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Autonomation (Jidohka) A combination of autonomy and automation by kmm63581

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									                                     KAIZEN® Glossary
                                 Frequently used words and
                                         concepts



Andon : is a system to notify management, maintenance, and other workers of a quality or
process problem. The centerpiece is a signboard incorporating signal lights to indicate which
workstation has the problem. The alert can be activated manually by a worker using a pull cord or
button, or may be activated automatically by the production equipment itself. The system will
include a means to stop production so the issue can be corrected. Modern alert systems will
incorporate audio alarms and text or other displays.

Autonomation (Jidohka): A combination of "autonomy" and "automation", describes a system
whereby a machine automatically shuts down, either after completing a cycle or when a defective
part is produced.

Back to Zero: From the Joel Barker videotape, Business Paradigms. This rule states that when a
radical improvement is introduced into a product or service, all the market advantages that once
belonged to leaders in that niche disappear. Barker cites the Swiss watch market domination that
disappeared with the invention (by the Swiss) and subsequent production of quartz movement
watches by U.S. and Japanese companies.

Benchmarking: An improvement process in which a company measures its performance against
the best companies in its field, determines how those companies achieved their performance
levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance.

Bullwhip effect: See Forrester effect

Cause-and-Effect Diagram: Also referred to as a "Fishbone" (after its shape), or "Ishikawa"
diagram (after its inventor, Kaoru Ishikawa). The diagram illustrates the main causes and sub-
causes leading to an effect (the symptom of unwanted condition). It is one of the Basic Seven
Tools of Quality.

Chaku chaku is a production line organization where the standard work cycle is to load and
unload machines respecting the one piece flow principle.

Checklist: A tool used to ensure that all important steps or actions in an operation have been
taken. One of the Basic Seven Tools of Quality.

Check Points and Control Points: Used to measure the progress of improvement-related
activities between managerial levels. Check points represent process-oriented criteria. Control
points represent results-oriented criteria. Check points and control points are used in policy
deployment.

Check Sheet: A simple data-recording device, custom-made by the user, which allows results to
be readily interpreted. Not to be confused with a Checklist (see above.)

Common Causes: In statistical quality control, the causes of variation inherent in a process over
time. (See Special Causes.)

Company Culture: The informal way life is lived and the work is done, based on the values,
beliefs, myths and stories played out in the organization. Over time, leaders shape the culture.
(See KAIZEN Culture.)
                                      KAIZEN® Glossary
                                  Frequently used words and
                                          concepts


Control Chart: A chart with upper and lower control limits within which a machine or process is "in
control". Frequently a centerline, midway between the two limits, helps detect trends toward one or
the other. Plotting critical measurements on the chart shows when a machine or process has gone
"out of control" and must be adjusted. One of the Basic Seven Tools of Quality.

Core Process: The process in a manufacturing or service organization that produces the goods or
services for external customers on which the organization depends for its survival.

Cross-Functional Management: The inter-departmental coordination required to realize the
strategic and policy goals of KAIZEN and Total Quality Management. Its critical importance lies in
the follow-through to achieve goals and measures.

Culture: (See Company Culture.)

Customer, External: An end-user whom pays for the project or service delivered by a company,
thus generating revenue for the company. The goal of world-class companies is to "continually
delight" this customer, thus creating "an increasing affection" for its products and services. There
may be several external customers, all of whom must be considered by the supplier.

Customer, Internal: The recipient (person, process, or department) of another person's or
department's output (product, service or information) within an organization.

Customer-Supplier Partnership: A long-term relationship between a buyer and supplier
characterized by teamwork, mutual confidence, and common goals regarding customer
satisfaction. The supplier is considered an extension of the buyer's organization, based on several
commitments. The buyer provides long-term contracts and uses fewer suppliers. The supplier
implements quality assurance processes to limit or eliminate incoming inspection by the buyer. The
supplier also helps the buyer reduce costs and improve product and process designs.

Cycle (Lead-Time): The total time elapsed from when raw material enters the production process
until the finished product is ready for shipment to the customer. In service industries, the total time
elapsed from when a customer expresses a need to when that need is satisfied.

Data: Bits of information which, when aggregated and analyzed, result in information leading to
change and improvement. Data may be quantitative or qualitative. Data are distinguished from
individual opinions, past experiences, biases, and "gut feel".

Dantotsu: Japanese for “By Far The Best”. Dantotsu companies are companies achieving
outstanding results over all dimensions of their business by applying (Lean / Kaizen) tools.
Dantotsu companies are often the leaders of Business Excellence in their industry sector. The
most famous Dantotsu company in the automotive sector is Toyota.

Deming Cycle: Credited by Edward Deming to Walter Steward of Western Electric (who may have
gotten it from John Dewey), the cycle is a concept of how thinking must proceed to create
continuous improvement. The most common form of the cycle consists of four elements: Plan, Do,
Check, and Act. Dr. Deming has recently re-termed them: Plan, Do, Investigate, and Adjust. (See
PDCA.)
                                     KAIZEN® Glossary
                                 Frequently used words and
                                         concepts


Eight Strategy: Structured method of problem resolution combining different cycles of SDCA and
PDCA. Method often applied in TPM® (Total Productive Maintenance) in connection with the pillar
of Quality Maintenance.

Eighty-Twenty Rule: Refers to the Pareto principle, which suggests that most effects stem from
relatively few causes; that is, eighty percent of the effects come from twenty percent of the causes.
(See Pareto Chart.)

Employee Involvement: A practice within an organization whereby employees regularly
participate in making decisions on how their work areas operate, including making suggestions for
improvements, planning, goal setting and monitoring performance.

Empowerment: A condition in which employees have the authority to make decisions and take
action in their work areas without prior approval. For example, an operator can stop a production
process if he or she detects a problem, or a customer service representative can send out a
replacement if a customer calls with a complaint.

Five S (5S): Five Japanese words (recently translated into five American words) which refer to
systemically cleaning up and maintaining a clean, efficient working environment. A 5S campaign is
frequently used to introduce Total Productive Maintenance into a factory.
    SEPARATE/SCRAP - get rid of all unused equipment, machinery and parts.
    STRAIGHTEN - arrange all needed equipment, tools, so that there is a place for everything
    and everything is in its place, easy to locate and close to where it is used.
    SCRUB - clean up, paint and repair all machinery, aisles, etc.
    SPREAD - make cleaning and putting things away routine.
    SYSTEMATIZE - standardize the process.

Flexible Manning (Shojinka): A way of managing person-power on the line such that when
demand decreases, workers can be re-deployed to areas where needed, or when demand
increases, they can be deployed to areas requiring additional support. Preferred to the system of
maximizing machine efficiency, which pays no attention to customer demand and TAKT time.

Foundation of KAIZEN: The Three Principles and Seven Concepts of KAIZEN, which serve as a
foundation for the systems and tools required for implementation of continual improvement and
Total Quality Management, and which shape the culture and thinking of an organization's
leadership.

Forrester effect: Small changes in the Final Customer Demand will generate demand increases in
every step of the Supply Chain. Moving upstream at each step of the supply chain, demand
variations are amplified. The Forrester effect is also called “Bull whip effect”.

GANNT Chart: A type of bar chart used in process planning and control to display planned work
and finished work in relation to time and sequence.

GEMBA (or GENBA): A Japanese word that literally means "the Real or Original Place". Used in
the context of KAIZEN, Gemba usually refers to the shop floor or to the place where the Core
Process is going on. In a broader sense, Gemba refers to any place in a company where work is
being performed; thus one may have an engineering Gemba, a sales Gemba, an accounting
Gemba, etc. Gemba is essential part of the Kaizen concept of “Speaking with Data”.
                                      KAIZEN® Glossary
                                  Frequently used words and
                                          concepts




GEMBUTSU (or GENBUTSU): A Japanese word that literally means "the Real or Original Thing".
Used in the context of KAIZEN, Gembutsu usually refers to physical items on the Gemba: tools,
machines, material, products, consumables, defective goods or parts, etc. Gembutsu are essential
part of the Kaizen concept of “Speaking with Data”.

GENJITSU : A Japanese word that literally means "the Real or Original Fatcs and Data". Used in
the context of KAIZEN, Genjitsu usually refers to all non-physical data describing the real situation
on the Gemba: data, facts, specifications, parameters etc. Genjitsu are essential part of the Kaizen
concept of “Speaking with Data”.

Goals, Super ordinate: The three goals of Quality, Cost and Delivery that are key to customer
satisfaction. Customers require all three - high quality, low cost, and on-time delivery. All three go
to make up the customer's appraisal of value.

Group-Wide Quality Control (GWOC): A system of continuing interaction among all elements,
including suppliers, responsible for achieving the continuously improving quality of products and
services that satisfies customer demand.

Hanedashi: Automatic parts ejection. Parts may be manually inserted into a machine, but when
the cycle is complete the processed part is automatically ejected so the operator can simply insert
the new work and move the ejected part on to the next process, thus reducing his/her cycle time.

Heijunka (Levelling): Production Levelling means to manufacture a product in a constant cycle of
time (also called EPE – Every Product Every). The aim is to avoid the Muda of stock and
overproduction being able to match with the exact customer demand. Following this way of
production, levelling can strongly reduce the “Forrester-Bullwhip” effect.

Histogram: A graphic summary of variation in a set of data. The pictoral nature of the histogram
reveals patterns that are difficult to see in a table of numbers. The histogram is one of the Basic
Seven Tools of Quality.

Improvement: As part of KAIZEN strategic thinking, improvement is a mind-set inextricably linked
to maintaining and improving standards. In a broader sense, improvement can be defined as
KAIZEN and innovation" where a KAIZEN strategy maintains and improves standards through
small, gradual improvements, and innovation makes radical improvements through large
investments in technology and/or plant equipment.

ISO 9000 Series Standards: A set of five individual, but related, international standards on quality
management and quality assurance developed to help companies effectively document required
quality system elements. The standards are not specific to any particular industry, product, or
service. They were developed by the International Standardization Organization (ISO), an agency
composed of the national standards bodies of ninety-one countries.

Jidohka: (See Autonomation.)

Just-in-Time (JIT): A system of managing production processes that results in line-balancing,
one-piece flow, little or no excess material inventory on hand at the plant site and little or no
                                      KAIZEN® Glossary
                                  Frequently used words and
                                          concepts


incoming inspection. This system was developed at Toyota under the leadership of Taiichi Ohno
and is sometimes called "The Toyota Production System".

Kaikaku (Breakthrough): A radical change for the better according to determined objectives.

KAIZEN: A Japanese term meaning "change for the better". Applied to business organizations, it
implies continuing improvement involving everyone that does not cost much, if any money.

KAIZEN Culture: An organizational culture based on the three super ordinate principles - Process
and Results, Systemic Thinking, and Non-judgmental, Non-Blaming.

KAIZEN Strategy: A business strategy that begins with the customers' needs concerning Quality,
Cost, and Delivery, is founded on a people-oriented culture, is supported by an involved
leadership, and consists of three integrated core elements: Principles and Concepts; Systems; and
Tools.

KANBAN: A communication tool in the Just-in-Time production and inventory control system
developed at Toyota. A KANBAN, or signboard -- they may also be parts bins -- accompanies
specific parts in the production line signifying delivery of a given quantity. When the parts have all
been used, the sign - or bin - is returned to its origin, where it becomes an order for more.
KANBANS are essential parts of the "Pull System" of production.

Kari oki: Loss especially in manual work due to WIP which has to be posed and picked up again
between different process steps.

Kobetsu Kaizen: Focussed improvement. One of the pillars of TPM® (Total Productive
Maintenance). The idea of Kobetsu Kaizen is the focused elimination of losses applying a
structured method of problem identification, root cause analysis, problem resolution and
standardization.

Leadership: An essential part of the quality improvement effort. Organizational leaders must
shape the culture and establish a vision, communicate that vision to the people and provide the
systems, tools, and skills necessary to accomplish it.

Maintenance: Refers to activities directed to maintaining current technological, managerial, and
operational standards. Maintenance in this sense constitutes a "floor" upon which improvement
efforts are based. Maintenance, thus, is distinguished from KAIZEN and Innovation, which move
the "floor" upward by means of the PDCA cycle.

Market-In: Contrasted to Product-Out, this concept concerns a factual understanding of customer
needs and wants, and figures in how to satisfy them, rather than assuming that the company
knows what those needs and wants are. It also implies that those companies do best who can
anticipate the latent customer needs and wants before customers are even aware that such
products and services might be possible.

Mizusumashi (Water-Spider): A person who manages all the logistical work of bringing
components, raw materials, etc. in small quantities to work stations to minimize work-in- process
inventories. This allows machines to be placed closer together, and spares the operator from
having to interrupt his/her cycle time, thus minimizing transportation muda. Water spiders usually
                                      KAIZEN® Glossary
                                  Frequently used words and
                                          concepts


are experienced workers. They know where needed parts or raw materials are stored, and serve
several workstations.

Muda: Japanese word for "Waste". One of the "3 Ms" (Muda, Mura [Irregularity or Unevenness]
and Muri [Strain].) There are seven types of Muda – Overproduction, Inventory, Transportation,
Waiting, Motion, Overprocessing, and Correction.

Muda Walk: A half-hour walk through the Gemba to observe evidence of what may be various
types of Muda. The object of this walk is to show that the Gemba is full of data and opportunities
for improvement for those whose eyes are trained to see them. Muda walks are not intended to
provide opportunities for blaming and finding fault.

Mura: Irregularity or unevenness in the processes. Sometimes also translated as variability.

Muri: Straineous, irrational or overburden.

Non-judgmental, Non-Blaming: One of three KAIZEN Principles. Contrasted to the traditional
tendency to find who is to blame for problems and mistakes, this approach looks at the problem
with others to seek a solution. Also implicit in this principle is an approach of childlike curiosity
about how things work and how they can be improved, instead of judging whether things already
done are good or bad, right or wrong. The principle does not imply that managers must never
exercise judgment, since good judgment is always required in decision-making.

Non-Statistical Quality Control: Much of quality control is non-statistical, particularly that portion
which has to do with human resources. Elements are Self-discipline, Morale, Communications, 1-
fuman Relations, and Standardization. Statistics are only one tool in Quality Control and are of
limited use with regard to human beings and methods.

Paradigm: A term made much use of in Joel Barker's Paradigms videotapes. It is a mental
structure or framework for making sense out of, and solving problems, using data relevant to that
structure. Major paradigm shifts occur about twice a century.

Pareto Chart: A graphic tool for ranking causes of problems from the most significant to the least.
It is based on the Pareto Principle that most effects come from twenty percent of the possible
causes. The Pareto Chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality.

PDCA: (See Deming Cycle)

Policy: In Japan, this term is used to describe long - and medium-range - management priorities,
as well as annual goals or targets. Policy is composed of both goals and measures (ends and
means). Goals (Control Points) are usually quantitative figures established by top management,
such as sales, profit, and market share. Measures (Check Points) are the specific action programs
designed to achieve these goals.

Policy Deployment: The process of implementing the policies of an organization's leadership
directly through line managers and indirectly through cross-functional integration and cooperation.
(See Hoshin Planning.) Along with Cross-Functional Management, one of the Seven KAIZEN
Systems.
                                     KAIZEN® Glossary
                                  Frequently used words and
                                          concepts


Principles of KAIZEN: The three bedrock principles upon which KAIZEN thinking and
organizational culture are based. Process and Results, Systemic Thinking, and Non- Judgmental,
Non-Blaming.

Process and Results: One of the three foundation principles of KAIZEN thinking. It is contrasted
with Results Only, the common old paradigm approach which ignores the way in which things are
done, and so misses any opportunity for systematic improvement. Process and Results can also
be stated as Process Creates Results.

Product-Out: Understood in contrast to the KAIZEN concept, Market-In. Assumes that whatever a
company knows how to make and when, is good enough to satisfy customer requirements.

Quality: Although there are many definitions offered for this term, two are of key importance. The
first has to do with customer satisfaction and can be stated, "Any product or service that continually
delights the customer." The second definition refers to the internal processes of an organization
that serve customers. Quality is "the continual elimination of waste in, and improvement of, every
process." It is only when Quality is understood in this latter sense that companies can deliver
higher quality, lower cost, and on-time delivery simultaneously.

Control: (See Group-Wide Quality Control.)

Quality Control Circles: A small group that voluntarily performs process improvement activities
within the workplace.

QCD: The three super-ordinate goals of Quality, Cost, and Delivery at the heart of KAIZEN
Strategy.

Quality First: One of the seven KAIZEN Concepts. The concept states that if either delivery or
cost leads quality in efforts to improve, no improvement will take place in the long run.

Quality Function Deployment: A system whereby customer requirements, known as "true quality
characteristics" are translated into designing characteristics, known as "counterpart
characteristics", and then deployed into such sub-systems as components, parts and production
processes to develop new products precisely designed to meet customer needs. QFD is one of the
Seven KAIZEN Systems.

Radar Chart: A circular chart with ten rays and spokes, one for each of the three principles and
seven concepts of KAIZEN. It is used as a diagnostic tool to measure on a scale of zero (at the
hub) to ten (at the rim) the degree of consistency with KAIZEN principles and concepts exhibited
by an organization.

Results-Oriented Management: A style of management usually associated with controls,
performance, product or "bottom line" considerations, rewards and/or punishments.

SDCA Cycle (Standardize, Do, Check, Act): A refinement of the PDCA cycle aimed at
stabilization of production processes prior to making attempts to improve.

Shojinka: (See Flexible Manning.)
                                     KAIZEN® Glossary
                                 Frequently used words and
                                         concepts


Speak With Data: One of the Seven KAIZEN Concepts. Refers to the importance of collecting
solid evidence wherever possible before making decisions. Stresses the importance of going to
Gemba and collecting data from the source.

SQA (Supplier Quality Assistance): As part of GWQC, it is essential that this system is in place
to make sure that incoming materials and components meet quality specifications.

Standardized Work: As defined at Toyota, this is the optimum combination of workers, machines
and materials. It includes - (1) Production to TAKT time, (2) Defined work sequence, and (3)
Standard work in process.

Standards: A set of policies, rules, directives and procedures established by management and
workers for all major operations which serve as guidelines enabling all employees to perform their
work in the best, easiest, healthiest and safest way currently known.

Standardization: One of the Seven KAIZEN Systems. Pertains to enhancing and enforcing
standards throughout an organization.

Statistical Quality Control (SQC): The use of statistical tools (Pareto Charts, Histograms, Check
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams, etc.) to ensure that machines are within acceptable tolerances, or to
solve quality problems through the use of tools.

Suggestion System: One of the Seven KAIZEN Systems, Suggestion System is an essential part
of individual-oriented KAIZEN. Its design is carefully plotted, implemented and communicated.
Scrupulous attention is paid to top management responsiveness, and to developing a system of
feedback, recognition, and rewards.

TAKT Time: A vital element in balancing single piece production flows, TAKT Time is calculated
by dividing the total daily customer demand in completed units (television sets, automobiles, can
openers, and the like), by the total number of production minutes or seconds worked in a twenty-
four hour period.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): Aims at maximizing equipment effectiveness throughout
the entire life of the equipment. It involves such basic elements as a routine maintenance system,
education in basic housekeeping, problem-solving skills, and activities to achieve zero
breakdowns. TPM is one of the Seven KAIZEN Systems.

Total Quality Control or Total Quality Management (TQM): A holistic, company or even group-
wide approach to quality. TQC is the "what", KAIZEN is the "how" or process of the new business
paradigm. It begins and ends with people. TQC is one of the seven KAIZEN Systems.

Upstream Management: One of the seven KAIZEN Concepts. Upstream Management is a
process whereby, through continuous improvement, first in inspection, then in the line, then in
development, defects are eliminated farther and farther "upstream" in the production process.

Variability Control and Recurrence Prevention: One of the seven KAIZEN Concepts. This is
often called "Ask why five times" because it seeks through curious questioning to arrive at the root
cause of a problem so that problem can be eliminated once and for all.
                                     KAIZEN® Glossary
                                 Frequently used words and
                                         concepts


Visible Management: The presentation of a wide variety of information in the workplace. Such
information may pertain to jobs themselves, to the business as a whole, to how work teams are
progressing on a project. Kanban cards are examples of Visible Management, as are storage bins
with sample pans displayed, tool shadow boards, storyboards, etc.

Warusa-Kagen: A term in TQC that refers to things that are not yet problems, but are still not quite
right. They are often the starting point of improvement activities because if left untended they may
develop into serious problems. In Gemba, it is usually the operators who first notice Warusa-
Kagen, and who therefore are on the front line of improvement.

Water-Spider (Mizusumashi): (see Mizusumashi)

								
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