Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Grassroots Enterprise by kvz49145

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									  Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and
  Grassroots Enterprise Development in
      Darfur and Southern Sudan

         Findings of Field Research

    Dr. Babiker Badri, Ahfad University for Women
          Samer Abdelnour, York University

                     April 2, 2007
Forum for Sustainable Enterprise Development in Sudan
             Ahfad University for Women
         Presentation Overview
•   Fieldwork Overview
•   Findings
    – Concerns
    – Encouraging Themes
    – Recommendations
          Fieldwork Overview
• Fieldwork dates April – June 2006
• IDP camps and communities where
  research was conducted
  – South Sudan: Lobonok (Juba),
    Obel (Malakal), Akot &
    Pulshume (Rumbek)
  – Darfur: Blacksmiths Collective
    (El Fashir), El Seref (Nyala)
• Use of research assistants speaking local
  dialects for each site visited
          Fieldwork Overview
• The objectives of the fieldwork include:
  – The identification pre- and post-war livelihood
    strategies of IDPs
  – To identify livelihoods IDPs want to undertake
    upon return
  – Assess available skills and capacity for the
    development of enterprise
  – Determine constraints hindering access to
    desired strategies
         Fieldwork Findings
•   Concerns
•   Encouraging Themes
•   Recommendations
Concerns – South Sudan & Darfur
• Environment: resource depletion in conflict
  areas and dependence of IDPs on scarce
  resources
• Gender: marginalization of female IDPs,
  and lack of mobility of IDP men in Darfur
• Security and safety of IDPs inside and
  outside of camps
• Land tenure, rights and access
       Concerns – South Sudan
• Differentiation between communities, the
  challenge of returning diverse returnees and the
  concept of the Jur, or outsider
• Socio-economic issues
  – dependency culture
  – land mines
  – tenure and property rights challenges
• ‘DDR stalemate’ – there are no ex-combatants in
  Sudan
               Concerns – Darfur
• Access to traditional livelihoods strategies, resulting from
  the complete removal of IDPs from their lands livelihoods
• Security and safety, resulting from complex layers of
  security both inside and outside the camps, and the
  continual attacks on IDPs
• Representation and participation
   – IDPs unable to organize to express their demands and
     aspirations
   – Sudanese organizations are for the most part excluded from the
     relief and development process
           Encouraging Themes –
               South Sudan
• Wealth of natural resources
• Strong desire for post-war livelihoods and development
• Encouragement for the return of residents and IDPs by
  both the GoS and GoSS with assistance from UNHCR
• Existing enterprise capacities
   – Financial sector including emerging debate on microfinance
   – Enterprise/market activity (limited access for IDPs)
   – Engagement of local private sector in development
    Encouraging Themes – Darfur
• Entrepreneurial spirit and desire for self-reliance
• Existing skills applicable to a wide variety of
  enterprises
• Excellent understanding of enterprise enablers
  such as credit and training
• Strong desire for self-reliance and independence
  from relief
• Existence and participation in IDP camp
  markets, some very large and active
 Recommendations – South Sudan
• Enterprise addressing development needs
   –   Clean water
   –   Health services
   –   De-mining
   –   Building materials
   –   Energy
   –   Rural communication
• Enterprise models built around traditional livelihoods
  strategies
   – Agriculture
   – Herding and livestock
          Recommendations – Darfur
•   Enterprise addressing immediate needs of encamped IDPs
     – Water
     – Foodstuffs
•   Enterprise addressing development needs
     –   Transportation
     –   Building materials
     –   Energy
     –   Security
•   Enterprise models adaptable to traditional livelihoods strategies
     – Trade
     – Agriculture
     – Livestock production and related industries
  Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and
  Grassroots Enterprise Development in
      Darfur and Southern Sudan

         Findings of Field Research

    Dr. Babiker Badri, Ahfad University for Women
          Samer Abdelnour, York University

                     April 2, 2007
Forum for Sustainable Enterprise Development in Sudan
             Ahfad University for Women

								
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