, and the Environment

Capacity, Institution and Performance

Risk, Learning, and Minimization


                                    10
Institutional Capacity-building

   Probability
   Capability
   Empowerment
   Processes
   Values

                                  11
 Taiwan as a Showcase to
 Sustainable Development

Island Status
Transitional Society and Profound
 Change
Multidimensional Interactions
Regional and International Status

                                 12
Five Stages of Development in Taiwan: 1945-
Year Stages               Events               Dominance

1945 Decolonization and   End of Japanese      Political
     Rehabilitation       Occupation
1949 National Recovery    The Nationalists     Political
     and Mobilization     Moved to Taiwan
1971 Economic             ROC Lost UN          Political and
     Development          Membership           Economical
1986 Democratization      Lifting of Martial   Political,
     and Pragmatism       Law Decree           Economical
                          DPP Formed           and
                                               Environmental
1992 Regional             Rhino Horn           Political,
     Identification and   Incident             Economical
     Internationalization                      and Envtl with
                                               Intl Interaction
                                                            13
Paradigmatic Change and Taiwan’s Development Path


                               Sustainable Development



                        Environmental Awareness



             Inner-renewal Development



   Instrumentalism: Milk Cow

                                                     14
    Island Characteristics (1)

Insularity and Interconnectedness
  Physical, biological and cultural insularity
  Scarce natural resources
  Colonial legacy
  High population density and pressure in spatial
   allocation
  Trade dependent economy

                                               15
      Island Characteristics (2)

Vulnerability and Fast Changing
    Natural disaster prone ecology
    Environmentally sensitive areas
    High turn over rate
    Constant changing society
    Transitional society
    Vulnerable to external influence
    Struggling for identity

                                        16
Criteria in evaluating sustainability
under institutional capacity-building

               Facts    Information   Participatory
   Truth
                                       Consensus

              Science   Democracy
Phenomenon                            Representation
                Sustainable
                Development
 Scarcity                             Due Process
              Economy   Rule of Law

 Efficiency   Market      Dignity        Justice

                                                   17
Dynamics of an Extended PSR System
                State
            Environment &
              Resources

               Pressure
           Social Structure&
          Economic Activities

              Response
      Institutional Environment &
      Implementation Mechanism
                                    18
Water As An Example
           State
  Water Quantity/Quality

          Pressure
        Ratio of High
 Water Dependency Industries

          Response
  Water Price reflecting
      actual costs
                               19
 Goal and Functions


Policy Warning

Policy Reflection

Policy Guidance


                      20
Criteria for Selecting Indicators


 Representation

 Feasibility




                                    21
            Process

Against Random Selection

Deliberation

Affiliation And Empowerment

Revision
                               22
         Demonstration

Weighting, Rating and Overall Grading
  Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP
  Comparative Standardization
Dimensional and Signaling



                                     23
      Interpretation

Collective Interpretation

Warnings and Suggestions




                             24
Sustainable Development Indicators and
           Decision-making

 National Sustainable Development Council
  and Incorporation of Suggestions
 Mandatory Reference in Relevant
  Administrative, Legislative and Judicial
  Actions
 Constitutional Mandate

                                             25
 Assessment of Sustainable Development
               of Taiwan
    -Environmental State Indicators


Shang-Lien Lo , Shiow-Mey Liou, Yu-Yun Lin

 Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering
           National Taiwan University
               Introduction

 The environmental index of Taiwan has been
  proceeding by EPA for many years.
 The most widely used are PSI, RPI, CTSI, etc.
 It was also monitoring the quality of environment
  state, such as noise, solid waste treatment, and
  drinking water quality.
 Since each index is not comprehensive enough,
  the whole scheme of assessment system should be
  constructed to connect the correlation between
  indicators and assess the sustainability of national
  development.                                    27
   The assessment of environmental quality has been
    faced the problem of integrating information while
    in comprehensive assessment, because it cannot be
    accomplished by individual indicators.
   The development of information aggregating could
    be led the assessment in a big progress.
   In this research, the assessment of sustainable
    development was proceeding with transferring the
    raw data into sub-indices ( quality value ),
    classifying each category objectively, and
    eventually developing a systematic framework of
    index assessment.                           28
       Developing Process of Indicators

    In the first year, the primary system of indicators has
    been completed, based on the earlier researches, and the
    conceptions of residuals, material or energy “left over”
    from the various consumptive and productive activities.
   The environmental quality was divided into 9 categories:
    climate change, air quality, acid rain, freshwater quality,
    coastal areas quality, soil quality, solid waste
    management, noise, and nuclear waste.
   Then 20 domestic experts and scholars were invited to
    provide their suggestions of indicators (parameters and
    items were included) and these categories.
                                                         29
   In the second year, the meaning and availability
    of indicators have been reviewed.
   The completeness of data, availability, indicator
    correlation, and the possibility of indicator
    combination were taken into consideration.
   Finally, the system was combined into 3
    categories: atmosphere quality, water quality,
    and land quality, and the indicators were
    revised from 19 to 13.
                                                  30
    Table 1. The amendment and modification
        of environmental state categories

                         Stage 1                                 Stage 2
Climate change                     Combine                  Atmosphere quality
Air quality
Acid rain                   Noise merged into air quality
Freshwater quality                 Combine                    Water quality
Coastal area quality
Soil quality
                                                               Land quality
Solid waste management             Combine
Nuclear waste
Noise


                                                                              31
    Table 2. The amendment and modification of
         environmental state indicators (1)

         Stage 1                       Stage 2                     Stage 3
Concentration of             Climate change              The emission amount of
greenhouse gases                                         CO2
Climate change
                             Ratio of days with PSI under Percentage of days with
Ratio of days with PSI
                             100                          PSI under 100
over 100
Air quality
Acid rain                    Acid rain                   Acid rain
Light-polluted streams       Unpolluted streams          Light-polluted streams
percentage                   percentage                  percentage
Major rivers quality index
Drinking water failed        Drinking water qualified    Drinking water qualified
percentage                   percentage                  percentage
Reservoir quality            Reservoir quality           Reservoir quality
Groundwater quality          Cancel                      Groundwater quality32
    Table 2. The amendment and modification of
         environmental state indicators (2)

          Stage 1                      Stage 2                     Stage 3
Coastal areas quality       Coastal areas quality
Concentration of heavy      Concentration of heavy        Coastal areas quality
metal in the coastal sludge metal in the coastal sludge
Soil degeneration           Soil heavy metal              Soil quality
Soil heavy metal
Generation of solid waste   Generation of solid waste     Amount of
                                                          unwell-treatment
Ratio of well-treatment                                   industrial waste
solid waste
Solid waste recycling and   Solid waste recycling and     Solid waste recycling and
reuse                       reuse                         reuse
Noise                       Noise                         Environmental noise
Nuclear waste               Growth rate of low-level      Growth rate of low-level
management                  radioactive waste             radioactive waste
   The rational and the information gathering
    results of indicators have been examined and
    revised in the third year. The coordination of
    indicators and categories were built.
   Moreover after seeking the recognition of
    officials, experts and publics, the calculation
    of the individual indicators was studied.


                                                      34
      Figure 1. The causality of environmental
               state indicators system
                                                            Traffic
                                                                               _              Noise
                                                             Flow
                         Atmosphere                               +                          Qualified
                                                                          Percentage of
                           Quality                                        days with PSI
                                                                                            Percentage




                                                                 +
                                    Electricity/             +             under 100
                                                                                            +
                                      Energy        +          CO2                        Petrochemical
                                                             Emission          +             Industry
                                                              Amount




                                                                                                 +
                                                        +
                                                                                     +
                                                                      +
                                                                         Rain
                                                                      Acdification



                                                   Pollutant
                  River Pollution                  Industry
                                                                                                                               Resource
Water Quality                           +
                                                                                     Land Quality                      +       Recovery
                                                            +



     Domestic                                                                                                                   Amount
                                                        Groundwater                         Production/
                    +




     Wastewater                              +            Quality                              Life           Improper
                                                                                                          +
                   +




                                                                                                              treatment
                                             +




                                                                                                                                 Nuclear
                                                                                                      +       industrial       _
                                                                                                                                Electricity




                                                                                                 +
                                                                 +




           Reservior Eutrophy                                                                                   waste          +
                                                    +




                                                            Land Use in                          Soil                Nuclear Waste
                 +
                                                            Coastal Area                        Quality                Amount
     Drinking water          Coastal Area          +
        Qualified              Quality                                                                        +
      Percentage                                                              example¡G
                                                                              ¦a¤U¤ô«~½è Indicator                              35
                                                                                           Pressure Resource
    Method & Framework of Indicators

 Indicators information gathers from three
  sources:
1. Official data, such as Percentage of days with PSI
    under 100, Environmental noise qualified
    percentage.
2. Coordinate and aggregate the relativity of indicators,
    for example: Solid waste recycling and reuse, The
    area of soil polluted by heavy metal.
3. Others, assessment and integration of parameters,
    for example: Groundwater quality index, Costal
    areas quality.                                    36
  Table 3. The calculation feasibility(1)

  Category        State Indicators                         Calculation                   Grade
Atmosphere    SPA1 The emission           CO2 total emission amount / capita / year        A
quality             amount of CO2
              SPA2 Acid rain          Annual pH value average of rain in Taiwan           A
              SPA3 Percentage of days (Number of days with PSI<100 /annual total          A
                   with PSI under 100 monitoring days) *100%
              SPA4 Environmental noise(Noise monitoring qualified intervals/ total        A
                                      monitoring intervals)*100%
Water quality SPB1 Light-polluted     (Length of light polluted streams/ total            A
                   streams percentage monitoring length streams) *100%
              SPB2 Reservoir quality  (Numbers of reservoirs with Carlson trophic         A
                                      status index less than 50 /number of total
                                      monitoring reservoirs)*100%
                                         n

                                           
              SPB3 Coastal areas                                                          B
                    quality                (qualified percentage )   i
                                       i 1
                                                                       *100%
                                                         n
*Feasibility:A : Completed data, could be executed and analyzed.
             B : Uncompleted or poor quality data, still could be analyzed.
             C : No or few data record, could not be analyzed but it is indispensable.    37
   Table 3. The calculation feasibility(2)

 Category      State Indicators                              Calculation                   Grade
Water     SPB4 Groundwater quality         n                                                 B
quality                                   qualified
                                          (
                                          i 1
                                                             percentage)i

                                                                            *100%
                                                         n
            SPB5 Drinking water          (Times of qualified drinking water inspection      A
                  qualified percentage /annual times of drinking water inspection   )
                                         *100%
                                                                                      th
Land        SPC1 Soil quality            Area of soil polluted by heavy metal above 4       C
quality                                    grade /total investigated area
            SPC2 Amount of               (Amount of industrial waste - amount of            B
                  unwell-treatment       well-treatment industrial waste)
                  industrial waste
            SPC3 Solid waste recycling Audited and recognized recycling quantity            B
                  and reuse
            SPC4 Growth rate of          Growth rate of low-level radioactive solidified    A
                   low-level radioactive waste
                   wastes
*Feasibility:A : Completed data, could be executed and analyzed.
             B : Uncompleted or poor quality data, still could be analyzed.
             C : No or few data record, could not be analyzed but itis indispensable.        38
                                         Meaning present of indicators
                                             Atmosphere quality
                                   Percentage of days with PSI<100                                                                        Noise qualified percentage
                100                                                                                                     100
                                                                                                                        80
                         95
                                                                                                                        60
%




                                                                                                                 %
                         90
                                                                                                                        40
                         85
                                                                                                                        20
                         80                                                                          Year                0                                                                        Year
                              76   77    78    79    80    81   82   83   84   85   86    87    88                            79    80        81    82   83   84    85        86        87   88




                                   Carbon dioxide emission amount                                                                              pH value of acid rain
                         10                                                                                             5.30
Metric ton/capita/year




                          9
                                                                                                                        5.20
                          8
                                                                                                             pH value



                          7                                                                                             5.10
                          6
                                                                                                                        5.00
                          5
                                                                                                                        4.90
                          4
                          3                                                                                             4.80                                                                      Year
                                                                                                      Year
                              76    77    78        79    80    81   82   83   84    85    86        87                        81        82        83    84    85        86        87   39   88
   While environmental quality was paid much
    attention by publics, the government precedes the
    pollution control. As the result, the emphasis on
    pollution control was prior than prevention in
    Taiwan.
   Although PSI control and noise quantity retain
    sustainable, atmosphere quality could not
    maintain in an optimum state.
   Atmosphere quality stands in sustainable
    development, only when the pollution prevention
    is prior considered.                        40
              Water quality
               Light-polluted streams percentage                                    The percentage of Reservoir CTSI <50
    75                                                                100%

    70                                                                80%
%




                                                                      60%
    65
                                                                      40%
    60
                                                                      20%
    55                                                                    0%
                                                                                                                                Year
         76    78         80    82   84        86       88 Year                81     82        83   84   85        86   87     88


               Drinking water qualified percentage                                   Groundwater qualified percentage
    100                                                                100

     98                                                                   98

     96                                                                   96




                                                                      %
                                                                                                                                pH
%




     94                                                                   94
                                                                                                                                Chloride
     92                                                                   92                                                    Zn
     90                                                                   90                                                    As
          76    78        80    82   84        86      88 Year                 80          82        84        86         88 Year


               Coastal areas heavy mental
                  qualified percentage
    100                                                          Cu
     98                                                          Zn
     96                                                          Pb
%




     94                                                          Cd

     92                                                          Cr

     90
                                                                 Hg                                                      41
          85         86        87         88        89 Year
                            Land quality
                              Amount of unwell-treatment                                   Solid waste recycling and reuse
                                  Industrial Waste                                3.E+06                                        4.E+08
             22000
                                                                                                                                3.E+08
             20000                                                                2.E+06
                                                                                                                                3.E+08




                                                                                                                                           Kilogram
Metric ton




                                                                           Unit
             18000
                                                                                  2.E+06                                        2.E+08
             16000
                                                                                  1.E+06                                        2.E+08
             14000
                                                                                                                                1.E+08
             12000                                                                5.E+05
                                                                                                                                5.E+07
             10000
                                                                    Year          0.E+00                                        0.E+00
                      86                     87                   88
                                                                                                  87              88
                                                                                                               Recycling quantity (unit)
                                                                                                       Year
                           Growth rate of low-level radioative
                                                                                                               Recycling quantity (kilogram)
                                   solidified wastes
                40
                20
 Growth rate%




                 0
                -20
                -40
                -60
                                                                                                                                 42
                      77        79     81         83   85    87   Year
   Government investigated the inspection of heavy
    metal concentration in soils from 1983.
   The heavy metal polluted area above 4th grade
    was 39,953 hectare (ha.) and above 5th grade
    was 959 hectare from the record till 1997.
   One set of data was not enough to assess the
    whole developing tendency of soil quality
    indicator, soil pollution is still an acute problem.
    The soil pollution prevention should be
    proceeded as soon as possible.
                                                      43
Table 4. The meaning present from the indicators
Categories                    Indicator name                          Sustainability
           SPA1 The emission amount of CO2                                 ↓
           SPA2 Acid rain                                                  ↓
Atmosphere
           SPA3 Percentage of days with PSI under 100                      ↑
           SPA4 Environmental noise                                        ↑
           SPB1 Light-polluted streams percentage                          ↓
           SPB2 Reservoir quality                                           ↓
  Water      SPB3 Coastal areas quality                                     ↓
             SPB4 Groundwater quality                                       ※
             SPB5 Drinking water qualified percentage                       ↑
             SPC1 Soil quality                                              ※
             SPC2 Amount of unwell-treatment industrial waste               ↑
  Land
             SPC3 Solid waste recycling and reuse                           ↑
             SPC4 Growth rate of low-level radioactive wastes               ↑
Note                             「↑」go to sustainability;
       Sustainability inclination:                       「↓」go against sustainability
       「=」no change;      「※」insufficient data could not analyzed the sustainability.
                                                                             44
                    Conclusion
   The pollution prevention of atmosphere and water
    environments has not been developing. The public
    conceptual are staying at a restrict view, caused the
    limitation of pollution improvement. Moreover, the
    restrict view lead the sustainable development situation
    hardly.
   The government devoted to the establishment of foundation
    and legislation since 1997 which achieved a remarkable
    success on solid waste management. From the result of
    analytic data , Solid waste management (included Amount
    of unwell-treatment industrial waste and Solid waste
    recycling and reuse) has tended to sustainability. It could
    be concluded that the environmental policy takes effect on
    the quality of environment.                            45
Assessment of Sustainable Development
              of Taiwan
      - Resource State Indicators

Ling-Ling Lee, Kuo-Jing Wong, Yu-Chang Yang

          Department of Zoology
         National Taiwan University
         Guiding Principle

Sustainable use of renewable natural
 resources
  improving efficiency in the use of non-
   renewable resources
  re-using, recycling waste
Maintaining ecosystem Health
  Marine and coast, forest, agriculture
                                             47
Process of selecting indicators

International SDI model
  land use, forest, agriculture, fisheries and
   marine, water, biodiversity

Taiwan’s natural environment and
 resource state
Data feasibility

                                                  48
    Taiwan’s natural environment
         and resources state

Island → marine, coast, fisheries
Topography →land use, water, soil
Diverse habitat types → biological diversity
Natural disaster prone → forest, agriculture,
  ecologically sensitive areas


                                            49
               Data feasibility

Preliminary set of indicators:
  8 categories, 16 indicators, 33 variables
  examples of indicators with no or not enough
   data: underground water supply, polluted
   agricultural land, etc.
Final set of indicators:
  4 categories, 8 indicators, 14 variables

                                                  50
           Indicators of States
     Natural resources and ecosystems

 Category            Indicator                    Variables                   Data
                                                                           feasibility*
A. Land use SRA1.Ratio of areas       Total size of urban area                  A
                 depleted of
                 natural resources  Total size of industrial area
            SRA2.Ratio of natural   Total length of natural coastline           A
                 coastline          Total length of artificial
                                   construction along the coast
B.Biological SRB1.Ratio of healthy Total area of natural forest                 A
  resources       forest            Total area of artificaial plantation
                                    Total forest area affected by fire,
                                   pest , disease and illegal use
             SRB2.Ratio of healthy Total area of arable land                    A
                  arable land       Total arable area affected by pest,
                                   disease, natural catastrophe
                                                                                 51
          Indicators of States
    Natural resources and ecosystems

  Category            Indicator                  Variables              Data
                                                                     feasibility*
B.Biological SRB3.Fisheries yield per Total catch by fishing vessels      A
  resources         unit effort       larger than 50 tonnes
                                      Total number of netting by
                                      fishing vessels larger than 50
                                      tonnes
C.Biodiversity SRC1.Ratio of          Ratio of natural river banks        A
                    ecologically      Ratio of protected area
                    sensitive areas   (excluding reservoir protected
                                      area) to total land area
D.Water & Soil SRD1.Degree of erosion Degree of siltation of major        B
                                      rivers
               SRD2.Supply of water % reduction in total storage          A
                    resources         volume of reservoirs
                                                                            52
                                                                          Land Use

                                            Ratio of areas depleted
                                             of natural resources                                                               Ratio of natural coastline

                                     8.5%                                                                                 80%
Ratio of areas depleted of natural




                                     8.0%                                                                                 75%




                                                                                             Ratio of natural coastline
                                                                                                                          70%
                                     7.5%
                                                                                                                          65%
            resources




                                     7.0%
                                                                                                                          60%
                                     6.5%
                                                                                                                          55%
                                     6.0%                                                                                 50%
                                     5.5%                                                                                 45%

                                     5.0%                                                                                 40%
                                         1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997                                  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

                                                               Year                                                                                  Year




                                                                                                                                                                         53
                                               Biological Resources
                                                                                   55.0%
                                        Forest                                     54.8%
                                                                                   54.6%




                                                         Ratio of healthy forest
                                                                                   54.4%
                                                                                   54.2%
                                                                                   54.0%
                                                                                   53.8%
                                                                                   53.6%
                                                                                   53.4%
                                                                                   53.2%
                                                                                   53.0%
                                                                                       1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Agriculture                                                                                                            Year
                                                                                                                                                                                 Fisheries
                               30%                                                                                           0.35

                                                                                                                              0.3
Ratio of healthy arable land




                               27%
                                                                                                                             0.25
                                                                                                            CPUE(tonn/net)


                               24%                                                                                            0.2

                                                                                                                             0.15
                               21%
                                                                                                                              0.1
                               18%
                                                                                                                             0.05

                               15%                                                                                             0
                                 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997                                              1988   1989   1990   1991   1992   1993   1994    1995    54
                                                                                                                                                                                         1996   1997
                                                       Year                                                                                                    Year
  Ecologically Sensitive Area

160.0%

140.0%
120.0%                                                   Adjusted
100.0%                                                   ratio of
                                                         natural river
80.0%                                                    bank

60.0%                                                    Adjusted
                                                         ratio of
40.0%                                                    protected
                                                         area
20.0%
                                                         Summation
 0.0%

-20.0%
     1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
                           Year
                                                                         55
                                                                           Water and Soil

                                                       Reduction of
                                                     reservoir capacity                                                                                                      Siltation
                                      17.00%                                                                                                        1400
% reduction in total storage volume




                                                                                                                                                    1200




                                                                                                                  Siltation of major rivers (ppm)
                                      16.00%
                                                                                                                                                    1000
                                      15.00%
                                                                                                                                                    800

                                      14.00%                                                                                                        600

                                                                                                                                                    400
                                      13.00%
                                                                                                                                                    200

                                      12.00%                                                                                                          0
                                            1988   1989   1990   1991   1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997                                        1988   1989   1990   1991   1992   1993   1994   1995    1996   1997
                                                                           Year
                                                                                                                                                                                      Year




                                                                                                                                                                                                               56
                 Trends of indicators
  Category                        Indicator                  Trend Sustainability
                 SRA1.Ratio of areas depleted of natural      ↑          ↓
                      resources
A. Land use
                                                              ↓          ↓
                 SRA2.Ratio of natural coastline
                 SRB1.Ratio of healthy forest                 =          =
B. Biological    SRB2.ratio of healthy arable land            =          =
  resources
                                                              ↓          ↓
                 SRB3.Fisheries yield per unit effort

C. Biodiversity SRC1.Ratio of ecologically sensitive Areas    ↓          ↓

                 SRD1.Degree of erosion                       =          =
D.Water & Soil
                 SRD2.Supply of water resources               ↓          ↓
                                                                           57
               Conclusion

Most indicators showed trends of
 moving away from the sustainable
 direction
Future work
  revision of indicators
  integration of indicators
  linkage with policy
                                    58
   Sustainable Development
    Indicators for Taiwan
        -Economic Indicators-

                 Jin-Tan Liu
Professor of Economics, National Taiwan University

        Presented by Wen-Chen Shih
        Professor of Environmental Policy,
          National Dong-Hwa University
How do we develop indicators?


International SDI
Characteristics of Taiwan Economy
Relationship between Economy and
Environment & Ecology
Establish Economic Pressure
Indicators

                                60
                    International SDI
          US                        UK                Canada                         UN
‧Capital assets              ‧Gross domestic       ‧Total material         ‧GDP Per Capita
‧Labor productivity             production            product              ‧Net Investment share in
‧Federal debt to GDP ratio   ‧Economic structure   ‧Energy consumption       GDP
‧Energy consumption per      ‧Consumption             per capita           ‧Sum of exports and
  capita & of GDP               component of GDP   ‧Trade openness           imports as a percent of
‧Materials consumption per      & private saving      (Total Import&         GDP
  capita & per $ of GDP      ‧Consumption             Export as a          ‧Annual energy
                             ‧Inflation               percentage of GDP)     consumption
‧Inflation                                         ‧Labor productivity
‧Investment in R&D as a      ‧Employment rate                              ‧Share of natural- resource
  percentage of GDP          ‧Government loan &    ‧Inflation                intensive industries in
                                debts                                        manufacturing value-
‧Domestic product                                                            added
‧Income distribution         ‧Pollution                                    ‧Net resources transfer/
‧Consumption expenditures    ‧Infant mortality                               GDP
  per capita                 ‧Life expectancy                              ‧Total ODA given or
‧Unemployment                                                                received as a percentage
‧Percentage of households                                                    of GNP
  in problem housing                                                       ‧Capital goods imports
‧Homeownership rate                                                        ‧Foreign direct investment


                                                                                               61
    Characteristics of Taiwan
           Economy
 Developing with high GDP growth rate
 Export-orientation and long-term trade surplus
 Development of small- and medium-sized
  enterprises
 Star Industries
  (Textile, Petrochemical, Iron & Steel, and
  Electronics Industry)
 Resource-consuming type of industry
  (Hog Raising, Forestry, Petrochemical, Iron &
  Steel, and Cement Industry)
                                                   62
      Relationship between Economy
       and Environment & Ecology
 ‧Economic indicators analyze the influence of
   economic activities to environment & ecology.
 ‧Through these indicators we can realize the
   connection between them.
     State (Environment)           State (Ecology)             Pressure (Economy)
Atmosphere                                           Structure of Industries
SPA1 The emission amount of CO2                      PEB7 Production value of polluting   industry
SPA2 Acid Rain                                       Environment & Energy Consumption
SPA3 Percentage of days with PSI                     PEC2 Amount of thermal generation
     under 100                                       PEC3 Energy usage efficiency
                                                     PEC5 Number of factories per km2
                                                     PEC6 Number of personal vehicles registered
                                                     PEC9 Percentage of recycled energy


                                                                                          63
 State (Environment)                    State (Ecology)                   Pressure (Economy)
Water                             Land Use                            Structure of Industries
SPB3 Coastal areas quality        SRA2 Ratio of coastal length        PEB5 Import and export value of coastal
                                                                             fishy, Production value of
                                  Biological Resources                       aquaculture
                                  SRB3 Fisheries yield per unit
                                        effort

Land                              Land Use                            Type of Consumption
SPC1 Soil quality                 SRA1 Ratio of areas depleted of     PEA5 Average housing price/ annual
                                        natural resources                    family income ratio
                                  Biological Resources                Structure of Industries
                                  SRB2 Ratio of healthy arable land   PEB1 Ratio of pesticide consumption to
                                  Biodiversity                               agriculture production value
                                  SRC1Ratio of protected area         Environment & Energy Consumption
                                  Soil & Water                        PEC5 Number of factories per km2
                                  SRD1 Degree of erosion

Land                                                                  Structure of Industries
SPC2 Amount of unwell-                                                PEB6 GDP of manufacturing
     treatment industrial waste                                       PEB7 Production value of polluting
SPC3 Solid waste of recycling                                                industries
     and reuse                                                        Environment & Energy Consumption
                                                                      PEC1 Amount of nuclear power
                                                                             generation
                                                                      PEC9 Percentage of recycled energy
                                              Economic Indicators


 Type of Consumption                          Structure of Industries                    Environment & Energy Consumption

PEA1 Family water consumption per capita      PEB1 Ratio of pesticide consumption to              PEC1 Amount of nuclear power generation
PEA2 Family electric consumption per capita       agriculture production value                    PEC2 Amount of thermal generation
PEA3 Cement consumption per capita            PEB2 Ratio of Water consumption on agriculture      PEC3 Energy usage efficiency
PEA4 Timber consumption per capita                   to agricultural production value             PEC4 Energy consumption per capita
PEA5 Average housing price/                   PEB3 Ratio of water consumption on industry         PEC5 Number of factories per km2
 annumal family income ratio                        to industrial production value                PEC6 Number of personal vehicles registered
PEA6 Personal computer per household          PEB4 Production value and export value of hog       PEC7 Number of domestic flights
                                              PEB5 Import and export value of coastal fishy,      PEC8 Length of highways
                                                    production value of aquaculture               PEC9 Percentage of recycled energy
                                              PEB6 GDP of manufacturing
                                              PEB7 Production value of polluting industries
                                              PEB8 Production value of environment
                                                      protection industries
                                              PEB9 GDP of service industries as percentage of GDP
                                              PEB10 Index of labor productivity in manufacturing
                                                                                                                                                65
         The Trend of Indicators
           A. Type of Consumption

                                           Relevance to Sustainable
           Indicators              Trend
                                                Development
                                               Impact of Trend
                                           +          -           ?
PEA1 Family water consumption
    per capita                                                   ?

PEA2 Family electric consumption
    per capita                                       -

PEA3 Cement consumption per
    capita                                +

PEA4 Timber consumption per
    capita                                +

PEA6 Personal computer per
    household                             +
                                                                      66
             B. Structure of Industries
PEB1 Ratio of pesticide consumption
     to agriculture production value        +

PEB2 Ratio of Water consumption on
     agriculture to agricultural            +
     production value
PEB3 Ratio of water consumption on
     industry to industrial production      +
     value
PEB4 Production value and export
                                            +
     value of hog
PEB5 Import & export value of coastal
     fishy, production value of                     ?
     aquaculture
PEB6 GDP of manufacturing                   +
PEB7 Production value of polluting
     industries                                 -

PEB9 GDP of service industries as
     percentage of GDP                      +

PEB10 Index of labor productivity in                     67
                                            +
       manufacturing
            C. Environment & Energy
               Consumption

PEC1 Amount of nuclear power
                                          -
    generation
PEC2 Amount of thermal
    generation                            -


PEC3 Energy usage efficiency          +

PEC4 Energy consumption per
                                          -
    capita
PEC5 Number of factories per km2
                                          -

PEC6 Number of personal vehicles
                                          -
    registered
PEC7 Number of domestic flights
                                              ?

PEC8 Length of highways
                                          -
                                                   68
        Analysis of Indicators
          【Polluting Industries】

            Ratio of Polluting Industry to Manufacturing (%)
35

30
25

20
15
10
5

0
 1988     1990        1992        1994         1996        1998   2000
                                    Year
                                                                    69
    【Energy Usage Efficiency】

                                                Energy Productivity

          100.00

           80.00
NT$/LOE




           60.00

           40.00

           20.00

            0.00
                   1971   1973   1975   1977   1979   1981   1983    1985   1987   1989   1991   1993   1995   1997
                                                                    Year

                                                                                                                      70
【Personal Vehicles Degree】

                  Numbers of Automobiles and Motorcycles per 10 thousand Population

          6,000

          5,000

          4,000
Numbers




                                                                                               Automobiles
          3,000
                                                                                               Motorcycles
          2,000

          1,000

             0
                  1980   1982   1984   1986   1988   1990   1992   1994   1996   1998   2000
                                                     Year
                                                                                                    71
              【Cement Consumption】

                             Cement Consumption per Capita

      1.20
      1.00
      0.80
Ton




      0.60
      0.40
      0.20
      0.00
             1982   1984   1986   1988   1990          1992   1994   1996   1998   2000
                                                Year
                                                                                      72
                   Conclusion
 According to Environment Kuznet Curve, there is an inverse-
  U relationship between the national income and the degree of
  deterioration of environment.
 Now the national income per capita in Taiwan has grown to
  around $12,000, according to EKC, the quality of
  environment should begin to improve.
 However, if we examine the relation between emission of air
  pollution, amount of solid waste collected and national
  income, the amount of solid waste collected per capita per
  day do not decrease as national income increases; on the
  contrary, it goes up year by year.
                                                           73
Sustainable Development
  Indicators of Taiwan

- Social Pressure Indicators

      Chin-Shou Wang
      Professor of Sociology,
 National Tsing-Hua University
   Rationale for Social Sustainability

– POET (Population, Organization, Environment
 and Technology)
– I (Impacts)=PAT (Population, Affluence,
 Technology)
– I=PACT (Population, Affluence, Consumption,
 Technology)
– I=(V+C+M)A (Value, Consumption, Market,
 Amplifiers)
                                            75
      Rationale for Social Sustainability

– RS=f(O+W+P)*SM (RS: Risky Society, O:
  Organizational irresponsibility,W: Wealth distribution, P:
  Personal reflexitivities, SM: Simple modernization)

– EM=f(E+P+I)/SI (EM: Ecological Modernization; E:
  Green Economy; P: Policy-oriented Prevention, I: Impact-
  predicting; SI: Super Industrialization)
– SO=f(P+S+A+T)/SG (SO: Social Pressure; P:
  Population/Personality; S: Space; A: Activities; T: Time;
  SG: Social Grammars)                                  76
            Sustainability Gap
   Gap on Systems
     Economy, Environment and Society
   GNP Myth
     Gross National Pollution
     Garbage, Noise and Pollution
     NG(Guns)+NP(Pollution)
   Gap between GPI and ISEW
   Gap between QOL and Happy Life Expectancy
                                          77
                    Concentric of SD
       Society
                                                E
                                               QOL
                                           e
Environment      economy                             S


                                       No Justice: e+S>E
    No Integration: e>S>E

                            E Oikos

                               e   S



                                                           78
                            I+J=Paradigm: E>S>e
Cultural Luggage as Amplifying
  Factors: Social Grammars
 Cultural luggage and social grammars
  Father-son axis, Face
  Vertical zoning
  Feng-shui (Geomacy)
  Ecosphy
 Ecological wings with social root
 Theoretical Potential for Oriental
  Sustainability
  Dish-Long Theory or
  Deep Sustainability Theory            79
      盤長(腸)
  Dish-Long Theory or
Deep Sustainability Theory




                             80
     Development and Trend of
         Social Indicators

 Ecological Triangle(PSAT) and PSR
 First Version(Environmental Refugee; Social
  Footprint; Eco-Watch)
 Second Version(Environmental Alienation;
  Friction of Space, Social Anomie, Time
  Compression)
 Third Version (Structural upgrade)
 Fourth Version (Iceberg)
                                           81
                          STI Iceberg

                          public
     Sustainability
                               sector
     Category (5)
                                   trend
   Component (18)
                                        national
Indicator and item (83)
                                           international
Data Base(including UN
    134 indicators)                                 82
       social Pressure Index75.2% (against sustainability)




                          75%
É ¡ £ Y ×
® ¶ À Á «


                            66.70%
À | g à ×
ª · ° ¶ «

ª ¶ ¼ À «
Å ¡ ¯ ¿ ×                        75%
                                   83.30%
ô Ò ¨ ÷ ×
À ¹ ² Â «

        0.00%    20.00% 40.00%              60.00% 80.00% 100.00%

                      À | £ O ü Æ        I ÷ Ã ò
                      ª · À ¤ « ¼ 75.2% (­ Â ¥ Ä )
                                                                    83
      Headline Indicators:
  Social Shortness Index (SSI)

People: Environmental Pain Index
Space: Betel-nut planting area
Activity: Pollution appeal cases
Time: Stock turnover rate
                                    84
85
86
87
Sustainable Development
 Indicators for Taiwan

 -- Institutional Response


           Jiunn-Rong Yeh
Professor of Law, National Taiwan University
                                Rationale:
      Institutional Capacity-Building
 Allocation of Government                            Information and
 Expenditure                                         Participation
 Budget for environment                              Information basis
 R&D expenditure                                     Local government and public
                                                     participation

                                      Institutional
                                      Capacity-Building

Organizations and Policies
                                                     Specific policies
Representation of Organizations                       Specific policies
Environmental rationality in policy                     Specific policies
making


    National government level                    Local and Social Level


                                                                                   89
                         Trend:
   As Revealed by Institutional Indicators(1)

 Category    Indicator                             Sustainability

             RA1 Ratio of the environmental
                 budget to the total budget            ↑

Allocation of RA2 R&D expenditure
Government        proportion for the Environment       =
Expenditure
              RA3 Case growth rate of financial
                  measures taken as economic
                  incentives for the increase of       =
                  “green industries”
                                                            90
                       Trend:
  As Revealed by Institutional Indicators(2)

  Category   Indicator                       Sustainability
             RB1 Ratio of female officials
                  in the environmental            ↑
                  agencies
Organization RB2 Domestic legislation
and Policies
                  reflecting international        X
                  environmental treaties and
                  arrangements
              RB3 Percentage of cases being
                  rejected in the EIA              =
                  reviewing process
                                                         91
                       Trend:
As Revealed by Institutional Indicators(3)

Category   Indicator                             Sustainability

           RC1 Percentage of actual                    ↑
               utilization of industrial parks
           RC2 The extent to which water               ↓
Specific
               price reflects the actual costs
Policies   RC3 Percentage of installation of           =
                sewage systems
           RC4 Percentage of utilization of            ↓
               fishing ports
           RC5 The Number of regulated                 ↑
               chemicals
                                                              92
                            Trend:
    As Revealed by Institutional Indicators(4)

  Category      Indicator                           Sustainability

                RD1 Popularity of Eco-Labeling          ↑

                RD2 The Number of non- government
Information
                    organizations (NGOs)                ↑
and
Participation
                RD3 Institutional Capacity of
                    local environmental agencies        ↑


                                                            93
                          Example 1:
    RA1- Ratio of the environmental budget
              to the total budget
 PSR :Response                           Ratio of the environmental budget to the total
                                                             budget
 Measurement:
                                     5%
environmental budget /total budget              83
                                     4%                                                    88
 YEAR: 83-88(1994-1999)                                         85      86      87
                                     3%                 84
 Trend Analysis:
                                     2%
   Increase since 1995:              1%
  A higher ratio of environmental    0%
  budget indicates that the
                                             83      84      85       86      87        88
  government and all citizens have
  shown a greater concern about                                 year
  environmental issues
                                                                                   94
                        Example 2:
        RC3 - Percentage of installation of
                sewage systems
 PSR :Response                         50
                                             Percentage of installation of sewage s system

 Measurement:                          45
                                        40
 Service population/Total               35
                                        30
 population                           % 25

 YEAR: 87-88(1998-1999)                20
                                        15

 Trend Analysis:                       10
                                         5
 Grows in Taipei, while the overall      0




                                             87/10
                                             87/11
                                             87/12




                                             88/10
                                              87/6
                                              87/7
                                              87/8
                                              87/9




                                              88/1
                                              88/2
                                              88/3
                                              88/4
                                              88/5
                                              88/6
                                              88/7
                                              88/8
                                              88/9
 rate of sewage system build-up is
 too low, compared to other
                                                                  year
 countries
                                                    Taipei                Kaohsiung
                                                    Taiwan Province       Taiwan Area
                                                                                        95
                        Example 3:
        RC4 - Percentage of utilization of
                  fishing ports

 PSR :Response                           -Percentage of utilization of     fishing
                                                           ports
 Measurement:                      60%
Areas used by registered fishing    50%
  boats/total fishery ports areas   40%

 YEAR: 78-86(1989-1997)            30%
                                    20%
 Trend Analysis:
                                    10%
  The construction of the many
                                    0%
  fishery ports has not only               78   79   80   81    82    83   84       85   86
  became a grave waste of                                      year
  resources but also brought more
                                                percentage of areas used by boats
  serious impact on the coastal                 1.5*percentage of areas used by boats
  environment
                                                                                              96
                      Findings
 Since the establishment of the EPA in Taiwan, there has
  been significant improvement in the government
  institutional capacity-building.
 The vitality of local governments and social groups in their
  participation of environmental policies outgrows the
  increase of the budget and personnel in the national
  government.
 However, while the total institutional capacity has been
  strengthened, the decision-making and implementation of
  specific policies have not shown satisfactory results, and
  many policies are in effect heading away from sustainability.
                                                            97
  Urban indicators as
measurements of Taiwan’s
     sustainability

         Shu-Li Huang
 Graduate Institute of Urban Planning
     National Taipei University
       Urbanization

Per
Capita                                     Japan
GNP 3
(104US$)                                USA Germany

      2
                            Taiwan
      1
                          Malaysia             Korea
           Thailand

                               60         80
                % of Urban population                  99
Urbanization



          VS.


           VS.




                 100
               Urbanization


                                           Pop: 22×10 6
                                           Area: 36,000 Km2




20000
                 Urban population(103)
15000
                               ] ^
                 Per Capita GNP¡ US$¡
10000

5000

   0
        1951

               1955

                      1960

                             1965

                                    1970

                                           1975

                                                  1980

                                                         1985

                                                                1990

                                                                       1995

                                                                              1999

                                                                                     2000




                                                                                            101
   Urban Sustainability Indicators
  UNCHS
Background
D1: Land use                            D4: Woman headed households                  D7: Income distribution
D2: City population                     D5: Average household size                   D8: City product per person
D3: Population growth rate              D6: Household formation rate                 D9: Tenure type

Socioeconomic Development                                               Environmental Management
Households below poverty line, Informal employment, Hospital            Wastewater treated, Solid waste generated, Disposal
beds, Child mortality, Life expectancy at birth, Adult literacy rate,   methods for solid waste, Regular solid-waste collection,
School enrollment rates, School classrooms, Crime rates                 Housing destroyed

Infrastructure                                                          Local Government
Household connection levels, Access to potable water,                   Major sources of income, Per-capita capital expenditure,
Consumption of water, Median price of water                             Debt service charge, Local government employees, Wages
                                                                        in the budget, Contracted recurrent expenditure ratio,
                                                                        Government level providing services, Control by higher
                                                                        levels of government

Transport                                                               Housing
Modal split, Expenditure on road infrastructure,                        House price to income ratio, House rent to income ratio,
Travel time, Automobile ownership                                       Floor area per person, Permanent structures, Housing in
                                                                        compliance, Land development multiplier, Infrastructure
                                                                        expenditure, Mortgage to credit ratio, Housing production,
                                                                        Housing investment                              102
 Urban Sustainability Indicators
     Seattle(Indicators of Sustainable Community)
Moving away from sustainability Toward sustainability                            =Neither toward nor away
               ENVIRONMENT
       Wild salmon runs through local streams
       Number of good air quality days per year
    =   Percentage of Seattle streets meeting “Pedestrian-Friendly”criteria
               POPULATION AND RESOURCES
         Total population of King County
         Gallons of water consumed per capita in King County
         Tons of solid waste generated and recycled per capita per year in King County
         Vehicle miles traveled per capita and gasoline consumption per capita
         Renewable and nonrenewable energy (in BTUs) consumed per capita
               ECONOMY
     Percentage of employment concentrated in the top ten employers
  =   Hours of paid work at the average wage required to support basic needs
     Percentage of children living in poverty
     Housing affordability for median-and low-income households
     Per capita health expenditures
               CULTURE AND SOCIETY
     Percentage of infants born with low birth weight
     Juvenile crime rate
  =   Percent of youth participating in some form of community service
     Percent of population voting in odd-year (local) primary elections
  =   Adult literacy rate
     Library and community center usage rates
  =   Participation in the arts
                                                                                                    103
 Sustainable Development Indicator
        (National Level)

Canada:1. Ecological Life-support
        2. Human Health & Well-Being
        3. Natural Resources Sustainability
        4. Pervasive Influencing Factors

U.K. (15 Headline Indicators):
  Economic output, Investment, Employment,
  Poverty, Education, Health, Housing, Crime,
  Climate change, Air, Traffic, Rivers, Wildlife,
  Land use, Waste
                                                104
    Taiwan’s Sustainability Indicator

                                  Sustainable Taiwan


                 Island Taiwan                                 Urban Taiwan


           P                        S                    R

Economic       Social   Environmental   Ecological   Institutional      Urban
Pressure       Stress     Pollution      System       Response       Development

 Urban area:4416.7Km2(12.26%)
 Urban population:16,751,500(78%)                                          105
Framework of Indicators of
     Urban Taiwan

              Economics
              Production
           Labor
           Land

                   Living             Pollution
                             Resource
                    Standard

                   Waste Discharge
  Social                                 Natural
  Living                                 Environment
                      Env. quality
                                                   106
Life




       107
                 Category of Indicators for
                      Urban Taiwan
                   Driving Force                         State
                                                          State                       Response
                                                                                          Response

             。Per Capita urban
              productivity
Production   。Ratio of service industry to                                        。Self-reliance on local
              urban productivity                                                   expenditure
             。Urban productivity growth

             。Ratio of urban area            。Metropolitan population density     。Ratio of public facility area
             。Increase rate of urban area    。Ratio of urban population           。Park area per person
  Living     。Car ownership                  。Per capita residential floor area
             。Motor bicycle ownership        。Metropolitan air pollution
             。Efficiency of public transit   。Metropolitan noise pollution
                                             。Urban Slum
                                             。Green coverage ratio                。Ratio of accessible water
                                             。Metropolitan agricultural area       front
                                             。Ratio of polluted stream length     。﹪ of waste water treated
Environment                                  。﹪of CO2 emission                    。﹪ of public expenditure on
                                             。Construction waste                   environment protection
                                                                                  。Frequency of environ-
                                                                                   mental education activity
                                                                                  。No. of environmental NGO
                                             。﹪ of natural hazard area
                                              occupied by urban use
   Life                                      。No. of death due to urban
                                                                                                      108
                                              hazard
   Ratio of service                Agriculture             CO2                                               Metropolitan

                                  Production
  industry to urban                                                          ¢Mof COemission
                                                                                   2                         agricultural
    productivity             +                                                                                   area              +
                                    +
          +       Urban                                    CO2                                 Forest area                 Ratio of metropolitan
               productivity              Service
                                                                                                                             agricultural area
                                         industry
   Urban
                                                                         CO2                         +            Green coverage
                                                                         Environment
productivity          +                  +
  growth                                                                                                               ratio

      Per Capita                        Manufacturing                           ¢Mof waste
        urban                                                                                                                   Construction
                                                                               water treated                                       waste
     productivity                         Public
          Self-reliance on              expenditure                                        -                         Ratio of
         local expentirure                                                                               +       polluted stream
                                                                                  -                                   length
                                                                                            Stream                                       Length of
                                                                                           pollution              Accossible           urban stream
      Living                                             # of
                                                                                                 -           +
                                                                                                                  water front
                                                                                                                                +
                          Metropolitan air                                                                                                   Ratio of
                                                  +     motor                            Environment
   # of cars      +         pollution                                                                              ¢Mof public              accessible
                                                       bicycle                            protection             expenditure on               water
                  +                               +                           Urban                  +            environment
     +                     Metropolitan                   +                  park area
                                                                                           +                                                  front
                          noise pollution                                                                          protection
                                                       Motor
 Car ownership                                         bicycle                         Frequency of
                                                      ownership                       environmental             No. of                       Natural
                        Urban                                                            education           environmental                 hazard area
                                                                                          activity               NGO
                      population
   Metropolitan                                  Park area per       +
                                                                                                                                Life
    population                                      person
     density                                                       Residential
                                                                   floor area
                                      Per capita
               Ratio of urban      residential floor                                                   ¢Mof natural hazard
                population               area                    Increase rate of                       area occupied by
                                                                   urban area                              urban use                   +
                                     Urban slum
                                                                                                                                           Hazard
                                                                         +
                              +              -
Trend of Taiwan’s Urban Sustainability
-Production
              Ratio of service industry(%)      104(U S $/pers on)
60%           Growth rate of production(%)                 6
              Per capita urban productivity
50%           (US$/person)                                 5

40%                                                        4

30%                                                        3

20%                                                        2

10%                                                        1

0%                                                         -
                                                          110
       1986                 1991              1996
                           Trend of Taiwan’s Urban
                                Sustainability
             -Living

                                          Increase rate of              Urban population
                                          urban area
Urban area                                                                                        Metropolitan population                           pe rson/km2
15%                                       % of urban area                                         density
                                                                       60%                                                                           1300
                                                                                                  % of urban population
10%                                                                    58%
                                                                                                                                                     1250
                                                                       56%
5%
                                                                                                                                                     1200
                                                                       54%
0%
                                                                                                                                                     1150
      1989

             1990

                    1991

                            1992

                                   1993

                                           1994

                                                  1995

                                                         1996

                                                                1997




                                                                       52%

                                                                       50%                                                                           1100
                                                                             1988

                                                                                    1989

                                                                                           1990

                                                                                                   1991

                                                                                                          1992

                                                                                                                 1993

                                                                                                                        1994

                                                                                                                               1995

                                                                                                                                      1996

                                                                                                                                             1997
                                                                                                                                                    111
 Trend of Taiwan’s Urban Sustainability
 -Living
vehicle / 1000 persons                                           person / km

500                                                                          5   # of cars
400                                                                          4
                                                                                 # of motor cycles
300                                                                          3
                                                                                 efficiency of public
200                                                                          2   transit
100                                                                          1   (person / km)

  0                                                                          0
       1988

              1989

                     1990

                            1991

                                   1992

                                          1993

                                                 1994

                                                        1995

                                                               1996

                                                                      1997




                                                                                             112
Trend of Taiwan’s Urban Sustainability
-Environment


60%

55%

50%

45%
       1996       1997            1998

                   % of stream length polluted
                                             113
Trend of Taiwan’s Urban Sustainability
-Living

                                         % days (PSI>100)
                                         % days exceeding designated
50%                                      noise pollution standard
40%
30%
20%
10%
 0%
      1988

             1989

                    1990

                           1991

                                  1992

                                          1993

                                                 1994

                                                        1995

                                                               1996

                                                                      1997
                                                                             114
  Trend of Taiwan’s Urban Sustainability
  -Response to Urban Environmental Management




        Ratio of public facility area                           Park area per person

8.5%                                                 2
                                                 m
8.0%                                                 3.5
7.5%                                                     3
7.0%                                                 2.5
       1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997               1994   1995   1996     1997



                                                                                  115
                              Trend of Taiwan’s Urban
                                   Sustainability
         -Response to Urban Environmental
          Management
                                                                                                                 % of waste water treated
                              Ratio of accessible water front
                                                                                                                                Taipei
                                                                                                                                Kaoshiung
10 4 m                                                                                                                          Taichung
                                                                                             60%
    6                                                                                                                           Taiwan
                                                                                             40%
    4
                                                                                             20%

    2
                                                                                             0%
         1988

                1989

                       1990

                              1991

                                     1992

                                            1993

                                                   1994

                                                          1995

                                                                 1996

                                                                        1997

                                                                               1998

                                                                                      1999




                                                                                                   1997   1998       1999     2000



                                                                                                                                116
   Indicator                 Car ownership                  Category                       Living
                            Driving Force                     State                     Response
  Framework
                                    ●

              Purpose and Implication: The number of cars in the city is related to economic
              growth. However, the emission of air pollutant will degrade environmental quality. In
              addition, too many cars will not only consume fossil fuel, but also cause traffic jam and
              causing the unsustainability of cities.
Meaning       Relationships with other indicators: Together with the number of
              motorbicycles, the efficiency of public transit and the urban transportation policy can be
              assessed.
              Goal: To decrease the increase rate of the number of cars in the metropolitan regions.
              Measurement: vehicle / 1000 persons
   Correlation with Urban Sustainability                                      Study Area
        +                  +/-                     -                 Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung
                                                    ●                    metropolitan regions
               Moving away from                  Neither toward
                                                                             Toward Sustainability
Trend           Sustainability                      nor away
  250
                                                                                          ●

  200                                                                                    Taipei
                                                                                         Taich
  150                                                                                    Kaphsiung
  100                                                                                    Average

   50

    0
            1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997                                              117
        Summary of Trend of
    Taiwan’s Urban Sustainability
Category     Indicator                                          Sustainability
Production   。Per Capita urban productivity                           
             。Ratio of service industry to urban productivity         
             。Urban productivity growth                               
             。Self-reliance on local expenditure                      NA
Living       。Metropolitan population density                         
             。Ratio of urban population                               
             。Ratio of urban area                                     
             。Per capita residential floor area                       =
             。Car ownership                                           
             。Motor bicycle ownership                                 
             。Efficiency of public transit                            =
             。Ratio of public facility area                           =
             。Park area per person                                    =
             。Increase rate of urban area                             
             。Metropolitan air pollution                              
             。Metropolitan noise pollution                            
                                                                        118
             。Urban Slum                                              ※
       Summary of Trend of
   Taiwan’s Urban Sustainability
Category      Indicator                                            Sustainability
Environment   。Green coverage ratio                                      ※
              。Metropolitan agricultural area                            
              。Ratio of polluted stream length                           =
              。Ratio of accessible water front                           
              。% of waste water treated                                  
              。% of public expenditure on environment protection         =
              。Frequency of environmental education activity             
              。No. of environmental NGO                                  
              。% of CO2 emission                                        NA
              。Construction waste                                        =
Life          。% of natural hazard area occupied by urban use            ※
              。No. of death due to urban hazard                          



                                                                         119
  Island Taiwan VS. Urban Taiwan
           Environmental pollution                                      Production
                       21

                       20
Institutional                          Ecological
                       19
  response                              system
                       18
                                                          Life                           Living

                                                                                              1988
     Economic                         Social
      pressure                       pressure                                                 1997
                                                                        Environment



                                                                                      Island Taiwan
                                                                                      Urban Taiwan
        1988

                1989

                       1990

                              1991

                                     1992

                                            1993

                                                   1994

                                                          1995

                                                                 1996

                                                                          1997
                                                                                              120
      Concluding Remarks

Urban indicators → Sustainable Taiwan
Continuing Research
   Indicator adjustment and Target Setting
   Relationships between urban indicators
    → policy impact study
   Trade-off analysis between indicators of
    urban Taiwan and Island Taiwan

                                               121
 Overall Conclusion

           Jiunn-Rong Yeh
Professor of Law, National Taiwan University
           Research Achievements
1.   Completion of Sustainable Development Indicators for Taiwan and
     preliminary analysis
2. Developing sustainability indicators in compliance with the United
   Nations Mandate
3.   Characterization of sustainable development movement in Taiwan
4. Form a Basis for National Initiative
5. Part of the analysis could contribute to public policy formation
6. Enhancement of academic researches and international collaboration in
   sustainable development movement
7. Concrete example of integration between technological and humanity
   disciplines
8. Publications promoting sustainable development concepts
                                                                      123
                              Prospects
                               Institutionalization

       comparison to                                  central and local
       other countries                                sustainability indicator
                                                      links

                                   Sustainable
Internationalization              Development                      Localization
                              Indicators for Taiwan



  enhanced participation in                               integrated central
  international sustainable                               and local policies
  development topics             Policy Inputs


                                                                                 124
謝         謝


Thank   You


              125