Sino-Mongolian relations (Reprinted) Speaking of Mongolia, all the Chinese people will have mixed feelings about a state of mind, simply because the country was part of Chinese territory, if not the decline of the Late Qing Dynasty and confusion, if not encouragement and support of the Soviet Union, may not Today, this situation occurs, of course, history does not exist assumptions, we can not return to history, and its immersion in a huge territory of the former territory of the fascination in the short term so unrealistic dream of return than serious analysis This caused about the true causes of land division, analysis of the status of relations between China and Mongolia, from the country&#39;s overall interests and long-term interests, to make the best decisions. Therefore, Xiaomin today to talk about the Sino-Mongolian relations and history, current situation and prospects, and China can be considered measures. Let&#39;s look at the history of Mongolia: Mongolia, formerly known as Outer Mongolia or Khalkha. The 13th century, Genghis Khan united the desert tribes north and south, the establishment of a unified Mongol Empire. 1279-1368, established the Yuan Dynasty. Mongolian Princes in December 1911 announced the support of the Czarist Russia of &quot;autonomy.&quot; 1919 to abandon the &quot;self.&quot; Mongolian People&#39;s Revolution in 1921, the same year on July 11 the government set up a constitutional monarchy. November 26, 1924 repeal a constitutional monarchy, the establishment of the Mongolian People&#39;s Republic. February 1945, British, American, and Sudan in the provisions of the Yalta Conference summit, &quot;Outer Mongolia (Mongolian People&#39;s Republic of) status must be maintained&quot;, and as the Soviet Union to participate in the war against Japan one of the conditions. January 5, 1946, the then Chinese Government recognizes the independence of Outer Mongolia. In February 1992 changed its name to &quot;Mongolia.&quot; About Mongolia, there are three so we have to remember the data: 1, Mongolia is in the world today than outside the area of Kazakhstan&#39;s second-largest landlocked country. Mongolia, an area of 1,566,500 square kilometers, equivalent to China&#39;s land area of 1 / 6; 2, Mongolia is the world&#39;s least densely populated countries. Mongolia&#39;s total population of 2.6 million, the population density per square kilometer is 1.66 people, area is 43 times the Taiwan region of China, the population not to Taiwan 1 / 8; 3, Mongolia is the longest border with China&#39;s national borders. Mongolia and China have 4676 km long land borders, over Russian border (more than 4300 km) in length, total length of China&#39;s land border line of 1 / 5 or more. Mongolia&#39;s land area is in a big country, rich in mineral resources, China has proven copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, uranium, lead, zinc, rare earth, iron, fluorite, phosphate, coal, oil, more than 80 kinds of minerals . Erdenet copper-molybdenum mine has been included in one of the world&#39;s top ten copper-molybdenum mine, the highest in Asia. In terms of national strength, Mongolia is a small and poor States, in 2007, Mongolia&#39;s GDP was 2.835 billion U.S. dollars, individuals had just over one thousand U.S. dollars, while China&#39;s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region adjacent to the domestic production in 2007 worth nearly 90 billion U.S. dollars, per capita exceeded 3,000 U.S. dollars. Mongolia is located between two large countries China and Russia, and Nepal, Bhutan similar, is completely landlocked country, with only two bordering countries, such as geographical environment to determine its foreign policy on a particular power or bias or neutrality Analysis of Mongolia&#39;s foreign policy since independence, is precisely in these two options, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia is under the support of independent, natural in the early pro-Soviet policies had been pursued, therefore, Mongolia, China policy by greatly influenced the former Soviet Union, to a certain extent, Somun relations have been affected Sino-Mongolian relations. After the founding of new China, the Sino-Mongolian relations have gone through three stages: The first stage is 1949 to early sixties, this period is the most intimate Sino-Soviet period, the Sino-Mongolian relations in a period of relatively friendly, bilateral relations have developed smoothly. October 16, 1949, Mongolia established diplomatic relations with China. From 1956-1965, China and Mongolia offered three to the total amount of 460 million old rubles in aid has, without any conditions attached to Mongolia sent 18,000 experts and workers. 1960 年 27 May to 1 June, Premier Zhou Enlai&#39;s visit to Mongolia and signed a &quot;Sino-Mongolian friendship treaty&quot;, laid a milestone in Sino-Mongolian relations. December 25, 1962 to 27, the main leaders of Tsedenbal visit China and Mongolia signed the &quot;Treaty on the Sino-Mongolian border,&quot; the successful demarcation of the boundary line between the two countries. The second stage is the mid-sixties to 1989 years ago, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, when the tension in the Sino-Soviet relations, Mongolia became a Soviet anti-China front, and even called the &quot;16th Soviet republic&quot;, according to 1966 Monsu &quot;treaty of friendship and cooperation&quot;, a large number of Soviet troops stationed in Mongolia, when up to 15 million people, Mongolia will hand over command of its armed forces the Soviet Union, weapons and equipment provided free of charge by the Soviet Union, between America as a corps of the Soviet Union, Soviet heavy military pressure in the Sino-Mongolian border, causing pressure on the top of the Chinese situation. The third stage is from the nineties of last century to date. Drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, Mongolia lost from the north made the pillars, China has become critical to its future survival and development factors, Mongolia immediately adjusted its relations with China. Normalization of bilateral relations in 1989. The two countries signed in April 1994, &quot;Sino-Mongolian friendship and cooperation treaty.&quot; December 1998, the two sides issued the Sino-Mongolian relations in the 21st century the development of clear guidelines, &quot;the Sino-Mongolian joint statement.&quot; Into the twenty-first century, with China&#39;s rapid economic development, the rapid growth of trade between China and Mongolia, China and Mongolia in 2007 bilateral trade amounted to 2.03 billion U.S. dollars, China for 9 consecutive years in Mongolia&#39;s largest trading partner. Of course, the rapid trade growth in China and Mongolia, when the political cooperation between China and Mongolia but not as greater economic cooperation as a breakthrough. From the former Soviet Union, Mongolia began to pursue &quot;multi-point&quot; foreign policy, the establishment of &quot;non-aligned, equidistant from all directions,&quot; Foreign Policy, since 1991, Mongolia in the economy closer to China, but is trying to maintain political equidistance between China and Russia in the development of Russia, China, two powerful neighbors, good-neighborly friendship and cooperation between balanced at the same time, proposed a &quot;third neighbor&quot; strategy, and actively seek with the US-led Western countries to establish ties not only for more economic aid, but also as to contain China and Russia and then to protect its own security. Objectively speaking, with the old &quot;one-sided&quot; policy than the &quot;multi-point&quot; of diplomacy foreign policy more in line with Mongolia&#39;s national security and economic interests, but this has to some extent to the other countries provided China with Mongolia to be restricted take advantage of the opportunity, Mongolia and the Russian border as the small country, in large countries in trying to find a balance game is a risky diplomatic move. Why not take a more closer to China, Mongolia&#39;s foreign policy, but rather to take a balanced strategy of diplomacy, which is decided by the two situations: first, taken in the past one-sided policy of the Soviet Union to Mongolia to a painful lesson; s Second, Mongolia of China has a very complex mind, Mongolia, China and Mongolia wary of deep-rooted relations that affect the main crux of the problem. Mongolia is the source of this alert is separate from the Chinese territory, has been worried that China would one day recover Mongolia, and thus lose the status of an independent state. Compared with the huge China, Mongolia is in a vulnerable position, so there is always a kind of domestic Mongolia and China and spread exclude psychological. Mental cause of this alert is easy and Western Mongolia to resist trying to split China, China&#39;s forces combined to make some Chinese do not want to see the behavior. For example, the current President Enkhbayar of Mongolia is a deeper Western values pragmatist, he was very close relations with the Dalai Lama, paid a special visit to India in 1999 called on the Dalai Lama, Mongolian National University and Science and Technology has been awarded Dalai Lama an honorary doctorate. In recent years, Mongolia and the United States, Russia, India and other countries held joint military exercises in recent years, Mongolia and South Korea co-operation by the mass boycott of China&#39;s northeast works, which reveal the concerns of Mongolia to China. It is because of our small and Mongolia, Mongolia from China, both from the fact that it makes no matter how the Sino-Mongolian relations are conducive to China&#39;s international background, will be impossible to avoid some noise, and we have a deep understanding of . Of course, in recognition of the development of Sino-Mongolian relations is bound to interference by various factors, we also should see the Sino-Mongolian relations is good, although there are some discordant Sino-Mongolian relations factors, but bilateral relations We are optimistic about the current situation is, and will have a bright future. For Mongolia, the heart of readiness for further strengthening of China, still need to consider the international environment, this trend, in this context, China is growing stronger, Mongolia to achieve long-term national development, is bound to further rely on the economy of China, Russia the economy in the short term can not give more help Mongolia, Japan, Korea and other countries although the United States and Europe can provide some assistance, but much will not be forthcoming, after all, only Mongolia friendly relations with China, as the economy closer contacts between the two sides of the political relations will be more progress will be even greater. In fact, in recent years, Sino-Mongolian relations is indeed a welcome present situation, close high-level contacts between China and Mongolia, to maintain continuity of contact, the two sides signed a series of legal and political documents, this long-term, stable basis for development of bilateral relations. China and Mongolia to further develop bilateral economic exchanges, although the two billion U.S. dollars of trade for China, only a very small number, for Mongolia that China is its largest trading partner and largest investor to China&#39;s export goods become The achievement of national development in the area, as the driving force of economic development led Mongolia. Mongolia has a highly complementary economic, trade structure, complementary, complementary natural resources, labor and technology complement each other, bilateral trade and economic development prospects. Currently China and Mongolia in the political, economic, military and other aspects of unprecedented good relations, Sino-Mongolian relations are the best period in history. About Mongolia, Xiaomin would also like to extend to open up, say a few comments. China&#39;s international politics today, the most troubled territory of China, the problem is related to the problem, we can say that the British director of the southern Tibet issue, the American director of the Taiwan issue and the Diaoyu Islands issue, and the former Soviet Union orchestrated Mongolia split from the Chinese territory. We certainly have reason to hate the behavior of the three countries, but we must also make clear the fact that these things we want to see the essence of what happened not because the outside world Gunong, but in our own strength insufficient different periods of the three countries is the country&#39;s Three world hegemony, which is these three parts of the countries do not want a strong China China restricted the rise of China into three effective wedge. Mongolia issues a bit complicated, originally used to restrict the former Soviet Union as a pawn in China, but the disintegration of the former Soviet Union and the bearing strength of Russia&#39;s incompetent, and its role for the United States manipulated into between the United States and Russia trying to insert a wedge in the U.S. interest From a certain level, like Taiwan or South Tibet Mongolia as one of the main stand behind the only forces, but the dual forces of the United States and Russia, Russia hopes it is a chess piece to contain China, Russia to restrain China the impact of the Far East, the United States wants its a wedge, inserted in the middle of the two rivals China and Russia, can be deter Russia may be to contain China. Fortunately, through our efforts, we can basically understood the overall situation of Sino-Mongolian relations, Mongolia has no longer contain us a piece or pieces, even though we want to see on the Mongolian territory separate from China, but we also To acknowledge this reality, in the short term return or do not have the background of uniform conditions, we should see another of Mongolia to China&#39;s strategic value. Because of the existence of Mongolia made between China and Russia are two giant, a huge buffer zone. Sino-Russian border length of more than 4300 km, while Russia and Mongolia border up to 3800 km, if Mongolia is part of China and Russia means that we will reach the border length of 8100 kilometers, Russia is like a hat, as built in China The head of China&#39;s entire northern and northeastern borders were with Russia, and Russia, such as a volatile countries on its border, the longer the border could mean more opportunities for friction in the future, the pressure for China to think and know. Mongolia-Russia border line there will be divided into two things, from the western part of the European Centre for closer only 54 kilometers, which greatly reduces the perceived China to their Russian pressure. Although Russia is not in the short time would pose a threat to China&#39;s national security, but we can not but consider the history of China-friendly attitude on the lack of national will in the future there will be no hostile act. In this case, the status of Mongolia is similar to South Asia, Nepal and Bhutan, Nepal and Bhutan as the existence of the Sino-Indian border as the border separating the two things that make China and India do not face a long boundary line, taking into account the land of India is divided into two features of what makes China, a congenital form of geographical advantages. Understanding of Mongolia, we now have two errors, one unrealistic to discuss the issue of reunification, one caused by a dispute on who is the real Mongolia segregation. Why focus on these two issues is erroneous, because we in any event lively discussion, heated argument, this act was not enough to change anything, or even lead to our understanding of the split, leading to some negative effects, so the concern for Mongolia We must build on the strong principle of survival of the reality of international politics, we should pay attention to is how Caiqu pragmatic measures to maintain an interest of China Xianzhuang The problem was the right direction, to us, Tuijin a Geng meet the interests of China Zheng Ti scenario, not steeped in the history of the dream can not awake. If only fantasy owners in the history of how China has vast land, this land is not considered reason for what comes, do not take into account if we are to maintain such a large country will lead to what kind of costs to pay, without regard to In the current framework of international politics impossible to get tough reality of the expansion land, such indulgence is not rational. In view of the status of Mongolia, we should understand that Mongolia would not in itself constitute a threat to China&#39;s national security, but if its strength by foreign intervention, as other major powers against the bridgehead of China, will China&#39;s security cause great risks, so we can not meet in the Sino-Mongolian relations in a good situation, but should take measures to further promote the Sino-Mongolian relations to a better direction, little people that such promotion can be included in the following areas: (A) continue to respect Mongolia&#39;s independence and statehood, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit the development of Sino-Mongolian relations. Never condescending or dealing with Taiwan&#39;s United Front in a state of mind to develop the Sino-Mongolian relations, promoting a major power, not to promote domestic populism, to eliminate the common people of Mongolia to China&#39;s fears and doubts. The development of political contacts in the same time, moderate to promote bilateral military exchanges, the establishment of military mutual trust mechanism between the two countries to provide military assistance to Mongolia, less exercise, more assistance in the short term to avoid the establishment of military bases in Mongolia guess this is prone to lead action. (B) give priority to the development of economic ties with Mongolia. Through the strengthening of economic ties, we have successfully improved the United States, Japan, Korea, China and Australia, I would like to Mongolia, in his inner state of full readiness, moderate aside some of the political desire to strengthen economic integration as is one of the most effective means, especially to my attention that this trade should be limited to imports of Mongolia&#39;s mineral resources, including promoting more economic co-operation level, to strengthen the areas of infrastructure investment, strengthening can improve the local the living standards of some of the residents of project development. Mongolia is a landlocked country, not the sea, the nearest sea port of Tianjin in China, we can consider giving preferential treatment and care of its further measures. We can serve as a northeast regional coordination body with Mongolia to promote the common development and cooperation in Northeast Asia model, to further strengthen Mongolia&#39;s economic dependence on China. (C) promote cooperation in culture, ideology, science and technology, education, communication. Full use of Inner Mongolia in the language and cultural exchanges between good conditions, and actively promote and the Mongolian culture, ideology, science and technology exchanges and cooperation in many fields, making Mongolia Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to become a good understanding of China&#39;s development model, the elimination of China security-conscious, to strengthen the links between the two countries. At present, China and Mongolia have been achieved in the field of education, mutual recognition of qualifications, students studying in China, Mongolia is also increasing year by year, the increasing number of learning Chinese, Ulan Bator, the Mongolian National University Confucius Institute had recommended an increase in this regard in China funding, to attract more Mongolian students studying Chinese, to come, a familiar Chinese cultural elite. (D) attention to measures to reduce the number of Chinese companies and citizens in Mongolia, words and deeds of the negative impact caused. Chinese businessmen and companies in Mongolia some short-sighted behavior and illegal acts, leading to the Mongolian people&#39;s negative impression of the Chinese people, this a trivial matter, but seriously distorted China&#39;s national image of China must pay attention to this aspect of education, our countries in the development of our national quality and business ethics has not increased accordingly, which caused great international negative impact. We need to improve the quality of Chinese goods the same, but need to improve the basic quality of the Chinese people, if our nationals abroad is seen as &quot;false, Fan Jia, illegal, unsanitary,&quot; the spokesman for these acts, then we will there is a kind of national image how can imagine, in this regard, China needs to learn Japanese. At this stage, Mongolia can not and China closer together politically, but we must also avoid any other major country to form an alliance with the point. In fact, Mongolia has become a in the United States, Russia and the stage of the three national games, while India, Japan, Mongolia and other countries have to draw the idea of restricting the Chinese, but because of political or economic deficiencies so they can not become what we really pay attention to the key focus of China to pay attention to the United States and Russia&#39;s action in Mongolia, particularly in Russia, while Russia relations are now in a relatively friendly state, but Russia is better than a little wary of China Mongolia less reason is simple seizure of Russia from China too much land, if China and Mongolia form a real allies, or even return to the case, then Russia will further fear of losing control of the Far East. That is why we need to carefully handle relations with Mongolia, Mongolia will again become part of China is not necessarily the most important, important is to keep this country should be an independent, free from control of other major powers, on China-friendly countries. Of course, this situation is also not always been the same, and as China develops further, we can surpass the United States and Wei world economic power, when we can have on Russia military advantage of Jiang Tai has been great when we Mongolia not to let a wary, perhaps, we hope the situation will be a new solution can be achieved. ?