PHILIPPINES VEGETABLE GROWING GUIDE ASPARAGUS A native to temperate Europe and Western Asia, asparagus has perennial roots, which sends up each year an erect branching stem several feet in height. One of the most delicate, wholesome and appetizing products of the garden, its new shoots are juicy and succulent both for use as table vegetable and canning purpose. Varieties: There are few varieties of asparagus in the country. GREEN SEEDS COMPANY LTD offer four varieties: Mary Washington and F1 UC 157 which are of green type, and Argenteuil and F1 Larac which are of white type. Adaptation: Asparagus grows best in cold places like Baguio and the Mt.Province, and high-elevated areas in Mindanao, like Bukidnon. Planting and spacing Propagation is done through the use of crowns raised from seeds in seedbeds. In small scale planting, crown are raised by hand-drilling seeds in rich, well-prepared seed beds 18 to 30 cm. Apart for commercial production, crowns are produced by drilling seeds with mechanical drillers preferably those that drop one seed in a hill at about 8 cm intervals. The rows may be spaced 120 to 180 cm. apart depending on the tools to be used for cultivation. Asparagus crowns are allowed to grow for one full growing season before being planted in a permanent field or bed. The crown are dug and lifted out with a short-handed fork, care being taken so as not to injure them. Plant the newly dug crowns as soon as possible since desiccation or drying slows growth. The depth of planting varies from 15 to 33 cm depending on the physical characteristics of the soil and the products desired. Regardless of the depth of the furrows, the crowns must be placed with the buds up, 5 to 7 cm. deep in the furrows at planting time. Distance of planting varies considerably but the usual practice is planting 60 to 90 cm. apart between plants in the row and 120 to 180 cm. apart between rows. In deep planting, hilling-up and wider spacing between hills and furrows are given to asparagus raised for bunched stalks. Cultivation: In the seedling stage, the plants must be kept free from weeds by shallow cultivation. Deep cultivation by hoe is recommended with care being taken not to destroy the roots. In the permanent field or bed, the general care given is much different from that applied to other vegetable crops. The plants stay in the same area for many years. After the first and succeeding years, it is best to pass the disc and harrow in between the rows before growth begins. The field is kept free from volunteer plant and weeds by proper cultivation. Irrigation: Moisture is an important factor in the production of shoots; thus irrigation has to be applied liberally during the dry season. Inter-cropping: This farm practice is a laudable operation in the management of an asparagus garden for it reduces the cost of cultivation and weeding and it utilizes the wide spaces between the rows of asparagus plants. The inter- crops recommended are the bushy legumes such as snap beans, peas, and soybeans; leafy vegetables such as cabbage, lettuce, Pak Choi (petchay) and root crops, such as carrots, radish and sugar beets. The legumes and the leafy vegetables require frequent hoeing and fertilization, which are advantageous to the culture of green asparagus shoots. The practice will produce more robust shoots. Fertilization: The productive life of asparagus plant depends on greatly on the treatment it receives. An established bed, which receives good cultivation and liberal application each year, may yield profitable from 15 to 20 years. The best amount of fertilizer to use is about 35 tons of compost mixed with 400 kilos of complete fertilizer per hectare. It is suggested that 2/3 of the amount be applied every year before the start of growth or before rainfalls and the remaining 1/3 at the start of the dry season. Care has to be taken to avoid injury to the crown and other shoots. The knife is inserted outward to cut off the stalk. One thrust with knife is sufficient. The shoots are then washed, bundled and packed before marketing. Pests and their control: So far the only known pest of asparagus in the Philippines is the mealy bug, Ferrisia Virgata Ckll. The bugs feed on the foliage and green portions of the plants, thus rendering them sickly with retarded growth. The control measures are the following :(1) cutting and burning the infested portion, and (2) spraying the plants every two weeks with Sevin at the rate of one or two tablespoonfuls per gallon of water. Diseases and their control: 1. Asparagus rust - The diseases is caused by Puccinia asparagi. The typical symptom is the presence of small reddish-yellow spots on the main stem and on branches. As the diseases develops, the spots enlarge into patches until the whole plant becomes reddish-brown or orange and later becomes darker. Control is by spraying the plants, while still moist with dew, with lime sulfur at the manufacture’s recommended dosage every two weeks. Tropical varieties that are tolerant to asparagus rust are: Mary Washington and Argenteuil. 2. Fusarium wilt - Spears affected with this disease show a brown discoloration of the surface and become stunted and wilted. So far, no effective control has been developed except to avoid planting in infested areas and to use crowns raised on disease-free beds. Harvesting, cutting and storing: The first harvest of asparagus is made at the start of the third season or after the plants have had two full growing seasons in a permanent bed. Asparagus is harvested everyday during the regular cutting season, which lasts from 8 to 14 weeks. If the weather is too hot, the growth of asparagus is accelerated, thus visiting the field twice is advisable. In cutting asparagus, one hand takes hold of the shoot while the other inserts the knife to the desired depth usually two to five cm. bellow the soil surface. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops BEAN The production of bean in our country is now becoming more popular because the plant does not only produce food for man and animals bit also improves the fertility and physical condition of the soil. Planting of beans serves as a catch crop to fill in the time after the main crop is harvested. Varieties: GREEN SEEDS COMPANY LTD have a wide range of varieties which includes: Phenomene, Blue Lake, Kentucky Wonder (white/brown seeded) which are of the pole type. Of the bush type are: Contender, Coca, Vadenel, Maxidor, Coco, and Monel. The pods vary in shape but they have kidney-shaped seeds. Adaptation: This is a warm season plant and it requires an optimum temperature of 65-degree F to 75 degree F. It thrives at low medium elevations. High temperature interferes with seed setting while low temperature is unfavorable to growth. It requires fertile, loose, loamy and well-drained soil rich in organic matter with pH 5.5 to 6.7. The best time to plant this crop is at the end of the rainy season, from October to December. For green pods, the plant may also be planted early at the beginning of the rainy season, preferably during the first week of May. Cultural requirements: Bean is propagated by seeds. The field should be plowed and harrowed two to three times to insure good filth before planting. Seeds should be inoculated before sowing them to field. Inoculated seeds will produce bacteria that enable the legumes to secure nitrogen from the air. The most practical way is by taking soil from a field previously planted to bean, preferable of the same variety, melted with enough water and mixed thoroughly with the seeds to be planted. Plant the seeds in straight furrows laid 40 to 45 cm. apart, dropping two to three seeds in hills 20 to 30 cm apart. One cultivation between the rows and weeding along the rows are sufficient for the crop. After hilling- up, irrigation water is allowed to play in between the rows at saturation point. The frequency of irrigation depends upon the weather condition and type of soil. Irrigation water is applied as soon as the plant shows signs of wilting. Legumes are soil-improving crops like other short- season vegetables. These crops need the various nutrients in the more readily available forms for their growth and development. Bean as a leguminous crop possesses the ability of fixing free nitrogen-fixing bacteria. But the relatively long period of fixation during the phenomenon known as modulation may cause undue delay that may ultimately result in the nitrogen hunger. Therefore, nitrogen application in combination with phosphorous and potassium is necessary. The application of complete fertilizer (12-12-12) at the rate of 400 to 700 kg. per ha. gives good yield. Harvesting, curing and storing : The proper time of harvesting must be considered in order to combine the desirable factors of good yield and quality. This crop produces flowers 28 to 30 days after sowing. For green pod production, the plant is ready for harvest 40 days after sowing, or when the pods have reached satisfactory size and before they get fully-grown with prominent seeds and fibrous. For green shell bean: 45 days after sowing when the pods become large but before the pods and seeds become dry. For dry shell bean, 60 to 65 days after sowing when the majority of the pods are yellow and beginning to dry up. By this time, the pods are usually well filled with mature beans. The moisture content of the seed should also be considered especially when they are to be utilized to seed purposes. Bean seeds that are too dry become hard seeds at or below seven per cent moisture content and will not germinate well. Picking of dry pods should be done every two to four-day intervals depending on the weather conditions. Since the vegetable is usually consumed as green pods and green-shelled beans, it is immediately marketed. For dry beans, considerable attention is important. They are perishable vegetables and are susceptible to damage at high temperatures. Any treatment that will maintain quality during marketing is essential. When packing for local consumption or when the period from packing to retailing is short, a relatively small and well- ventilated package is used. For distant shipment, the preferred method is to pack them in properly-line crates with a liberal amount of crushed ice. Covering the containers with crushed ice while in transit assures delivery at markets undue deterioration in eating quality and appearance. Control of pests and diseases: Pests: 1. Bean Aphid, Aphid craccivora Koch. Growing plants tend to be attacked first and crippled by the insects sucking the sap, the aphids gradually move downward and may eventually cover the leaves, stems, flowers, and pods. Heavily infested plants develop abnormal growth, become dwarfed and are unproductive. Control: this is usually controlled by chemicals such as Malathion, Lindane, Derris and Nicotine preferable applied as spray to all infested parts of the plants including the undersides of leaves. 2. Bean fly, Melanagroymyza phaseoli (Coquillet). The fly is black and is about 1.5 mm long. The eggs are laid in the leaves in punctures. After hatching, the maggots mine the leaves and then go down the stem and feed chiefly at the bases of the plants. Damage- the larvae or maggots mine the stems of beans; young plants in particular are susceptible. They feed especially at the bases of the plants. Injured seedlings seldom develop into thrifty plants but rather remains dwarfed throughout the season or die prematurely. Control- several recommendations have been effective in avoiding serious damage. Shallow planting in the heavier, wetter soils will facilitate quick germination and thereby enable the plant to become established before serious injury occurs. Early and thorough seedbed preparation and planting after the principle egg-laying period will ensure less likelihood of infestation. Pullout dying plants promptly and burn them. Avoid late plantings. Plant immune or resistant beans, if possible. 3. Bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say). It is responsible for enormous losses in storage and causes what are popularly called buggy beans. The primary infection occurs in the field when the pods and seeds are still immature. The adult female weevil oviposites in the tender pods, the eggs hatching into tiny, white larvae within the seeds after the later is placed in storage. The adult weevil is about 1/8 in. long, grayish-brown with hairy wing. Damage - A larva hatched from an egg on the surface of the stored bean first tunnel its way into the seed and gradually eats out a large chamber as it grows into full size. Under warm storage temperature, several generations may be produced, the larva eating and developing from the egg to the weevil entirely within the seed. At maturity, the weevil pushes off the seed coat covering the pupae chamber and emerges. Badly infested beans exhibit many holes and are worthless either for food or seed. Control - Dry-shelled beans should be stored in relatively cool and well- ventilated storage to avoid weevil infestation. Fumigation is most effective at a temperature of about 70 degree F. It may be necessary to fumigate several times during the storage period at four to six-week intervals. Diseases and their controls: 1. Anthracnose, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Bri. and Cav. The most prominent symptoms of the disease are the large, rounded, dark- colored lesions on the pod. When infested seeds are planted, the seedlings may die before they break through the ground. In dry weather, the plants may develop normally until pods are formed. The disease is more prevalent during the rainy season. Control - The principal control measure is to use disease resistant varieties. Seed treatment is also a practical measure. Other means include deep plowing under any diseased bean refuse, using a 3-year (or longer) rotation and weed control. Spraying at weekly intervals with either Ferban, Ziram or Zineb will safeguard the crop. 2. Rust, Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers) Fr. - The rust spot is most noticeable on the leaves although it occurs, always in a smaller number on the pods, stems and petioles as tiny, almost white dots. They consist of pustules about the size of pinheads and are of a rusty color. When mature, they liberate a mass of spores, which easily rub off. The spot occurs on both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. The fungus produces the reddish brown color which will soon becomes very dark- brown or black owing to the development of the disease. Control - The disease is controlled very effectively by the application of sulfur dust soon after the first sign appears. Sulfur spray such as Kolo 100 or Kolo carbamate applied at 7 to 10-day intervals and continued as long as the plant needs protection is effective. The use of resistant varieties is also recommended. 3. Root and stem rots of bean, Fusarium solani F. Phaseoli (Burk) Sund and Hans. It is caused by one of the most destructive of all root rot organism attacking beans. The first symptom of this disease is a reddish discoloration on the top root, which gradually darkens and finally turns brown. The discoloration ultimately reaches the soil line and the stem. Diseased plants may appear stunted during the dry weather. Leaves may turn yellow and droop. Control - The most successful control measure for this disease is crop rotation with cereals. Reference: Cultural Directions for Philippine Agricultural Crops. CABBAGE Cabbage is cultivated world- wide, being one of the most important leafy vegetables rich in vitamins (ascorbic acid) and minerals essential to man’s health. Cabbage is eaten fresh, singly as salad or in combination with other vegetables and meat. Varieties: GREEN SEEDS COMPANY LTD varieties of cabbage are: F1 Sahel - Very good tropical hybrid resistant to heat with medium size head for heading during warmest and wet season. In very hot and wet season with small day/night temperature range head weight is 600 grams to 1 kg with medium maturity 75 to 85 days from transplant. In better conditions with bigger day/night temperature range, head weight is 1 to 1.5 kg with early harvest, 60 to 65 days from transplant. Head is very compact, very firm and heavy. Good shipper. Tolerant to rot and Fusarium yellows. F1 Bali - Hybrid extra early small headed (500 grams to 1 kg) very firm. Light green color. Ball head. Harvest 45 to 50 days from transplant. F1 Celina - Strong frame, good cover of dark green leaves. Head: flat/round medium/big sized, firm. Tolerant: black rot and yellows: resistant to heat and humidity. Other varieties includes: (details on the brochure) F1 Rustica, F1 Domina, Golden Acre, Copenhagen Market, Brunswick, F1 KK Cross, F1 Baraka. GREEN Co. has 2 varieties of red cabbage (1) Rubby Ball - early red cabbage. Plant is medium compact, good for close planting. Head is about 1.5 kg., very dark red color, globe, very solid, very late bursting. Early maturity: 65 days after transplanting. Resistance to cold and high tolerance to heat. (2) Red Acre - Head is about 1.2 to 1.8 kg, color is deep red. Maturity is 70 to 80 days after transplanting. Adaptation: Climatic and soil requirements - Cabbage is a cool season crop but the advent of new lines and hybrids has greatly revolutionized its successful commercial culture under varying agro-climatic situations in the country. The F1 hybrids of KK from Japan, for example, could be raised successfully from sandy to clayey but well-drained soils at sea level during the dry summer months of March to May and would do equally well at high altitudes in Benguet during most parts of the year. Months of planting - The production of cabbage in Baguio and farms stretching along Mt. Trail toward Bontoc extends practically throughout the year but the main crops are harvested in December and from May to June. In the lowlands, extensive areas are planted between late October and early November. Nutritional Requirements - The cabbage plant grows vigorously on soils rich in organic matter, particularly nitrogen. This is one reason why in Baguio, farms receive heavy manure from crop to crop in addition to supplemental application of chemical fertilizers. Aside from soil variations, different commercial varieties vary in their nutritional requirements for optimum head production. In Baguio, however, the application of 12-12-12 at the rate of 600 kg/ha has resulted in heavy yields ( 30- 35 tons/ha) of good quality heads. Cultural requirements: Sowing the Seeds - from 1/5 to 1/4 kg. of seeds is required per hectare for limited scale of gardening, seedlings are raised in seed boxes containing soil rich in humus and free from diseases and other harmful soil organisms. In extensive truck gardening like in Benguet Province, farmers grow seedlings in raised seed beds provided with portable glass or plastic roofing. The beds are watered with a solution of ammonium sulfate ( 3 to 4 teaspoonfuls ammonium sulfate dissolved in one kerosene can of water) to serve as starter. The optimum age of seedlings for transplanting ranges from 25 to 35 days after sowing. Hardening is essential to reduce high mortality and cost of replanting, especially in truck gardening. This is achieved by suspending irrigation of the beds a few days before transplanting. Planting and spacing - Raised plots of about 80 to 100 cm wide to any convenient length are prepares and seedlings set 40 to 50 cm from each other along two rows 50 cm. apart. Another method that is more practical and economical in wide plain areas in the lowlands is the double row method of planting. Each double row is distanced half-meter apart and a space of about one meter is provided between double rows. Transplanting is done preferably during cloudy days or late in the afternoon to avoid excessive wilting and mortality. Cultivation and irrigation - Daily, light overhead irrigation of the plots with the use of a sprinkler or a watering can is done for about two weeks after transplanting. In the case of the double-row method, irrigating the field by gravity is done at least twice a week. Cultivation to control weeds and to improve soil aeration is done two to three weeks after planting or as soon as a thick growth of weeds becomes visible in and between the plots. Use is made of square-faced hand trowels or grab hoes. When equipment are available, mechanized weeding and ridging between double-rows of plants are convenient. Fertilizer application - Aside from the farm manure applied in the soil during land preparation, chemical fertilizers are also needed. Under conditions similar to those in the Baguio area, 8 to 10 bags of ammonium sulfate or 4 to 5 bags urea are side-dressed between the hills of plants following weeding and cultivation and covered with soil. Fertilizer may be drilled between furrows in the case of the double-row method of planting. Control of Insects and Diseases: Pests and their Control 1. Diamond-back moth - Plutella xylostella Lin. This is the most destructive pest of crucifers in the Philippines. The moth is recognized by the diamond pattern that is produced when the wings are closed. The moth lays its eggs singly on the undersides of the leaves and the gray- green caterpillars grow to about 10 mm long, then pupate in web-like cocoons on the leaves. It is known that in temperate countries, 2 to 3 generations of the past exist per year but they overlap and, therefore, it is quite possible to find all stages at the same time in an infested crop. In tropical countries like the Philippines, some 10 generations are found in one year. Infestation starts on the lower surface of the leaves leaving the upper surface appearing as papery-white. Later, the heads of the plants may also be damaged. Method of Control - The use of Gusathion, Phosdrin or Bayrusil has been found effective in controlling infection by spraying at weekly intervals the underneath surface of the leaves with a fine mist of any of the chemicals . 2. Cutworm - Prodenia litura (Fabr). Dark brown to blackish larvae of the pest particularly infest young transplants by eating out parts of the stem just above the ground. Plants thus damaged topple down with no chance of recovery because the stem is virtually cut off. In severe cases, the field appears gappy, necessitating early extensive replanting. The larvae seek refuge in the soil at daytime. Methods of control - Drenching the soil with Aldrin or spraying the solution around the base of the plant for the chemical to drip on the root zone would provide satisfactory protective control. If no earlier application had been made, spraying the plants with a solution of Phosdrin or Methyl Parathion can attain some degree of control. Diseases and their Control: 1. Soft rot of cabbage - The disease is caused by Erwinia carotovora F..F.S. The causal organism is a weak parasite that incites infection through wounds, like harvest bruises, freezing injury and insect wounds. Method of control - Provision should be made for the healing of wounds and for drying surfaces. When storing, the temperature must be at the lowest level at which the heads of the cabbage can be expected to retain their culinary quality. 2. Club rot of crucifers - Club rot is due to Plasmodiophora brassica Wor. It is favored by poorly-drained conditions of the soil. Infection may progress to a considerable extent before above-ground signs become noticeable. Affected roots enlarged, assuming a club like appearance, which is of varied shapes. The first symptoms visible above the ground vary with prevailing environmental conditions. Normally, flagging of the leaves in the middle of a sunny day is the early reliable symptom. Method of Control - Use resistant varieties mentioned above. Since young seedlings are the most susceptible hosts of the fungus, it is important to use disease-free soil in raising the seedlings. The use of mercuric bichloride in the transplanting liquid (used in watering before pulling off the seedlings prior to transplanting ) has protective value. Harvesting and Handling: Index of Maturity - Most varieties of GREEN Co. can be harvested from 60 to 65 days after transplant. Others are medium late from 80 to 90 days while F1 Bali can be harvested very early from 45 to 50 days from transplant. Age of Harvest - Right age of the head for transplant is important because price is affected by the quality of the produce. Brownish blemishes on the outermost leaves of the head or cracking are normal signs of over- maturity while soft heads with still young, fresh and loose leaf coverings are still immature. Average production of cabbage is from 20 to 25 metric tons per hectare. Procedure of harvesting - With a convenient long knife, the plant is bent at an angle so that the head is cut leaving one to two of the outer loose leaves. The heads are placed in bamboo baskets and hauled to a packing sheds for cleaning and classification. CARROTS Carrot is a biennial crop. The leaves are feather like with long petioles and they are severally divided into sections. The sheath of the petiole opens at the base. The flowers are white, small and borne in compound terminal umbels. Carrot is propagated by seeds. The thickened fleshy root is the edible portion. The shape, color and size of the root vary according to varieties. Importance: Carrot gained importance in the human diet because of its nutritive value. The edible root is an excellent source of Vitamin A. It also contains appreciable amounts of food energy and many other food nutrients necessary for the body. Varieties: New Kuroda - Root is dark red, tapered with the length of 16 to 20 cm. Strong vigorous plant. Tolerant to Alternaria. Maturity days 80 to 100 days. F1 Japan Cross - Kuroda hybrid type resistant to heat. Maturity from sowing, 110 to 120 on cool season, 90 to 95 days in hot season. Vigorous plant. roots are along slightly tapered, with uniform dark red color, 18 to 20 cm long. Resistant to Alternaria. High yield 30 to 35 tons per ha. Other varieties include: Nantes Improved, Touchon, Chantenay, Colmar, F1 Amazonia. Adaptation: Climatic and Soil Requirements - Carrot is known to be a temperate and semi temperate crop. In the Philippines, it can grown successfully at high elevations with a cool environment. It can also be grown in lowland areas but the growing period should be during the cool months of the year if good stand and yield are desired. The crop is usually planted from October to December. The optimum pH for carrot is about 5.5 to 7.0. It has little tolerance to high salt content, but is moderately tolerant to high boron in the soil. It requires a very deep, well drained soil preferably sandy loam. However, careful control of soil moisture by furrow irrigation permits use of heavier soil than is recommended. Carrot can also be planted in loam and slit loam soils but it is usually difficult to establish good stands in these soil, unless crust formation can be avoided. Clay soils impair root shape, and harvesting from clay soils is difficult. Coarse, undecomposed, organic matter in the surface soil tends to impair root shape. Nutrients - Little is known in the Philippines as to the nutritional requirements of carrot, except that when applied with the correct amount of complete fertilizer, it responds satisfactorily. Cultural Requirements: Field Preparation - The land should be plowed and harrowed several times until a fine filth is attained. Thorough field preparation is very necessary for the plant because it is small- seeded and usually planted direct in the field. Besides, field preparation seems to have something to do with the development of the roots. Crops planted in a well-prepared field seem to have better well-shaped, marketable roots than plants grown in a poorly prepared soil which tend to have irregularly-shaped roots. Planting and spacing - Carrot is usually directly seeded. In a small plantation or backyard garden, it is either broadcast or planted in furrows spaced 20 cm. between rows and about 5 cm. In the row, on a slightly elevated plot. In big commercial plantation, seeds are drilled evenly or planted in hills in shallow furrows, about 1 to 2 cm. deep, covered with a thin layer of fine soil. The spacing is about 20 to 30 cm between rows and about 5 cm. in the row. The seed requirement per hectare will depend much on the percentage of germination and spacing. The lower the percentage of germination and the closer the planting, the more seeds are required per hectare. Under normal conditions, that is, if the germination is from 80 to 90 percent, a hectare usually requires 4 to 6 kg. of seeds. Cultivation and thinning - Carrot is a slow starter plant both in terms of germination and growth at the seedling stage. It germinates after ,six to 21 days from sowing at a temperature of about 20 to 24 degree centigrade. At seedling stage, the plants are slender and incapable of competing with the weeds. It is therefore, advisable to keep weeds completely down at the early stages of growth of the plants to have a good uniform stand. Shallow cultivation is started as soon as the first true leaves appear. Thinning is done only when the plants are about 15 cm. in height. At this stage, the plants are already more or less established. It is also recommended that during the last cultivation, this soils be thrown toward the base of the plants to avoid the development of green pigments on the shoulder of the roots which may effect their market value. Irrigation - Carrots need a constant supply of moisture throughout the growing season to produce uniform and tender quality roots. In areas with adequate rainfall or with enough soil moisture during the growing season, irrigation can be dispensed with. In places with less rainfall or soil moisture, irrigation is profitable. Frequent, light irrigation is preferable to heavy irrigation. Never allow water to stay too long in the field as this would encourage root disease and rotting. Crop rotation - Planting of crops alternately in a piece of land is a good agricultural practice not only in the control of pests and diseases but also in maintaining the soil productivity. The rotation should be planned according to the purpose of the grower. If the rotation is designed for the control of pest and diseases, the crop to be rotated should not be an alternate host of the pest of disease-causing agent; if for the maintenance of soil fertility, planting of leguminous crops after carrot is suggested. In soil heavily infested with root-knot nematodes, it is advisable to rotate with corn, sorghum and some resistant varieties of cowpea, peanut or beans. Fertilizer application - In the absence of soil analysis, it is advisable to use 500 to 600 kg. of the complete fertilizer (14-14-14) or (12-12-12) per hectare. It must be broadcast during the last harrowing and properly incorporated with the soil before planting. Control of Pests and Diseases Pests and their Control: 1. Cutworm, Prodenia litura Fabricius. The larva is a brown worm about 5 cm long. The adults are blackish gray both have pale marks across the wings, about 2 cm long. The eggs are laid on the lower surface of leaves in a mass several hundreds and covered with mooted hair. The worm feeds at night and hides in the soil during the day. The larva feeds on leaves and stems of young plants. Control - Spray with Sevin, Methylparathion or Parathion. 2. Aphids, Aphis sp. Small, greenish insects, winged or wingless. They reproduce rapidly. They feed on the leaves of the plant. Control - Spray with Sevin, Malathion and other systemic insecticides found in the market. 3. Root nematode or gall-worm or eel worm, causes root knot and is scientifically known as Meloidogyne sp. It is worm ordinarily too small to be seen by the naked eye. It is disseminated by means of infected soil, water and diseased root crops. In root-knot, the tissue is stimulated to abnormal growth so that the invaded roots become two to three times larger in diameter than normal and finally they decay. The top of the plant, being robbed of the food which goes to the swollen roots and at the same time deprived of water absorbing area, is stunted, pale and inclined to wilt. The affected plants may linger through the growing season, although most of them die prematurely. Control - Long rotation with crops highly resistant to the lest like corn, sorghum and some resistant varieties of cowpea, peanut and beans is recommended. Diseases and their Control: 1. Bacterial blight (caused by Xanthomonas carotae) the first symptoms are yellow spots on the tips of leaf segments. They rapidly turn brown and get a water soaked appearance. A yellowish circle often subtends the black center of the lesion. Entire leaf segments or leaflets are killed. Lower leaves die and dry up as the disease advances. In severe infections, long dark-brown, water soaked lesions develop on the petioles and main stem. A gummy, bacterial substance frequently collects on them. The affected roots may show small, water soaked greasy flecks or scab-like lesions at any point on the surface. They first appear as brown or maroon spots, which may become raised pustules or sunken craters. The large craters usually crack open and are drilled with soil particles embedded in the bacterial oose. Often, internal lesions heal over to enclose the scab lesion. Control - The bacteria persist in the soil and are commonly carried by the seed. Seed may be disinfected by soaking in hot water at 120 degree F for 10 minutes. Control also requires adequate crop rotation. 2. Bacterial soft rot ( caused by Erwinia carotovora). It is one of the most destructive diseases of carrot and other vegetables in storage and transit. The disease is recognized by a watery, smelly, soft decay on storage tissue. It normally invades plants through wounds. Control - Avoid bruising the roots during harvest. Cool, dry storage will help in the control of the disease. 3. Cercospora blight (caused by Cercospora carotae). The disease is more severe in young leaves than in old leaves. Lesions are usually marginal although any part of the leaf or petiole may be attacked. It is characterized by gray to brown, circular or elongated, localized spots that are usually whitish or tan at the center. Control - Crop rotation. Spray weekly with Maneb and Zineb until the crop is mature. Harvesting, Curing and Storing: Harvesting and Handling - Crops planted for early market are harvested as soon as the roots reach the acceptable size. This is about three to six months after sowing, depending upon the variety. Yellowing of leaves may indicate maturity but it is not a sure index. The surest and most practical way to determine the size of the roots is to scratch the base of the plants and to see the actual size of the roots by pulling some samples in the population. Carrots are pulled when they have the desires root size. The roots are highly variable in size and maturity. If harvested at one time, considerable loss in total yield may result. Therefore, it is possible, carrot should be harvested one after the other as they mature. Sorting should be done as they are harvested or gatherer from the field. Split and branched roots should be discarded. If the crop will be marketed in bunch, only dried leaves should be removed. Bunching maybe one right in the field or in the shed. Leaves should be cut to the minimum to avoid rapid with ring or shrinking of the roots. The tops are removed by cutting or twisting by hand right after the crop is pulled or harvested. Top of carrot draw moisture from the roots and hasten shriveling removing the tops doubles the shelf life of the roots. Removing tops and packing them in one pound, moisture-proof film bags further reduce moisture loss and increase shelf life. Bunched carrots when displayed six days at 70 degree F with 50 percent relative humidity lose 48 percent in weight; with tops removed, 29 percent; and in a perforated polyethylene bag, 4 per cent. Under refrigeration, polyethylene packaged carrots have a shelf life of at least two to three weeks and moisture loss is usually less than one per cent. CAULIFLOWER Cauliflower is of European origin. Considered as the aristocrat of the cabbage family, it is grown for its white, tender head formed by the shortened and thickened parts of the flowers called curds. The curds are commonly utilized as salad, either alone or in combination with others and in the preparation of pickles. The young leaves are sometimes included in the preparation of vegetable stews. Varieties: F1 Hoggar - Heat resistant early maturing 55-65 days from transplant. Curd is white, medium round, weighing 8 to 1 kg. Dark green leaves with medium frame. F1 Farwa - very rustic hybrid and large scale. Climatic adaptation: for November to February. Curd - deep white, round shape - closed cover. Other Tropical varieties include: Snow Ball Y, F1 Monte Pearle, F1 Blanca F1 Palma, and F1 Jana. Adaptation: Soil and Climatic Requirements - Cauliflower is sensitive to high acidity. Where soil reaction ranges from pH 5.5 to 6.6 maximum yields could be obtained. It grows best in rich heavy loamy soils, although it thrives fairly well in light soils. Low and well-drained bottom lands give good results if climatic conditions are favorable. Cauliflower requires a cool, moist growing season. It can not withstand either low temperatures, or too much heat, dry weather and low humidity. It succeeds better when the days are short. Cultural Requirements: Seed Requirements - About 200 to 300 g of seeds are enough to plant one hectare. The seedling are taken cared of in the same way as in cabbage, although greater care must be exercised by providing moderate rich soils and disinfecting the seedbeds or seed boxes. Although pricking is uncommon among growers, it is a must operation in cauliflower- growing to produce uniform and stocky seedlings for field planting. Land Preparation and Fertilization - The land should be well-prepared before the seedlings are set in the field. The field is plowed as many times as necessary, each followed by harrowing, until a fine filth is obtained. Cauliflower requires greater fertility than cabbage. It obtainable, large amounts of rotten manure may be use to advantage especially in light soils. With about 5 tons of manure per hectare, the application of about 100-45-45 kg. of N-P-K fertilizer mixture per hectare may prove beneficial. The application of 150-45-45 of N-P-K fertilizer mixture per hectare would give good results. Transplanting and care of plants - Seedling, pricked or unpricked, are ready to be transplanted 35 to 45 days from sowing. The seedlings are set in double rows at intervals of 50 cm apart. Each double row is 100 cm apart. Newly-set seedlings should be watered and/or irrigated by flash system to prevent the occurrence of too many missing hills. As soon as the developing plants are about 15 cm. tall, they are topped dressed with nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of about 20 kg. of the pure element per hectare, after which the double rows are bedded either with the use of machines equipped with a ridge or with a plow. Bedding the double rows is advantageous in that the plants are provided with a soil mulch which curtails the growth of weeds, completely eliminates cultivation and facilitates irrigation by merely allowing the irrigation water to play in-between beds until the desired soil moisture is reached. A perfect cauliflower head is pure white. This whiteness of curd can be obtained by blanching. While the heads are still small, the outer leaves are brought up over the head and fastened together with a bamboo toothpick for a period of two to three days. The outer leaves fastened together should be opened after three days as prolonged blanching may result in discoloration of the curd. Harvesting, Curing and Storing: The curds should be harvested as soon as they reach the proper size and before discoloration begins. Since the curds mature rather fast and sometimes irregularly, harvesting should be done frequently and regularly. The head or curd should be cut with one or two circles of outer leaves to protect the curd from bruises and damage. The curds are packed with the outer leaves untrimmed. Control of Pests and Diseases: Pests and their Control: The most common insect pest of cauliflower are cutworms (Spodoptera litura Fabr.) cauliflower worm (Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller), diamond- back moth (Plutella Xylostella Linnaeus), and root grub (Leucopholis ittorata). For the control of cauliflower worms and diamond-back moth, spray the plants with any of the following: Foliafume 1 tbs. per gallon of water Sevin 1 tbs. per gallon of water Malathion 1 tbs. per gallon of water Root grub can be controlled by treating the soil with Alder 2 at the rate of 1 tbs. in 1 gal. of water. Diseases and their Control: Cauliflower, like any other vegetable, is subject to the attack of plant diseases. The most common diseases are club root, soft rot, bacterial leaf spot, downy mildew and root knot of vegetables. The first it can be controlled by sterilizing the soil with mercuric bichloride or formalin (1:1000) and/or lime application in the soil. Bacterial leaf spot and downy mildew may be greatly minimized by foliar sprays with copper fungicides at the rate of 3 to 5 tbsp.per 5 gallons of water at 7 to 10 day intervals. Generally, crop rotation, use of well-drained soils, good management practices and avoiding heavy seeding in the seedbeds help prevent the occurrence of plant diseases. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops. CELERY Celery is native to the Mediterranean and adjacent areas. The plant is a strong-smelling biennial. The thick petioles, curved in cross section, are long and grooved on the external surface. The stems bearing the compound leaflets are attached to the apex of the long petiole at a point often called the joint. The flowers are very small, white and borne in compound umbels in the leaves of the branched seed stalks which maybe 60 to 90 cm. in height. As a salad crop, celery ranks next to lettuce. Like lettuce, celery has been growing in importance and popularity. Salads have become increasingly common on the menus of most Filipinos, and the supply of this important crop has to keep pace with the ever-growing demand. There are no statistics on the production of celery in the Philippines. The only known areas producing the crop are Baguio, Trinidad in Benguet and to some extent, Davao. Varieties: Elne -Foliage are tall, dark and green the while the stalk are thick, smooth and fleshy. Can be harvested 2 to 3 months from transplant. Tall Utah - Foliage are sturdy, dark green with long, thick, smooth stalk. Adaptation: Climatic and Soil Requirements - Celery is distinctly a cool season crop. Large, tender petioles are produced at relatively cool temperature. A monthly mean temperature of about 15 to 18 degree C up to maximum 20 degree C is considered ideal for the production of good quality and quantity celery crops. Successful production of celery can be had in soils that are either muck or peat. Sandy loam soil well-supplied with organic matter is also preferred. Acidic soils are normally avoided. The pH range of soils considered ideal for the production of celery is from 6.0 to 6.8. Elevation - Stalk celery production is limited to the higher elevation but soup celery can be grown at close to sea level. Months of Planting - Celery is planted the year round but quantity crops are planted from January through April. Nutritional Requirements - A crop of celery from a hectare of land would be able to absorb from the soil 313.6 kg. of nitrogen, 80.6 kg. of phosphorous, 711.2 kg. of potassium, 295.7 kg of calcium and 39.2 kg of magnesium. Essentially, in view of the restricted root system of celery, an abundant supply of nutrients must be available in the root zone during the last month or before the expected time of harvesting, if a good crop of high quality is desired. Cultural Requirements: Seed bedding and care of seedlings - To induce quick germination of the seeds, they should be soaked overnight in water. Sowing may be done early the following morning. As the seed is slow to germinate, soil moisture in the beds should be kept close to field capacity. Pieces of moistened burlap can be spread over the area in which seeds have been sown thinly at a very shallow depth. This aids in preventing washing out of seeds during the watering and also keeps the soil from dying out rapidly. Since the celery plant grows rather very slowly during its seedling stage, care must be taken to keep the weeds on the beds under control. These weeds compete seriously with the seedlings for the uptake of nutrients available in the soil. It takes from two to three months for the seedlings to reach a suitable size for transplanting in the field. Transplanting and Spacing - When the seedlings have attained the height of about 15 cm., they are transplanted in the open field. Beds about 1m. wide are prepared in the field. The usual size is 1m wide and 15 m. high in the dry season and 30 cm in the rainy season. It is quite common in Trinidad Valley in Benguet Province to make the beds 90 cm. wide with a 30 cm. high furrow between the beds. Two rows of plants are then set on the bed. The rows are about 40 cm. apart and plants are spaced about 20 cm. on the row. The soil between the rows can be mulched with dried grasses to prevent rapid evaporation of soil moisture and to smother the weeds. It is necessary to prune the seedlings before transplanting them to the field. Recovery from the effects of transplanting would be more rapid with the plants which receives less pruning of the tops or roots. Effort must be exerted to select only those seedlings of good size for transplanting. Small seedlings would normally produce the light plants at harvest time. It is well, therefore, to discard these seedlings as they are considered genetically less vigorous. Cultivation and Irrigation - With celery, cultivation must be confined almost to the surface, scraping the soil in order to avoid injury to the roots which are within the 15 to 30 cm. zone from the base of the plants. Thus, mulching the surface of the beds between the rows with either well-dried grasses or rice straw helps prevent evaporation of moisture from the soil and smothers the weeks. Frequent irrigation is very important. Lack of water can cause serious losses in crop yield and quality. Fertilizer Application - in Baguio and Trinidad Valley in Benguet, it is customary to mix a truckload of chicken manure or compost with 600 to 800 kg. of 15-15-15 or other complete fertilizers per hectare of beds before transplanting. This is followed with side dressing of from 100 to 150 kg of ammonium sulfate at 10 to 15 day intervals. Side-dressing is applied in solution along the rows at the rate of 100 to 150 gr. of fertilizer in 5 gal. of water. Control of Pests and Diseases: Pests and their Control Cutworm, Aphids, and Mites are the few insects that attack celery in the Philippines. 1. Aphids, Aphis sp. These are small greenish insects, which are either winged or wingless. They reproduce every rapidly. The insects sucks the sap from the leaves causing curling, distortion and stunting of the plant. Control - Diazinon and Malathion at concentrations recommended by the manufactures are examples of effective insecticides. 2. Cutworms, Prodenia litura Fabricius. The larva of the insect is a brown worm about 5 cm long. the adult is dark pale-brown and its outer wings have transverse light brown bands. It is about 2 cm. long. The eggs are laid on the lower surface of the leaves in a mass of several hundreds and covered with matted hairs. During the day, the worms hide in the soil where they pupate. At night they come out to feed on succulent leaves and stems. Control- The soil surface along the plant row can be treated chlorinated hydrocarbons such as Aldrin, Dieldrin, etc. at concentrations recommended by the manufacture. 3. Mites, Tetranychus truncatus Ebara. These are tiny pests difficult to see with the naked eye. They cause stippling and wattling of leaves. Control - spray with either Tedion V-8, Diazinon, Kelthane or Chlorobezylate at concentrations recommended by the manufactures. Diseases and their Control: Celery is susceptible to several diseases, which are of real concern to the producer of this market crop. Bright. There are three distinct blights infecting celery, but since they are all controlled by the same means, it is well to discuss them together. Late blight (Septoria apii) is characterized by small, brown, circular lesions on the leaves and stems. Black fruiting bodies of the fungus later appear in these areas. In the case of early blight Ceriopora apii, dead, ashen-gray velvety areas develop in the foliage. The bacteria ( Bacterium apii) produce lesions that are more reddish brown that those cause by late blight, in addition to a yellow halo. No black fruiting bodies are to be seen in celery infested by bacterial blight. Plants can affected by these diseases at any time during their life span. Control - control by cultural methods and fungicide sprays is similar for each of the blights mentioned. The organism causing both late and early blight can survive on plant refuse in the soil so two to three rotations are desirable. These fungi can also survive in the seed. Two to three year old seeds are recommended for planting because at this stage the fungi are no longer viable. New seeds can be soaked in hot water at a temperature of 48 degree C for 30 minutes to kill the seedborne fungi. Then the seeds are dried and treated with Thiram dust before planting. Spray application should start in the seedbed and repeated every 7 to 10 days until harvested. Dithane, Zineb, and Nabam plus Zinc sulfate are effective materials. Label directions should be followed religiously. 2. Damping-off of seedlings - The most common soil-borne organisms causing this disease are: Pythium debaryanum Hesse, Rhizoctonia solani Khun and Scelrotium rolfs Sacc-all fungi. Seeds infected with the disease may either decay before they germinate; sprouts are killed before they reach the soil surface, or seedlings may develop lesions near the soil level and fall over. Control - Disinfecting of the soil in the seedbed or seedboxes is usually desirable. Watering the beds in the day so that the soil surface will be dry at night will help reduce infection. Seeds can be placed in the cloth sack and soaked until moistened in a solution of 1 oz. of Calomel (mercury chloride) in 1 gal. of water. Another method is to coat the seed thoroughly with either Captan, Chlonil or Thiram dust at the rate recommended by the manufacturer. Such treatment should be used on hot water-treated seed. 3. Bacterial Rot - is caused by a bacterium, Erwinia carotovora Holland. Small lesions appear on the fleshy petioles and rapidly enlarge. Finally, a soft, mushy rot develops. There is no specific stage of maturity at which celery must be harvested. If cut too early in the season, the yield would greatly be reduced. However, celery can be cut when a little over-mature, but not too late as to allow the petioles from becoming pithy, in which case, they lose their high quality. In harvesting celery, the plants are cut below the soil surface with a large knife before leaving the petioles attached at the base. Tiller or suckers, short and prongy outside the petiole, and diseased or injured leaves are cut off before they are washed and packed in convenient containers. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops. CUCUMBER Varieties: 1. Slicing Type: F1 Olympic - Slicing type. Early maturity 60 days from transplant. Fruits are bright dark green color, 19 to 20 cm long. Heat resistant. Tolerant to powdery mildew, downy mildew, CMV, Angular leaf spot. F1 Tropical - Slicing type. Early, , white spined, easy to harvest. Fruit of nice shape and color, uniform dark green. Length: 25 cm. Diameter: 6 cm. Plant: strong, hardy. Disease tolerance: CMV - WMV1 - WMV2 - ZYMV and Mildews. Others: ( see brochure) 2. Pickling Type: F1 Antilla - Pickling type. Fruit length: 16 cm., diameter 6.5 cm. Green with some yellowish stripes, white spine, and Excellent shape, straight. Plant: vigorous, productive. Good brine quality, suitable for machine and hand harvest. Disease tolerance: Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Scab Cucumber, Antrachnose, Angular leaf spot, Downy Mildew, Powdery Mildew. Others (see brochures) chipper, F1 Calypso 3. Hybrid Cucumber Beit Alpha Type F1 Basma - Outdoor Beit Alpha hybrid grown in the open field. Early hybrid with vigorous plant and high yields. Gynoecious hybrid with mainly female flowering. Fruit dark green color, 16 to 18 cm long. Good results for season production. Disease tolerance: Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Watermelon Mosaic Virus, Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew. Others: (see brochures) Beit Alpha CMR MMR, Beit Alpha CMR MMR PMR DMR, Excel, Lady, Noura. Adaptation: Climatic and Soil Requirements - Cucumber grows best at about the end of the rainy season from November to January when the weather is rather cool. It has excellent growth on well-drained, sandy, clay loam soil. Elevation - Cucumber grows at elevations from sea level to as high as 500 m above sea level like in Baguio and La Trinidad Valley. Months of Planting - The best months to plant cucumber are from November to January. Nutritional Requirements - To raise good-sized fruits of cucumber for pickles and for slicing, it is very necessary that the field intended for the crops be manured with decayed organic matters or compost. The use of commercial fertilizers is advisable. Cultural Requirements: Planting and Spacing - The single row method or the double row method of planting is allowed. The double row method is preferred, because there are more plants in a given space for planting than in the single row method. The seeds are planted in hills 30 to 45 cm. apart in the row, 3 to 5 seeds per hill, and later thinned out to only 2 to 3 plants per hill. The double rows are 50 cm apart. Space between the double rows is 150 cm. The hill are set in the triangular system. The plants may crawl or creep on the ground, but the use of bamboo poles or any material as trellis give better quality fruits that are clean and without deformities. Cultivation - The field should be cultivated when the plants are still young or small, say, about 30 cm. long, to kill the weeds and loosen the soil for better root hold. Irrigation - Irrigation is also necessary in the production of cucumber fruit for pickling, especially during the summer months. Too much water, however, is detrimental. Pruning - The unnecessary or tiny vines should be pruned to eliminate poor-sized or sickly pickling. Inter-cropping - Inter-crop cucumber with corn, okra, etc., but in the commercial production of cucumber, the single cropping system should be adopted. Limited plantings may require inter-cropping of cucumber as fillers for vacant spaces. Fertilizer application - In the absence of compost, commercial fertilizers should be applied to cucumber crop. Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) at the rate of 6 bags or 126 kg., pure nitrogen or Urea (45-0-0) at the rate of 3 bags or 135 kg. Pure nitrogen are needed per hectare at planting time. Complete fertilizer (12-24-12) at the rate of 150 to 200 kg per ha. should be applied as side dressing before the blooming stage. Other Requirements - A regular spray of insecticides and fungicides for the control of insects and diseases should be regularly undertaken whenever they are present. Control of Pests and Diseases: Squash Bugs or beetles Orthaulaca similes Oliv. attack the plants. They can be controlled by spraying with Sevin and Malathion. The diseases commonly attacking cucumber are the downy mildew and powdery mildews. Both diseases are easily controlled with the use of Bordeaux mixtures. Zineb and Karathane WP ( 3 to 5 tbs.) in 5 gal. of water sprayed on affected vines will likewise provide adequate control of the two diseases. Harvesting, Curing and Storing: Index of Maturity - Depending on varieties, GREEN Co. cucumbers are early maturing ( ranges from 55 to 85). Age of Harvest - The fruits are harvested not on the basis of age but of sizes and for the purpose for which they are to be utilized. Procedure of Harvesting - For pickling, the fruits should be harvested with the use of sharp knife or pruning shears at the length of 10 to 15 cm. or the like and for slicing, at the desired length or before the seeds become hard. Care of harvest (curing) - The harvested pickling fruits should be placed in baskets or any receptacle under the shade or in the bondage where they are classified or graded preparatory to pickling or slicing. Storage of Harvest - Cucumber fruits should not be kept too long to avoid spoilage in storage without refrigeration if they are intended for pickles. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops. EGGPLANT Although eggplant is most of minor importance in the Western and European countries, it is one of the most popular vegetable crops in the Philippines. Varieties: F1 Kalenda - Early Hybrid F1. Harvest begin 60 to 80 days from transplant during 3 to 5 weeks. Strong vigor. Fruits are long tapered, bright black purple color, 250 to 350 grams weight. Plantation rate: 7,000 to 13,000 plants/ha. 1.6 to 2 m between rows and 0.60 to 0.90 meters between plants. Disease tolerance: Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas Solanacearum), Anthracnose, Colletotricum, Very good yield: 40 to 60 tons/ha. F1 Adama - Early hybrid. Maturity from transplant 70 days from transplant. Plant is medium tall 60 to 70 cm. Fruit shape long black purple, fruit is 150-300 grams. Disease tolerance:TMV, Verticillium, CMV, Odium. Others: (see brochure) Long Purple, Black Beauty, Florida Market, F1 Bonita, African Eggplants. Adaptation: Soil and Climatic Requirements - Eggplant can be grown in any type of soil. It thrives best, however, in sandy loam and clay loam soils. Fertility, moisture supply and good drainage are essential for more successful production. Eggplant required a long, warm, growing season. Cultural requirements: Raising Seedlings - The raising of eggplant seedlings is practically the same as in raising tomato seedlings. Since eggplant is tenderer than tomato, more care should be given to produce strong, stocky and slightly hardened seedlings for transplanting in the fields. Because of the fact that eggplant requires more heat than tomato, sowing of the seeds should be delayed until the weather becomes warmer as the seedlings develop. The seedlings are ready for transplanting in the field 45 to 50 days from sowing. Land Preparation - The land should be plowed two to three times, each plowing followed by harrowing. If clouds occur on heavier soils, it is best to expose the soil for about a week, followed by flashing irrigation water. When the soil becomes workable, it is harrowed and leveled. Double- furrows drawn by machine, or with the use of a plow with the moldboard removed. Each double-furrow is spaced one meter apart. Fertilization - If manure are available, apply about 10 tons to a hectare, supplemented with a fertilizer mixture of 12-24-12 at the rate of 345 to 400 kg. per ha. Without manure apply from 450 to 550 kg. per ha. of the fertilizer mixture 12-24-12. The commercial fertilizer is applied into furrows at transplanting time. Since eggplant occupies the land for a long period of time, it is desirable to side dress the plants with nitrogenous fertilizers once or twice during growth. For each side-dressing, apply from 100 to 150 kg. of ammonium sulfate or from 45 to 55 kg. of urea per hectare. The first side-dress is applied at bedding or banking time and the second immediately after the second picking of marketable fruits. Transplanting and Care of Plants - The seedlings should be lifted as the fertilizer is being applied. The seedbox or seedbed should be sufficiently watered to facilitate lifting and to minimize root damage. The seedlings are set 60 cm apart in furrows. In setting the soil should be firmly but slightly pressed on the roots. The newly transplanted seedlings should be watered. Dead hills should be replanted within one week from transplanting. About a month from transplanting, the double-rows of plants are bedded or banked. Like in tomato, bedding or banking minimizes cultivation and weeding and facilitates irrigation. The plants should be irrigated whenever they show signs of wilting. The number of irrigation depends upon the weather and type of soil. The irrigation water is allowed to play between the bedded or banked double-rows of plants, taking care not to cause an overflow of water. Control of Pests and Diseases: Pest and their Control - Flea beetles, Psylloides spp., lady beetles, Epilchna spp., leafhoppers Empoasca biguttula (Ishida), mites and aphids are the most important pests of eggplant. These insects can be effectively controlled by spraying the plants with either Sevin, Foliafume or Malathion at 3 level tbs. per 5 gal. of water. Diseases and their Control - The important diseases of eggplant are bacterial wilt, phythopthora, phomopsis and Anthracnose. These diseases can be partly controlled by long-range crop rotation. Except for bacterial wilt, the others can be minimized by spraying the plants with solutions of Dithane Z-78 and Zerlate at concentrations of level tbs. per 1 gal. of water. Harvesting, Curing and Storing: The fruits are picked as soon as they attain satisfactory size but before they lose their bright, glossy appearance. A heavier crop can be obtained if the fruits are removed before they reach full maturity. The calyx and a short piece of the stem are left on the fruit. For distant markets, the fruits are packed in crates or baskets that are loaded in trucks and transported to different places. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops. LETTUCE Lettuce commonly known as lechugas is native to Southern Europe and Western Asia. In the Philippines lettuce is considered as one of the most important salad crops. Aside from salad, it is used as garnishing for other food preparations. Varieties: 1. Loose Leaf Type: Red Salad Bowl - Head is Long deeply cut, lobe frilled, color is bronze red, size is very large. Heat tolerant. Other varieties includes: Green Salad Bowl 2. Crisp Head/Batavia: Blonde de Paris - Leave shape - Tight cap fairly savored, deeply notched borders, color is yellow green, large size. Heat tolerant. Other varieties: Great Lakes, Minetto, Armada, Iceberg, Brillantine 3. Butterhead: Kagraner Sommer - Leave shape - slightly wavy, medium green color, medium size. Slow bolting, heat tolerant. Other varieties: Madrilene, Sucrine, Green Mignonette, etc. Adaptation: Climatic and Soil Requirements - The loose leaf type thrives well both in the lowlands and highlands. Difference, however, are noticeable in the growth habit. Heading varieties perform best in areas with low temperature. Lettuce does best in sandy loam and silt loam soils rich in organic matter. Where earliness is desired, sandy loam is preferred. If yield is important, silt loam and muck soils are highly preferred. Studies show that lettuce seems to grow better in soil with pH value ranging from 6.0 to 6.8. Cultural Requirements : Seedlings are transplanted as soon as they have formed the first true leaves (two to three weeks after sowing) at intervals of 20 to 25 cm. both ways for non-heading varieties and 30 * 30 cm. for the heading varieties. The seedlings are set in two to four rows with a working path of 20 cm between the rows. Planting is recommended during cloudy days or late in the afternoon to avoid excessive wilting of the transplants. Lathering is advisable right after transplanting. In large scale transplanting, direct seedling can be done depending on the growers desire and on the availability of necessary equipment. In direct seedling, shallow multiple rows, two to four rows, provided with a working path of 50 cm. between multiple rows, are made and the seeds sown very thinly in the furrows and covered thinly with fine soil. Water is sprinkled, particularly when the moisture content of the soil is insufficient for germination. Thin mulch of straw is necessary to enhance germination and to suppress weed growth. Cultivation - Cultivation is done when the soil becomes compact. This is to disturb the weeds and to promote soil aeration. Irrigation - The greatest amount of root development in lettuce is confide in the top 20 to 25 cm. of soil texture., evaporation losses and rainfall. Fertilization - Lettuce plants are poor foragers because of their small root system. In this regard, the soil must be well-supplied with nutrients either from organic or inorganic matter. Preplanting application with 10 tons of stable manure to a hectare, applied during the last field preparation, is recommended. This must be supplemented with about 250 to 300 kg of 12-24-12 fertilizer mixture. Without manure, a hectare may require about 400 kilograms of 12-24-12. Two weeks after planting, side dressing with about 100 kg of ammonium sulfate can be done. Control of Pests and Diseases : 1. Aphids - These are minute, pale green or black insects, mostly wingless, usually harboring themselves under the surface of the leaves. They cause injury by sucking the plant sap. Heavily infested plants develop abnormal growth, become dwarf and unproductive. Spraying with Malathion or Sevin at the rate of 1 tbs. per gal. of water gives satisfactorily control of the insects. Diseases and their Control: 1. Mosaic. The disease is caused by a virus. Symptoms on the leaves appear as yellow mottles. Plants become stunted and deformed. Severe infections result in a reduced plant size. Foliage is dull, greenish or yellowish control is by rouging or eliminating weed hosts of the aphids and diseased plants. 2. Bottom Rot this disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun, a fungus. The disease may be distinguished by the presence of sunken brown spots on the midribs and petioles. In severe cases, the fungus attacks succeeding layers or leaves until the whole plants become slimy. The disease can be controlled through sanitation and crop rotation with non-susceptible crops. OKRA Okra is a herbaceous annual. Slightly hairy, it belongs to the same family as cotton. It is believed to have originated from Asia to Africa. The tall varieties may reach a height of 1.8 to 2.4 m. The leaves are rounded, 25 to 30 cm across, with 3 to 5 ovate to oblong and coarsely- toothed lobes. The plant’s large yellow flowers have reddish centers. They are borne singly in the axis of the leaves. Okra is primarily cultivated for its soft immature edible pods, which are 5 to 20 cm. long. The pods, creamy-white to dark green contain a mucilaginous substance that thickens soups and stews. They are also eaten boiled or fried. Pods maybe preserved in brine, canned or frozen for future use. The stem and mature pods contain a fiber which maybe used in the manufacture of paper. Adaptation: A fertile, sandy loam soil is most ideal for the plant’s growth and development. The plant is best adapted to a climate with a long, warm growing season. A monthly maximum average temperature of 35 degree C with a minimum average above 18 degree C provides optimum conditions for good growth and the development of high quality pods. Okra maybe raised at elevations from the sea level up to 30 m. above. It is grown throughout the year. Varieties : Clemson Spineless is an American variety, 1,5 m tall. It produces long thick pods with moderate ridging. The leaves are deeply lobed and spineless. Maturity days after transplant is 60- 70. Pod is short tapered, ridged and spineless, color is medium green. Emerald has pods that are very dark green, slender, smooth and spineless. The plants are dwarf and vigorous with dark green leaves. Maturity after transplant is 50 to 60 days. Pod length 17-22 cm. Other: Perkins long Pod, Red burgundy, Puso, Mexican Cultural Requirements: From 8 to 10 kilos of okra seeds plant a hectare. Okra is usually planted twice a year, from April to June and October to January. Seeds are broadcast or drilled in furrows 80 cm apart. Seeding rate is 5 k. per hectare. First thinning is made when seedlings are 5 cm. tall. A week later, the second thinning is performed and when seedlings are about 30 cm. tall, another thinning is made, leaving the plants spaced 20 to 30 cm apart in rows. Hoeing or cultivation to control the weeds should be shallow. Diphenamid has used as pre-emergence herbicide treatment. During the dry season, supplemental irrigation will be of importance in maintaining growth of the crop. Forty to 50 k. of nitrogen per ha. should be applied before planting. When pods begin to set, as side dressing of 15 to 20 k. of nitrogen per ha. can contribute to continued plant growth and can improve yield. Too much nitrogen before pod set can delay the harvest. Control of Pests and Diseases: 1. Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. The larvae vary in color from light-green or pink to brown or nearly black. The body has two dorsal stripes in the whole length. The larvae bore holes in the pods. The pest is controlled by spraying. Control - Spray with Malathion. Allow about 5 days after an application before harvesting pods. 2. Melon Aphids, Aphisgossypii Glover. These are soft body tiny insects that are green or yellowish-green in color. They suck the plant sap that causes distortion and curling of the leaves and stunting of the plants. Control - Apply Malathion or Diazinon as a dust or spray at the rate recommended by the manufacturer. 3. Flea beetle, Nisotra gemella Erich. These flea beetles are small, bluish-black insects, they feed on the undersides of leaves. Feeding results in the development of holes. Control - Spray with Sevin insecticides. Diseases and their Control: 1. Podspot of Okra. The disease is caused by the fungus Ascochyyta Abelmoschci Harter. It is characterized by the appearance of dark, water soaked lesions on the young pods. These slowly enlarge and then finally turn brown, making pods unsuitable for marketing. Control - crop rotation, sanitation and use of resistant varieties are the recommended control measures. 2. Root-knot Nematode. This is disease caused by several species of nematodes under the genus Meloidogyne. The symptoms are galling or swelling of the roots, yellowing and stunting. The disease causes serious reduction in yield. Control - Treat soil with nematicide art the rate recommended by the manufacturer. Another method is through crop rotation with non- susceptible crops. Harvesting, Curing and Storing: Studies showed that pods 4 to 6 days old are highest in table quality. It is at this stage that the greatest increase in pod weight, length and diameter occur. Harvesting every 3 to 4 days result in a prolonged and continuous fruiting period with a harvest of 3 times as many pods as when the pods are allowed to mature. Under tropical conditions, harvesting daily or every other day is advisable in commercial production. Harvested pods must be handled carefully to prevent bruising and subsequent discoloration. ONION Though onion is largely used as an article of food and a condiment, its popularity in India is due to its medical uses. Varieties: GREEN SEEDS COMPANY LTD has three types of onion categorized according to their skin color: 1. Yellow Skin Type Early Texas Grano - It has medium early maturity 135 to 145. Bulb is large, light yellow, top shape, Flesh is mild sweet. Storage is poor. Disease tolerance, PRR. Yellow Spanish - late maturity. Globe shape, large, color is brown yellow. Flesh is mild, storage is fair. F1 Goldor - short day hybrid. 2 weeks earlier than Granex. Firm, Long storage. Slightly pungent. Dark yellow skin. 2. Red Skin Type Red Creole - Late maturity 190 days, Bulb is flat medium size, color red buff, flesh is slightly pungent, good storage. Violet de Galmi - Very early and well adapted in tropical and subtropical areas. Flat thick bulb. Very purple red colored skin, thin neck medium large size. Very pungent taste. Very good keeper for long storage. High dry matter content. Harvest 130 to 140 days after direct sowing. Other varieties :Red Spanish and Rouge de Tana 3. White Skin Type Blanc de Galmi - short day variety. Early and well adapted to tropical and subtropical areas. Flat thick bulb. Pure white color. Medium large size. Pungent taste. Good keeper for long storage. High dry matter content, very good for dehydrator. Harvest 130 to 140 days after direct sowing. Other variety: Crystal White Wax Adaptation: Climatic and Soil Requirements - Onion, being a tropical and semi- tropical bulb plant, requires sufficient moisture and cool weather for development and less amount of moisture and warm weather for bulb formation and subsequent maturity. In most bulb onion-growing areas in the Philippines, these conditions exist from the later part of September to January for vegetative development and from later part of January to March for bulbing and maturity. The plant grows well in soils varying from the clay sandy loam as exemplified by those of Bongabong and Laur in Nueva Ecija and by those of Lemery and Taal in Batangas, to the silty clay loam of Munoz and Cabanatuan city in Nueva Ecija. Elevation - The plant thrives from sea level as in Curimao, Ilocos Norte, and Taal and Lemery in Batangas, to around 5,000 ft. above sea level as in Baguio. Months of planting - The best months for planting onion are from September to January when moisture and climatic conditions are favorable for top growth and, subsequently, for initial bulb formation. Nutritional Requirements - Jacob and Uexkull (1963) showed that the amounts of nutrients removed by 11 metric tons of onion crop from a hectare were 87 kg. of nitrogen, 44 kg of phosphorous and 132 kg of potash, or a proportion of about 2-1-3, respectively. There are two general cultural methods of planting onion, namely: (1) clean culture and (2) mulched culture. Clean Culture - In this method, the soil is deficiently moist. It is prepared by hoeing or by plowing and harrowing to pulverize the soil, freeing it from thrushes and weeds and weed seedlings; and reducing it to a fine filth. After leveling, one or double rows in the backyard or field are marked and the necessary amount of fertilizer is broadcast along the marked rows. In the field, double row bed planting is preferred for economy in spacing, weeding, cultivating and irrigating. The distance between rows in double-row planting varies from 25 to 40 cm while that of the double row beds varies from 70 to 100 cm from each other. The double row beds are made with the use of a tractor provided with a ridge or with a native disc plow which hills up the soil into beds 15 to 20 cm high. In the fertilized rows, the plant materials are drilled or planted. Mulch culture - This is the method of growing onion in places where rice straw is easily available. Onion is the crop that is usually planted after harvesting rice. Where weeds are abundant, the field is plowed and harrowed. Otherwise, the rice field is fertilized by the broadcast method, the rice stalks are laid neatly to a thickness of about 6 to 8 cm. and then planted to either onion seedlings or onion sets. If the feet sink in the soil, it is first drained before any other farm operations are done. Draining is usually done in Munoz rice fields, whereas in Curimao, where soil moisture is usually deficient, the field is first flushed with water followed by draining before fertilizing it. After broadcasting the fertilizer, mulching and planting follow in that order. Planting - For bulb production, three planting materials are used, namely: (1) seeds, (2) seedlings, and (3) sets. Seeds - When seeds are used as the planting materials, they are drilled in the fertilized rows, 1 to 2 cm deep, deeper in clay sandy loam than in sandy clay loam soils. The spacing between plants is about 7 to 10 cm in commercial planting. The rate of seedling varies from about 5.0 to 6 kg per ha. When the seedlings are about 20 cm. tall, some may be pulled as green onions. Seedlings - Seedlings are raised in seedbeds, in a greenhouse or in the open. Seedling rate is 1 kilo per 3.5 sq.m.bed. Seedlings are planted 7 to 10 cm. apart in the rows when they are 40 to 55 days old. In mulched field, the seedlings are set below the rice straw with only the roots buried. Sets - Sets are seedlings grown from seeds sown thick ( 15 grams/one sq.m.bed) on poor land, so as to arrest growth. Like culls from an ordinary harvest, they are stored dry in airtight containers and wintered artificially in cold storage. The procedure of planting them is the same as for seedlings. Onion sets produce green onion or early onion bulbs. Cultivation - In clean culture fields, the plants are cultivated as soon as the seedlings are discernible in the rows. This is done by hand, using hoe or trowel. This method of cultivation is laborious and costly, hence, a double wheeled straddle- cultivator should be used to kill the weeds and pulverize about 3 cm. deep of the surface soil when the young plants are about 7 cm. high. Irrigation - Onion fields are irrigated by gravity or by allowing the water to play between the beds of plants four to eight times during the growing period. Drying or oversaturation of the field must be avoided. Pruning - When the seedlings are transplanted, clipping the leaves is not advisable, however, it is recommended lifted seedlings be trimmed when transplanting both by the clean or mulched culture. Inter-cropping - Onion can be interplanted with fruit trees such as atis, balimbing, lime, grapes, guyabano, kalamias, papaya and black pepper. When the fruit tree or black pepper starts bearing, inter-cropping in discontinued. Fertilizer application - the field or row for onion is fertilized before mulching or planting. An application with 250 to 350 kg/ha. of 1:1 mixture by weight of Urea and 14-14-14 or 12-24-12 or 350 to 400 kg. of 2:1 mixture of ammonium sulfate and 14-14-14 or 12-24-12 is very good for onions. In seedbed of onion seedlings, about 8 tbs. of ammonium sulfate dissolved in one petroleum tank of water are applied when the seedlings are about two weeks old. About one evaporated milk tank, also dissolved in the same quantity of water, is applied when seedlings are 3 1/2 weeks old. Control of Pests and Diseases: Pest and their Control 1. Thrips ( Thrip tabaci Lind). These are small, winged insects feeding on leaves causing drying from tip to base. They are best controlled with a spray of 15 E.C EPN- 300 at the rate of 3 tbs. per gallons. of water. Addition of one teaspoonful of sticker in the spray solution makes control more effective. 2. Noctuid leaf- eating worms- There are several species of these insects and they are as follows: 1. Agrothis ypsilon ( Rett) 2. Calogramma festiva (Denovan) 3. Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) 4. Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) The worms are greenish with black, longitudinal bands. They are leaf feeders. Best controlled by spraying the plants with EPN-300 at the rate of 3 tbs. Per 5 gallons of water with Imidan 50 W.P at the rate of 3 level tablespoonfuls per gallon of water. The addition of a sticker makes the solution more effective. Diseases and their Control: 1. Onion smut- The disease is caused by Urocystis cepulaee Frost. The symptoms appear as dark, thickened areas at the base of the seedling leaf. As new leaves develop, they become infected, swollen and bent downward, causing the seedlings to die or produce small bulbs. The disease is best controlled by dusting the furrows with Sulforon or coating the seeds. Arasan at the rate of 4.6 to 5.4 kilos per ha. as dust in the furrows also provides control for the disease. 2. Purple Blotch - This disease is caused by Alternaria porri (Ell) Cff. The distinguishing feature is the appearance of small sunken, white, circular or irregular spots with purple centers on the leaves. The spots coalesce and the leaves turn yellow and may dry in three weeks time. Then the fungus attacks the bulbs, causing them to turn yellow, then red to brown and ultimately, black. Control - Control can be made by spraying the plants with Manzate at the rate of 1 tbs. per gallon of water. The other methods of control are crop rotation and sanitation. 3. Onion Pink Rot - Infects roots turn pink, then shrivel and die. Affected plants produce small bulbs that are of no commercial value. The use of resistant varieties is recommended in preventing loss from the disease. Index of Maturity - Topping over of the vegetative part is the index of maturity of onion in the field. Age of Harvest- The age of onion at harvested time varies with the variety (refer to brochure). Procedure of Harvesting - Onion bulbs are harvested by pulling the tops with either the bare left or right hand. If the weather is fine, they are left in the field in windrows for one or three days. If the tops are to be clipped, they are held with the thumb, fore and middle finger just above the growing point and the necks cut-off with a knife or pair of scissors. The bulbs are placed in baskets or slatted crates and brought to the curing shed or direct to the market. Care of Harvest (Curing) - The clipped bulbs are cleaned and sorted. Those with bruises or with large necks and undersized are immediately brought to the market. Sound bulbs are arranged in one layer on airy, slatted floors. The top of the bulbs brought to the shed are either cut, twisted off, or braided in 50 to 100 bulbs before curing. Curing of onion bulbs extends to a period of seven or more days. Storage - The storage, without losing the quality of onion for an appreciable period, is done by piling them either on fine river sand, sawdust, rice hull or rice straw. Of these three media, rice hull is good for Red Creole, sand for Red Creole and rice straw for Granex. Storage in this manner has no significant differences between varieties. This is based on observations made for a period of eight months. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops. LEEK (Onion Green) Green onion is one of most important vegetable crops in the Philippines. When grown and properly blanched, it is mild and tender. Generally, green onion is eaten raw, but at times it is used in flavoring soup, stew, rice noodle and salad. Its stems and leaves are also used in the preparation of pickles. Varieties: Large Long Summer - Very early maturity 4 months from transplant foliage is medium green, shanks length 20 to 25 cm, diameter 2.3 to 3 cm. widely adapted, very fast growing. Others: Carentan, American Flag Adaptation: Leek or green onions are generally grown in the highlands like Baguio and the mountain trails, but GREEN Co. ’s variety is well adapted to the lowlands. Soil Requirements - Green onions is not exacting in its soil requirements. It grows in sandy loam to heavy clay soils. Better crop is obtainable in a sandy loam that is rich in humus and plant nutrients. Soil of medium acidity is preferable for growing the crop. The field must have adequate drainage. Months of planting - While green onions are commonly planted in any season the year, the plants thrive best from August to March. Cultural Requirements: Land Preparation - The land is plowed and harrowed several times until the soil is brought to a fine tilth. Multiple rows are prepared. Generally, two to three rows make up a multiple row. Distance between rows is 30 to 40 cm. Propagation - By seed or transplant. A hectare of land requires 2 to 3 k. of seeds. The seeds are sown in seed boxes or seedbeds containing sterilized soil. The seeds are sown thinly down to 2 cm. deep and 8 cm. apart in the rows of a seed box or seedbed. Seedlings are ready for transplanting 40 to 70 days from sowing. Planting and Spacing - Direct seedling is done by drilling the seeds thinly along the rows. Seeds are covered with the fine soil up to a depth of 1 cm. Seedlings are then thinned to have a spacing of about 20 cm. between plants. Cultivation, Irrigation and Weeding - Cultivation, irrigation and weeding is done in the same manner for all methods of planting. As the plant develop, the soil is ridged towards the base. Two or four ridging are considered enough to provide the plants with the necessary cultivation, weeding and blanching for the development of long, tender stems of leaf sheaths. The interval of irrigating the plants depends largely upon the weather and soil conditions in the locality. In using mulch, cultivation and weeding are not very necessary. Irrigate when the soil begins to crack. Under normal conditions only one irrigation is needed. Fertilizer Application - Liberal applications of fertilizer should be practiced. Apply about 10 tons of chicken manure per hectare. This is supplemented with the application of nitrogenous fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate at the rate of about 100 to 150 kg. per ha. If commercial fertilizers are to be used alone, 250 to 300 kg of fertilizer 12-24-12 mixture per ha. is applied during the preparation of the land. To get maximum yield, about 100 to 150 kg. per ha. of ammonium sulfate or its equivalent from other nitrogenous fertilizers are side dressed at banking time. Control of Pests and Diseases: Pests and diseases of green onion are the same as those that attack bulb onion. Harvesting and Handling: Maturity of GREEN Co. varieties are early. It ranges from 4 months from transplant to medium late depending on the variety. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops. CHINESE CABBAGE PAK CHOI (Pechay) Pechay originated from china. It is a very popular leafy vegetable among Filipino housewives, being found practically in all markets throughout the country almost all the year round. Varieties: Pak Choi White Loose leave type. Early maturity 40-45 days after transplant. Petioles is round thick, pure white. Leaves are smooth round, dark green in color. Climatic and Soil Requirements: Pechay can be grown under almost any climate and it be produced throughout the year, but the best yield can be obtained if it is planted from October to January or in the advent of the vegetable season. It can be grown at the sea level or at a higher altitude, provided the soil is rich in organic matter and with good drainage. For commercial production, a light loamy soil retentive of moisture is recommended. On the other hand, it is more successfully grown in places with a cool climate or during the cool months of the year. Cultural Requirements: Land Preparation - The field is plowed and harrowed several times until the desired tilth is attained. Seeds may be sown directly in the plots or first raised in seedbeds or seedboxes. In direct planting, it is drilled by hand in shallow furrows or with the use of a two-row hand-drawn mechanical driller that is set at about 15 to 20 cm between rows. From two to four rows are usually planted in each plot. The rate of seedling is about 1/2 to 1 kg. per ha. depending upon the spacing and germination percentage. In direct of transplanting method, the seeds are sown evenly on seed boxes or seedbeds. Sometimes, instead of sowing the seeds evenly, shallow furrows are made in the seed beds about 2 to 3 cm apart and the seeds are distributed in the rows uniformly and covered with a thin layer of soil. If presence of ants is noted within the vicinity of the seedbeds, the bed is sprayed with insecticides to prevent possible damage. Seed plots are partially shaded, if possible, to protect the germinating seeds from direct heat of the sun or from rain drops and to hasten sprouting. Remove the shade when all the seeds have germinated to encourage the development of hardy and stocky seedlings. The seedlings are watered twice a day. Over-crowed seedbeds or seed boxes are pricked and excess seedlings are planted in separate beds. In plantations, seedlings with spoon-sized leaves are used to minimized mortality. The seedlings are transplanted 15 to 25 cm. between rows and 10 to 20 cm in the row. For commercial gardening, a closer planting is recommended to promote the development of erect, well-formed, compact leaves, which are convenient in packing and hauling. Watering and Irrigation - In school and home gardens, pechay is watered once or twice a day. In places with irrigation facilities, growers follow a schedule of light irrigation. The interval of light irrigation is from one to three times a week, as determined by the grower himself. If the soil has a good water-holding capacity, a lesser frequency of irrigation is exercised. Thus, in sandy soils with very poor water-holding capacity, a more frequent irrigation is required. Fertilization - The best fertilizer for pechay is decomposed chicken and barnyard manure applied at the rate of about six to ten big petroleum can full per sq.m field. In places with less available compost, all application of four metric tons of the barnyard manure to a hectare will help attain better quality plants. Aside from compost or organic fertilizers, the addition of 200 to 400 kg. of ammonium sulfate per ha. will hasten plant growth. The application of ammonium sulfate depends upon the method of planting. For direct planting, the first application is done at the seedling stage, using 1/2 of the amount of the fertilizer and the rest after 7 to 14 days. The split application of the fertilizer is also followed for transplants, but with the first fertilization done for five days after transplanting and within one to two weeks for the second application. Control of Pests and Diseases : Pests and their Control: 1. Cabbage Worm, Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller. The Caterlilla or larva is green with two pair of dark spots on the back. The eggs are laid on the leaves in a mass. They feed on the leaves or heads causing many holes on them. Spray with Methyl Parathion, Thiodan, Sevin or Malathion at the dosages recommended by the manufacture. 2. Flea Beetle, Phylloteta sp. The beetle is a small insect. It jumps like flea when disturbed. This pest is very common during the hot weather. Spray with Malathion, Phosdrin, Diazinon or Methyl Parathion every week or every other week, depending upon the insect population, in order to prevent infestation. 3. Aphids, Aphis sp. These pests are soft- bodied and they cluster on the leaves. They multiply rapidly. They stuck the sap of the plant causing the leaves to curl. The infested plant is generally stunted. Spray with Malathion, Thiodan, Diazinon or Phosdrin at the rates recommended by the manufacture. Diseases and their Control: 1. Damping-off. The most common causal organisms are: Pythium debaryanum Hesse; Rhizoctonia solani Khun, and Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc). 2. Pre-emergence. The disease may take place anytime after the seed is sown until the young plant breaks through. The organisms may enter through injuries on the seed coat and may cause rotting of the seeds. The decay may either be soft and watery or dry in appearance. It may or may not have mold growth over the surface. 3. Post-emergence. The lesions are mostly near the level of the ground and may consist of soft water-soaked or brown sunken areas. The seedling that appear healthy in the afternoon may collapse the next morning because of the diseases. The fallen plants may still be green and turbid. The following are recommended as preventive measures: Use sterilized soil for growing seedlings using either chemical or heat. Remove immediately infested plants including the soils and burn them. Avoid excessive dampness in the soil. Water the seedlings only in the morning so that the soil will be dry by night. Expose seedbed to the sun a few hours a day. Treat the seeds with Semesan 1.4% or 1/2 level tbsp for each pound of seeds. 4. Bacterial Soft Rot. This disease is caused by Erminia carotovora (Jones) Holland. The lesions first appear on a small area becomes water- soaked. The invaded portion rapidly grows wider and deeper and becomes soft and mushy. There is either a light discoloration of the diseased portion or none at all, except a water-soaked condition with a characteristic offensive odor. Harvesting and Handling Pechay is harvested as they reached the desired size. The number of days depends on the care given to the plants. Pechay is harvested by cutting the plants at the base with the aid of a sharp knife. Harvesting is done late in the afternoon or early in the morning for local markets. For big haul and distant markets, the harvest is allowed to wilt slightly to prevent breaking and bruising of the leaves during packing and hauling. The harvest is packed in bamboo baskets lined with fresh banana leaves or other containers convenient to the rower. It is never allowed to stay too long in the package. The package is penned as soon as it reached its destination. It must be lined upright and sprinkled with fresh water or placed outside overnight to give plants a fresher appearance. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops. PEPPER GREEN SEEDS COMPANY LTD have two distinct classes of pepper. The hot or pungent and the sweet varieties. The hot type is used in the preparation of hot sauce, pickles and fine powder. The sweet type is used for salad and pickle making and as an ingredient in a number of Filipino dishes. It is also canned. Varieties: ( Refer to Brochure for details) HOT PEPPER (Scotch Bonnet type) Safi African, Scotch Bonnet, Burkina Yellow HOT PEPPER (Bird Type) Salmon and Thailand HOT PEPPER (Chili and Kriting Type) Sucete, Jalapeno, Cayenne, Cipalas, F1 Sunny SWEET PEPPER - Yolo Wonder, California Wonder, Capella, F1 Stella Adaptation: Soil and Climatic Requirements - Sweet pepper thrives best in cool areas and hot pepper in hot areas. Both grow in any kind of soil. However, it is better to raise them in a fertile, sandy loam with sufficient moisture. GREEN Co’s pepper varieties are more resistant to drought. Land Preparation - The field is plowed and harrowed several times until the soil is reduced to a fine tilth. Afterwards, row are prepared. The distance between rows depends on the locality, variety and soil fertility. It varies from 30 to 50 cm. The single-row method (spaced 35 cm. between rows and 1m between triple rows) is preferred because it provides developing fruits adequate protection against sun scalding. Cultural Requirements : Planting and Spacing - Pepper is planted from May to June in the wet season and from October to December in the dry season. About four to six kilos of seeds are required to plant hectare. Seedlings are raised in seedbeds or seedboxes containing previously-sterilized soil. Seedlings are ready for transplanting 35 to 45 days after sowing. Transplanting is preferably done late in the afternoon or when there is lesser intensity of sunlight top avoid wilting and to have higher plant density per unit area. The distance between hills is from 25 to 50 cm. depending on the soil fertility, variety, climate and season. Cultivation - About a month from transplanting, the developing plants are ridged with the use of a plow or a small tractor provided with ridges. This minimizes cultivation and weeding and facilities irrigation. It provides soil support for the plant when they become laden with fruits. Avoid deep cultivation in order not to cause root injury to the plants. Irrigation - The frequency irrigation depends on the weather conditions and types of soil. Irrigation water should be applied in between ridges of rows taking care not to cause root injury to the plants. Fertilizer - The quantity of fertilizer to be applied depends on the soil fertility and on the previous cropping patterns. Normally, the rate of fertilization is from 450 to 550 k./ha of 12-24-12. Application is recommended during the last operation in the land preparation, preferably along the rows, whether in single or triple-row methods. Side dressing with ammonium sulfate or 45 to 50 kg. urea are required in a hectare of pepper. Application is done at ridging or banking time. Control of Pest and Diseases: Pest and their Control: 1. Aphids, Aphis gossipii. Adults are greenish and generally wingless. The insects harbor on the young leaves and shoots. They suck the plant sap causing poor stand, stunting and low yield. Control is by spraying with Ekatin applied at the rate of 1tbs. per gal. of water. Malathion of Diazinon at the rate of 3 tbs. per 5 gal. of water are also recommended. 2. Spider Mites, Tetranychus telorious (Linn.). The adult are minute insects that are reddish. Infested plants turn slightly yellow. Spraying with Kelthane or Diazinon at the rate of 3 tbs. Per 5 gal. of water is effective against the insect. 3. Leaf Hopper, Empoasca biguttula (Mats.). The hopper are greenish and about 2.0 to 2.5 mm long. They feed on the near side of the leaves. The pest brings about what is known as “hopper burn”. Attacked plants fail to produce fruits. The method of control is by spraying with Carbaryl at 1 tbs. per gal. of water or with Metasystox. Diseases and their Control: 1. Bacterial Wilt. Caused by Pseudomonas solanaccarum Erw. F. Smith. The typical symptom is the wilting of young leaves or slight yellowing of the oldest leaves. If the stem close to the ground level is not cut crosswise, brown discoloration of the water conducting vessels is discernible. Losses from the disease may be averted by planting pepper in a disease free field. 2. Anthracnose. Sweet pepper is attacked by an Anthracnose that is caused by the fungus Gloescosporium piperatum. Dark and sunken spots enlarging up to 2.5 cm. develop on the fruits. The spots later on produce tiny, raised, black dots containing the spores. The disease can be carried through the seeds causing infection of stems and leaves of newly germinated plants. Anthracnose is controlled by spraying with Zerlate, Dithane Z-78 or Mangate at the rate of about 1 k. per 100 gal. of water. Harvesting: Pepper has three stages of fruit maturity: Green - the fruit has reached its full size but is still green. Breaker - discoloration has started at the bottom end of the fruit. Red-ripe - the fruit has become fully red. For distant markets, green and breaker peppers are harvested. For canning, food decoration and for powder preparation, red, ripe pepper is preferred. Interval of harvesting depends largely upon the market, but frequent intervals are usually practiced. Reference: Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops RADISH Believed to have originated from China, radish is an annual herb grown for its crisp, pungent and fleshy roots. The roots are rounds to long cylindrical. The leaves vary from large, terminal lobed to long and narrow, and they usually have hairy surfaces. The flowers are white, borne on a tall stem with several branches. Radish is propagated by seeds. Varieties: GREEN SEEDS COMPANY LTD has two types of radish: 1. Chinese radish - Minoo Early, F1 Mandarin, Longo 2. Western Radish - Cherry Belle, National, French Breakfast, Champion, Crimson Giant Adaptation: Climatic and Soil Requirements - Radish has a fairly wide climatic and soil adaptation. The optimum pH for radish is 5.0 to 7.0. It grows well on any fertile soil with good drainage, except on certain soils that hardened and which induce the production of deformed, fleshy roots. Sandy loam, friable loam and mucks are best for commercial production. An altitude from sea level to 5,000 ft. with free air and fertility gives a good yield. Months of Planting - Radish can be grown throughout the year in all parts of the country, but the best season for growing the crop is from October to January. Nutritional Requirements - Radish is intolerant to high salt content of the soil and is moderately tolerant to high boron content. The plant requires high amounts of sulfur and boron in the soil for normal growth. Lack of boron in the soil may cause the development of boron deficiency disease called necrosis of radish. Cultural Requirements: Land Preparation - The field is plowed and harrowed two to three times, or until the right tilth is attained. Planting and Spacing - The seeds are either broadcast or drilled in the field. For broadcasting, an animal-drawn light harrow is passed one to two times after the seeds are sown to cover the seeds. For drilling, the furrows about 2 cm. deep are spaced 20 to 30 cm apart and the seeds, as drilled, are covered with a thin layer of pulverized soil. In semi- mechanized farms, the seeds are drilled by a 2-row mechanical driller and usually a 4-row plot is made. The rate of seedling is from 10 to 12 kg. per ha. Under normal conditions, the seeds germinate within four to six days from sowing. Weeding and Cultivation - In a broadcast field, cultivation is not practiced and weeding is not intensive; but usually, less yield is obtained. In drilled planting, weeding should be started as soon as weeds began to appear. A mechanized weeder is passed between rows, followed by hand-weeding. This is done as often as necessary. Irrigation - Radish needs a constant soil moisture for rapid growth and for the production of uniform, tender, crisp, quality roots, and may cause the production of highly pungent roots. Light crops are grown during the dry season or in places with very low rainfall, but frequent irrigation is necessary. The interval will depend much on the water-holding capacity of the soil. Irrigation should be avoided as soon as the roots attain the market size, because too much moisture at this stage may promote the development of root rot. Intercropping - Radish is an early maturing crop. In drilled plantations, intercropping of eggplant and other slow-growing vegetables can be done. The seedlings should be planted in the row at the required distances. After the radish is harvested, the eggplant or other intercrops of vegetables might be ready for final cultivation. Fertilization - Radish needs a rich or fertile soil and correct amounts of fertilizer. The application of 500 to 700 kg to a hectare of 12-24-12 mixture is advisable. It is applied during the final preparation of the plots in home gardens and during the last harrowing in commercial plantings. Control of Pests and Diseases: Pest and their Control: 1. Aphids, Aphis sp. Both adult and young are tiny. Some are wingless and others are winged. They are soft-bodied. The color is green or black. They cluster on the leaves. They feed on the sap of the plants, causing curling of leaves and dwarfing of the plants. Control - spray with Phosdrin, Thiodan, Malathion at the recommended dosage of the manufacturer. 2. Cutworm, Prodenia litura Fabricius. The moths are dark pale brown and their outer wings have transverse, grayish, light brown bands. The worm feeds on young stems and leaves of the plant. Control - spray with Sevin, Malathion or Methyl parathion, preferably in the afternoon. 3. Diamond-back moth, Plutella maculipennis Curtis. The larva is about 9 cm. long and green in color. It feeds on the leaves, making them riddles with holes. Control - spray with Sevin, Folidol and Diazinon. Diseases and their Control: 1. Black control, caused by Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson. Margin leaf infection is followed by browning and drying of the tissues. The lesions is often V-shaped and pointed toward the midrib. In the lesion, the veinlets become black. As the disease advances, the invaded vessels turn back through leaf, stems and fleshy roots. The disease often starts at the water pores of the leaves and progresses throughout the plant by way of water vessels. It may also enter through the roots and woods made by insects. Control - undertake crop rotation for at least 3 years with non- cruciferous crops to avoid infection by organisms in plant debris. Avoid introduction of inocolum from the seeds by soaking the seeds for 30 minutes in water at 50 degree C (122 degree F). 2. Downy mildew, caused by Peronospora parasitica ( Pers.) Fries. It may infect any part of the plant above the ground. The first sign is a slight yellowing in the upper leaf surface, followed by a white downy mold on the corresponding lower surface. As the tissue dies, it turn gray to tan. The infected plants usually turn yellow and die. Control - The most practical and economical control for the disease is crop rotation for et least 3 to 5 years. Spraying with Spergon (2-100) will give good results but is impractical. 3. Cercospora leaf spot, caused by Cercospora brascicicola O. Henn. Severe spots appear on the leaves of the plants. The spots have ashen-gray centers with light-brown borders. They range from 1 to 15 mm. in diameter. The older and larger spots frequently have concentric gray and dark-brown rings. Control - collect and burn all diseased leaves. Undertake well-planned crop rotation. Harvesting and Handling: Harvest radish as they reach the desired size. Never allow the roots to over mature, because they become fibrous, pithy and too pungent. The maturity is determined by pulling some representative samples from the plantation. Depending upon the variety, radish matures in 22 to 50 days from sowing. Bigger roots are harvested first, leaving smaller one for later harvesting. Mature roots are pulled one after to other. Classify the harvest right in the field according to size, color and shape of roots. Wash the roots thoroughly. Dried leaves and root tips should be trimmed to give the roots a better appearance. Roots marketed in bunches are tied with or without complete leaves and the number in each bunch varies according to the market demand. In some cases, radish is sold in the market without tops, in which case, the tops should be removed right in the field. Reference : Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops YARD LONG BEAN (Sitao) Among the legume vegetables, long beans is one of the most widely grown in the Philippines. It is principally raised as vegetable food crop for salad making and is cooked alone or in combination with other vegetables, meat or fish. Variety: Yard Long Asparagus Bean - Heat and wet tolerant. Pods: long, slender, round section, 30 to 50 cm long, medium green color. Vines: rampant climber, maturity: beginning of harvest 50 to 60 days after sowing. Black seeds variety. Adaptation: Climate and soil requirements - Sitao is adapted in both wet and dry season. It thrives in almost types of soil from sandy loam to clay loam but clay loam soil, with proper fertilization, give long, compact and well- seeded pods. It is preferable to grow Sitao in well-drained soil. Higher yields are obtained at soil reaction between pH 3 to 5 to 8. Elevations - Sitao is generally grown at low elevations. Months and planting - Sitao is grown throughout the year, but the best time to plant is in May or June during the wet season and October to November in the dry season. Cultural Requirements : Land Preparation - In large-scale planting, the land for Sitao should be thorough prepared. When the field is weedy and the soil type is heavy, the land is plowed and harrowed two to three times to keep the soil loose, friable and fine. Planting and Spacing - From four to six seeds of Sitao are sown in hills 50 cm apart in the row. The rows are later thinned to two to three plants per hill. It requires 5 to 6 kg of seeds to plant a hectare. Cultivation and Weeding - The field of Sitao is cultivated using light tools. In large-scale planting, cultivation and weeding are done in the same manner as that for cowpea, corn and other upland crops. Shallow cultivation is done during the early stage of growth to avoid root injury. Irrigation - Frequent irrigation is practiced when there is not enough moisture in the soil. Lack of soil moisture causes growth retardation and results in low productivity. Fertilizer Application - The fertilizer is applied into the furrows just before planting. For the pole variety, a 1:1 mixture by weight of 14-14- 14 and urea applied at the rate of 250 k. per ha. Gives a high yield of pods. The rate of application for the bush type is about 400k. per ha, using the complete mixture 12-24-12. Fertilizer is applied at seedling time. Control of Pests and Diseases: Pest and their Control: 1. Aphids attacking Sitao are black or pale-green often they attack the shoots and developing pods. Plants attacked by aphids are thrifty and stunted. If left unchecked, they cause the death of the plants. Control - spray Malathion at the recommended rate of application . 2. Beanfly, Agromyza phaseoli Coquillet. The adult flies are minute and jet-black. The maggots are yellowish to reddish and are situated in the basal portion of the stem. Attacked plants wilt of fall over. The larvae bore in the stem and feed on the pith. These results in the death of the entire plant. Control - spray Lindane at the recommended rate of application 3. Bean Pod Borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer. The worms are whitish at first, then they turn creamy white. After hatching, they are about 1.25 mm long. Full grown larvae are 14 to 16 mm long. Control: spray Sevin at the recommended rate of application 4. Tussock Moth Caterpillar, Euproctes variants Walker. The larvae are black with tan-colored heads that devour the leaves and blossoms of the bean plant. Control - Sprays of Malathion, Sevin or Phosdrin give effective control. Diseases and their Control: 1. Bean Anthracnose. The disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (sass & Magn.) Bri & Car. The disease is distinguished by the presence of sunken, brown spots surrounded with red borders. In the beginning, the spots are minute. Seeds of diseased pods are low quality. The pathogen attacks the leaves, stems and pods. Control - Spray Zineb or Maneb (W.P.) at the rate of 250 to 300 grams per 100 liters of water. The first application is made as the first leaves unfold, and repeated once or twice at eight to ten day intervals. 2. Rust of Bush Sitao - is caused by Uromyces Phaseoli (Pers.) Wint. Var. Typical Art. It appears as small, brown, raised spots on the underside of the old leaves. The spots rupture at maturity and the presence of a brown powdery material is noticeable. The diseases causes yellowing and premature dying of the leaves. The causal organism, a fungus, is favored by wet weather with cool night. Control - control is ensured by spraying Maneb at the rate of 1 to 2 tbs. per gallon of water or Zerlate at 2 1/4 tbsp per gal of water. In order to prevent the spread of the disease, spraying must be done at weekly intervals once the early symptoms are observed. 3. Common Bean Mosaic - is caused by a virus transmitted by the bean aphids. The leaves show mosaic patterns of dark green areas with a light-green background. Serious infection results in the leaf distortion and stunting of the entire plants. Control - Seeds should be obtained only from virus-free plants. Rouging of infected plants in the field is advocated. Application of insecticides to kill the aphids feeding on the plants will minimize infection in the field. 4. Common Blight of Beans - This is caused by bacterium Xanthomonas phaseoli (Erw. F. Smith) Dowson. The symptom is characterized by the appearance of lesions on the leaves and pods that are water soaked. Seeds in severely affected pods do not develop or remain shriveled and worthless. Control - Treating seeds with Streptomycin sulfate solution at 2,000 ppm. Or 15 to 30 minutes soaking or sparing with Streptomycin at 300 ppm. Will minimize infection. Harvesting, Curing and Storing: Index of Maturity - Sitao is normally grown for its green pods. In both bush and pole types, harvesting is done when the beans are fully developed or when pods are still young and tender. Experience in growing Sitao will tell the right time to harvest green pods. Procedure of Harvesting - Harvesting is done by hand-picking of the pods. Green pods easily break off from the peduncle with a slight twist. Dried pods are harvested with a strong twist at the peduncle or with the use of a sharp knife. A hectare of land may yield four to six metric tons of green pods. In the form of dry beans, bush Sitao can yield from 750 to 900 kilos per ha and pole Sitao to about 1.3 metric tons to a hectare. Reference : Cultural Directions for Phil. Agricultural Crops SWEET PEAS Sweet pea or “citzaro”, as locally called, is a cool climate annual legume raised for its edible pods and matured seeds. Varieties: Sugar Pea Oregon - stringless green and flat pod. Best suited to Tropicall conditions, heat resistance. Direct sowing. Pea Alderman - Green wrinkled seeded, shelling and climbing pea. Only by dry and cold season, at altitudes higher than 800 m. Direct sowing. Harvest is 100 days after sowing. Climatic and Soil Requirements - Being a semi-temperate legume, sweet pea thrives best at high elevations in the tropics like the Philippines. However, success production at low to medium elevations has also been reported with the choice of right varieties when planted during the cold months. (November to February) A loamy and loose soil rich in organic matter is ideal for sweet peas. Heavy manuring is done during land preparation to improve fertility, tilth and texture. Wooden ash is also commonly added. Months of Planting - The season for sweet pea culture is rather broad but distinct. Many growers start drilling the seeds as early as mid- September for the November-December market of green pods and as late as March for late summer and early rainy season produce. High demand for “citzaro” reaches its peak during the Christmas season and in summer (April to May ) in Baguio. Nutritional Requirements - Being a legume, peas are capable of satisfying much of their nitrogen requirement largely through fixation from the air. Cultural Requirements: Planting and Spacing - There are two methods of planting, the furrow and the plot methods. In Baguio, where there is intensive farming, the lot system of planting is followed. The plot is established one meter wide on which the seeds are drilled 15 cm. apart along 2 rows 35 to 40 cm. apart two to three seeds are drilled in a hole at a depth of about 5 to 7 cm. And covered with fine soil. Approximately 50 to 60 kilos of dried seeds are needed to plant a hectare. Cultivation and Irrigation - Early cultivation is done as soon as rows of young plants become visible to achieve early control of weed and to provide optimum soil conditions for vigorous growth. Under dry environment, light over-head irrigation at least twice a week is provided over the plots. Irrigation by gravity is resorted to under extensive cultivation of the crop and when the furrow method of planting is adopted. Light flowing at about 2.5 cm. Every week between the furrows provides sufficient moisture for satisfactory growth. Sticking - This is a must, especially in Baguio where up to the present all existing commercial varieties are viny and tall growing. A local grass called “rono” with a long but sturdy stem is commonly used. The sticks are introduced on the middle of the plot providing a common “trellis” for the rows of the plants. Sticking also facilitates harvesting of the pods. This is done about three weeks after planting or when the plants have already attained a height of 30 to 35 cm. Fertilizer Application - Aside from the manure needed and applied during land preparation, the required complete fertilizer is applied in band at equal depth with the hill of seeds in between the rows during planting time. Other Requirements - As the plants develop, they are braced with sticks against the trellis to prevent them from toppling over. Control of Pests: 1. Leaf mine - Phytomyza atricornis Meigen. This is the most destructive and persistent pest of sweet peas in the Baguio area. The larvae are small and they bury through the leaves. Under severe infestation, the leaves appear whitish and papery and in some cases the pest causes the death of the plant. Control - Early protective spraying of the plants is recommended using Bayrusil and Phosdrin. Weekly spraying with sticker has been proven highly effective against the pest. 2. Cutworm, Prodenia litura (Fabr.) often a nuisance during the dry months, this pest attacks the young plants by nibbling or cutting off the stem near the ground level. They usually attack at night, hence its control is best achieved by drenching the soil where the larvae seek refuge during the day. Aldrin or Heptachlor have been proven very effective against the pest when applied late in the afternoon. Harvesting, Curing and Storing: Index of Maturity - Most sweet peas grown in Baguio and its environs are harvested and marketed as green pods. These are picked when the seeds have just started to bulge in the pods. With present commercial varieties, initial picking of pods commences about 70 to 80 days after planting, and proceeds at 7-10 day interval thereafter, reaching the peak production through the second and third weeks of harvesting. The pods are cut from the stalk with a pair of scissors and placed in a basket tied around the waist of the picker as he goes along from one plot to the another. The best time to harvest is early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Care of Harvest - The pods are hauled under a shade, cleaned and sorted and neatly packed in small bamboo baskets lined with banana leaves. Damaged pods are those with brown spots or freckles are left for the family’s consumption. For seed production intended for the next planting season, the pods are left in the field until mature and dry. These are harvested, further cured under the sun for a few days, then threshed by hand. The seeds are cleaned and spread under the shade for further drying. Bare seeds dried directly under the sun tend to crack their seed coats which affects their viability and keeping quality. Properly dried seeds are kept in tins or muslin bags and stored under dry environment. Reference: Cultural Requirements for Phil. Agricultural Crops TOMATO Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crops throughout the world. It is grown for both home and market in almost any community in the country. It is one of the most popular salad vegetables. It is made into converses, pickles, catsup, and soups. It is served raw, baked, stewed, fried and as sauce for other foods. Varieties: GREEN SEEDS COMPANY LTD have a number of varieties, categorized as: 1. Heat Resistant Tomato Tropics or Hot Season: (Xina, Formosa, Carioca, F1 Caracoli, F1 Calinago, F1 Caribou and F1 Djebel.) 2. Tomato Cherry Type: ( Red Cherry and Red Pearl) 3. Fresh Market for Outdoor Product: (F1 Carmine, F1 Sierra, Floradade, Calypso, F1 Sultan, Supermarmande, Saint Pierre) 4. Tomato Processing Type for Industry or Fresh Market : (Roma VF, Rossol, Rio Grande, Tropimech, Heinz 1370, Ibid F1) 5. Hybrid for Greenhouse: Magic F1 For detailed information on these varieties, please refer to GREEN Co SEEDS COMPANY LTD’ brochure. Adaptation: Soil and Climatic Requirements - The crop can be grown successfully in a wide range of soil types. For large yields, as the production of the crop for processing, silt loamy soils, clay loamy soils and loamy soils are ideal. Where the growing season is short and earliness is desired, sand or sandy loamy soils are preferred. Tomato requires warm weather and plenty of sunshine or a relatively long season to produce profitable yields. Cultural Requirement: Raising of Seedling - For backyard or school gardens, use seedboxes and for large scale field planting, use seedbeds. The seedbeds or seedboxes are prepared in the same manner as they are prepared for cabbage, cauliflower, etc. Shallow furrows, about 15 cm. apart are made across the length of the seedbeds or seedboxes with the use of bamboo slat or wood with a wedge shape on one side. The seeds are sown thinly and evenly into the shallow furrows, covered thinly with fine soil and watered. About two weeks from sowing, the developing seedlings are fertilized with a fertilizer solution prepared by dissolving 8 level tbs. Of ammonium sulfate fertilizer in 5 gal. of water. After sprinkling the fertilizer solution, the seedlings are rinsed with tap water. In 25 to 30 days from sowing, the seedlings are ready for field planting. Land Preparation - The land is plowed and harrowed several times until a fine tilth is obtained. For heavy soils, it is best to dry the plowed land for a week and then to flash irrigated the land. As soon as the soil becomes workable, the land is harrowed and leveled. Double-furrows, about 15 cm. deep and 50 cm. apart, are made with the use of a plow with the board removed or with a furrower. The double rows are spaces one meter apart. Fertilization - Under many conditions, the application of 345 to 400 kg. per ha. of a 12-24-12 fertilizer mixture is suitable. The fertilizer is applied into the furrows immediately before or at planting time. When the plants start to bloom or when there are some small fruits developing on them, sidedress with nitrogenous fertilizers. About 100 to 150 kg. of ammonium sulfate fertilizer per hectare would be sufficient. Side dressing should be done at bedding or banking time. Transplanting - The seedbeds or seedboxes should be watered sufficiently before lifting the seedlings. The seedlings are set immediately after the furrows are made and the fertilizer is applied. The seedlings are set 50 cm. apart in the furrows. Water the newly transplanted seedlings. Replant all missing hills within one week from transplanting. Cultivation, Weeding and Irrigation - About a month from transplanting, the double rows of plants are bedded or banked using a small tractor provided with a ridge or a plow. Bedding or banking provides soil mulch and thus eliminates later cultivation and weeding, and also facilitates irrigation. The frequency or irrigation depends upon the weather condition and type of soil. Light soils may require more irrigation than heavy soils. The irrigation water is allowed to pass between the bedded or banked double-rows of plant, taking care not to allow overflowing. Control and Pests of Diseases: 1. Pest and Their control: The common pest of tomato is the tomato fruit worm (Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Chadwich. This pest can be controlled by spraying with Sevin at the concentration of 3 to 4 leave tbs. per 5 gal. of water. The plants should be sprayed before the fruits begin to appear. Spraying is continued at one to one and one-half week intervals. This will also control the lady beetle (Epilachna Philippinensis Dieke) commonly feeding on the leaves. 2. Diseases and their Control: The most serious disease of tomato is bacterial wilt. Do not plant on lands heavily infested with the causal organisms. Plant wilt-tolerant varieties offered by GREEN Co. The other diseases of tomato are (a) Anthracnose that can be controlled by spraying with Zarlate, Dithane Z- 78, or Manzate at 2 lb. per 100 gal. of water at weekly intervals; and (b) leaf mold which can be controlled by spraying with Cupravit, Zerlate or Orthocide at 2 lb. per 100 gal. of water. Harvesting, Curing and Storing Tomatoes are harvested or picked at several stages of maturity, depending upon how they are to be marketed or used. For distant markets, pick the green wraps, breakers and some pinks. For nearby markets or home use, pick the red- ripe fruits. Green wraps are mature fruits the color of which is still green. Pinks are characterized by the first discoloration of half of the fruit. For distant markets, the fruits are packed in boxes or baskets that are loaded in trucks. In picking, care should be taken to avoid bruising as this would cause great damage while the fruits are in transit. WATERMELON Varieties: With Seed: Sugar Baby, Baby Doll F1, Kaolack, Charleston Grey, Klondike RS57, Crimson Sweet, Logone F1, California Jaune, Baby Jaune, Family. Seedless: Sunshine, Sunlight The crop has a spreading, hairy, tendril-bearing vines reached a length of about three to five meters. Leaves are oblong-ovate of about 8 to 20 cm long with three to seven lobes. Flower are monoecious, yellow in color and about 2 cm. in diameter. Fruits are large, some are green-mottled and grayish and others deep green. Hybrid varieties produce much bigger fruits. The shape carries from global to oblong. Adaptation: Climatic and Soil Requirements - A well drained sandy loam soil rich in organic matter and which has not been previously used for growing watermelon is preferred. Watermelon requires more aeration than any kind of crops, thus, the field must have good drainage to obtain good yield. In areas where growing season is short, light soil is desirable for early harvest. It grows satisfactorily in a bit heavier soil if properly cared and managed. Watermelon is one of the few vegetables that is tolerant to a wide range of soil acidity. It grows from pH 5.0 to 6.8 without much difference in yield. For successful growth, a long period of warm and preferably dry weather is required. A monthly average temperature of 25 degree C to 30 degree C is ideal for growth and 25 degree C is found to be the best temperature for fruit setting. Elevation - Watermelon is grown commercially in lowland areas after rice harvest. The province are Bataan, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Batangas and Laguna. Cultural Requirements : The land is plowed as deep as possible to increase soil aeration. The depth of plowing is at least 20 cm. Two to three plowings with an equal number of harrowing are essential for the early growth and development of the crop. These are done several weeks in advance of planting to condition the soil. Although quite expensive, this will be offset later by a reduction in labor cost of weeding. Planting and Spacing - Watermelon is grown from seeds directly planted in the field. Plant three to four seeds to a hill at a depth of approximately 2.5 cm. The distance of planting ranges from 1.5 x 1.5 to 2.5 * 2.5 m. Apart, depending on the variety. After the plants are well established, they are thinned to one to two plants per hill. Alternate plan maybe done by planting in continuous rows and thinning the plant to a distance of 1.5 to 2.0 meters after they have been established. When the plants appear to be safe, i.e., having three to four leaves, thin to one plant per hill. Cultivation - Cultivation and weeding should be done as soon as possible to check the growth of weeds. Any implement may be used for the purpose. Light cultivation is given when the plants have attained considerable growth in order to avoid injury to the roots. Irrigation - Watermelon may suffer injury when subjected to a long period of drought. Apply irrigation water when necessary. Frequent light irrigation of five to six times during the growing season has been observed beneficial. At the early stage of growth, irrigate sparingly since too much water tends to hinder root development. Fertilization - In the Philippines, watermelon is generally grown in rotation with other crops, thus, it is necessary that manure or any soil improving crop be used to maintain the organic matter in the soil. About 10 to 15 tons of manure to a hectare are recommended. If organic matter is added, it should be reinforced with complete fertilizer at the rate of 100 to 150 kilogram per hectare to be applied at planting time by hand placement 5 to 8 cm. below the soil. And 5 to 6 cm. away to the side where seeds are to be placed. If the plants show signs of yellowing, side dressing of nitrogenous fertilizer may be applied. Control of Pests and their Diseases: Pests and their Control: 1. Cucurbit beetle, Orthaulaca similes Oliver. Adults are yellow beetles about 6 to 8 mm. in length. They eat the leaves of both young and old plants. Control: Spray with Carbaryl or Malathion at the rate of 3 tbs. Spoonfuls per 5 gal. of water. 2. Aphids. Adult and young are tiny, greenish insects that are generally wingless and soft bodies. The insects suck the sap of the leaves. Infested plants show curling and distorting of the leaves. Control - Spray with Ekatin at tbs., for 3 gal. of water. 3. Mites, Tetranychus sp. Very tiny insects usually found on the undersurface of the leaves. Adults are reddish in color. Control - Spray with acaricide such as chlorobenzilate, Kelthane, Tedion V.18 at 2 to 3 tbs. per 5 gal. of water. Diseases and their Control: 1. Downy mildew - disease is caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk and Curt. It is characterized by the presence of yellow spots on the upper surface of the leaves and purplish powdery material on the lower surface. Control - Spray infected plant with any of the following: 1. Fernate - 3 1/2 tbs. Per gallon of water. 2. Zerlate - 1 1/2 to 2 tbs. per gallon of water. 3. Manzate - 1 1/2 tbs. per gallon of water. 2. Fusarium Wilt - This disease is caused by Fusarium oxysporum F.melonis. The diagnostic feature of the disease is the wilting of young seedlings and/or runners of older plants. At the advance stage, the leaves turn brown and the plants die eventually. Control - Crop rotation and use of resistant varieties 3. Bacterial wilt - bacterial wilt is caused by Erwinia tracheiphila (E.F.Sm.) Holland. The first symptom of the disease is the wilting of a single leaf of a plant. As the disease advances, wilting becomes severe resulting in the death of the plant. Control - Crop rotation is recommended. 4. Mosaic - The disease is caused by a virus. Infected plants turn yellow and stunted in growth. In the advanced stage, leaves become mottled, distorted and curled downward. Control - Crop rotation and use of resistant varieties. Harvesting: Premature harvesting of fruits reduces their quality. Therefore, watermelon fruits should be harvested when they are mature enough to be sweet. Generally, it takes 35 to 45 days for a watermelon fruit to mature from pollination depending on the variety. There are several methods in determining maturity of watermelon. The old method is by thumping with a finger. A dull or hallow sound is an indication of maturity. The most practical index, however, is when the color of the lower part of the fruit that rests on the ground changes from white to creamy yellow.
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