Management of well-known effect

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					Management of well-known effect
What is the Rosenthal Effect?

In education and psychology, there is a well-known experiment, this experiment is a
famous American psychologist Professor Rosenthal design completed.

He put a group of mice were randomly divided into two groups: A group and B group,
and tell A group of breeders, said the group of rats are very clever; the same time, the
breeder told the B group, said his mental rats in this group General. A few months
later, Professor of the two groups of mice through the maze of tests, found that even
mice A group B group than in mice really smart, they can start out of the maze and
find food.

So, Professor Rosenthal was inspired, he would like this effect can also occur in
people who do? He also came to a general secondary schools, in a class trip away
casually, and then circle the students list several names, tell their teacher that these
students a high IQ, very smart. After some time, professors went to this school, a
miracle has happened, it was he selected several students now really become a class
leader. Professor Rosenthal then Caidui their teacher said he does not understand this
point some students, allowing teachers was an accident.

Why is there such a phenomenon? A "expect" the sense of
magic at work. Professor Rosenthal is a famous psychologist, the People had a very
high authority, the teachers would have convinced him, so he pointed out that several
students had positive expectations, as for smart kids So treat them; and these students
felt that expectation, also consider themselves smart, improving self-confidence,
improve their required standard, eventually they did become good students.

What is the effect of horse flies?

Lincoln teenager and his brother home on a farm in Kentucky where the plow corn,
Lincoln Yao horse, plow his brother, but the horse was lazy, sluggish, stop and go.
However, for some time horses go fast. Lincoln felt strange to the edge of a farm, he
found a great horse fly bite in the horse, he took a horse fell during the night flies. See
the horse flies were knocked out, and his brother complained, said: "Oh,
why did you destroy it, is the guy making the horse run up it!"

No horse fly bites, horse sluggish, stop and go; a horse fly bites, horse dare not
neglect, run fast. This is the effect of horse flies. Enlightenment is: a person with only
the biting sting, he would not dare to relax, only hard work, continuous improvement.

What is the bucket effects (Cask Effect)?

Describe the development of scientific research and the overall level of metaphor
things. Decided on a barrel capacity, is neither the longest nor the average length, but
the shortest Flanagan board. This means that all knowledge must advance forward,
strengthening the scientific and technological enterprise and organization structure in
order to win in the competition. The success of a team organization, not a particular
number of people, but all the same hand.

What is the wealth effect?

Wealth effect is due to the implementation of monetary policy caused the currency to
increase or reduce the stock of public hand-held wealth effect. Wealth, including two
forms: financial assets and physical assets. Increase or decrease of wealth means that
the net increase or decrease of two assets, rather than changes in a particular asset, the
public holding monetary assets and therefore increase or decrease does not mean
increase or decrease its holdings of wealth. When the central bank adopted an
expansionary monetary policy, using open market operations, buying government
bonds to the private sector, this will make the community assets to increase cash,
reduce debt assets, this change only the composition of wealth, but the total amount of
wealth held unchanged.

Similarly, tightening monetary policy will come to the same conclusion. However,
through this effect may affect the expansion of aggregate demand or reduced. When
wealth holders to pay other debts or to finance purchase of urgently needed goods to
the commercial bank lending, the total assets and total liabilities remained unchanged,
the increase or decrease the stock of money has not brought about changes in wealth
held by the public . However, this wealth effect will certainly lead to changes in
aggregate demand. When the Ministry of Finance to make up for budget deficits or to
the issuance of new banknotes to Treasury securities in exchange for new deposits in
the bank to increase money supply, the money stock increase.

What is Herding?

There is humor about: an oil tycoon to heaven to attend the meeting, a discovery has
been packed into the conference room, no place taking a seat, so he had an idea called:
"the discovery of oil the hell!" This call does not matter, heaven
where oil tycoons have to go to hell, and soon, heaven on the left who later had. Then,
the tycoon thought, we all ran in the past, is it really the discovery of oil the hell?
Then, he hastily ran to hell.

Laugh, the wise you should be able to understand quickly what is herding. Flock is a
very scattered organization, usually with the left and right is blind to the collision, but
once there is a sheep to move, the other sheep will herd phenomenon without
hesitation, without regard next to the wolf and not possible far better grass. Herding is
the metaphor people have a herd mentality, herd mentality can easily lead to blind
obedience and blind obedience often find fraud or failure.
French scientist Jean - Henri Fabre have done a pine experiment. He put some pine on
the edge of a pot to make it end to end phase in a circle, not far from the pot, then
sprinkle some pine caterpillars like to eat pine needles, pine around the beginning of a
with a another enclosure pot lap to go. The walk is seven days and nights, hunger,
tired of dead pine caterpillars count them out. But sadly, as long as any one can eat
mouth slightly changing the route of pine needles.

Animals, so people are not necessarily smarter. Social psychologists study found that
affect the herd of the most important factor is the number holding a certain number of
views, not the opinion itself. Were more persuasive in itself, very few people will
insist on unanimous cases, their different opinions. "The masses have sharp
eyes," "wood show in the forest, the wind will destroy
the" "first rotten rafters in his early" These doctrines
closely tied to our actions. The late 20th century, the Internet economy soared,
"com" companies blossom everywhere, all the investors are
staking their claims to sell the concept, IT industry CEO who burn in the game,
burning the amount of stock will rise much, so, increasingly The more people hesitate
to forging ahead. 2001, and once the bubble burst, vanity make casual, we discovered
that in the frenzied market atmosphere, profit is the leader, the rest follow suit of the
have become victims. The media often serve as instigators of herding, a rumor
through the newspaper will become a recognized fact that a point can become public
through television. Demonstrations, election rally, suppression of dissent and other
political art is not in the use of non-herding.

Of course, there's something there are always reasonable, herding is not
necessarily good for nothing. This is the nature of the optimization rules, information
asymmetry and the expected uncertainty in the conditions, see how others do indeed
lower the risk (which in game theory, Nash equilibrium has also instructions).
Herding demonstration study can produce synergy effects and aggregation, which for
the protection of vulnerable groups and development is helpful.

Herding tell us: the information to others, not all letters are not from time to believe,
all things have their own judgments, surprisingly to winning, but followers also have
the advantage, often way is not fixed!

What is the effect of depression?

As the water flows, as funds will be to concentrate in areas with low transaction costs,
which in economics, known as the "hollow effect." For example,
some multinational companies came to China to do that because our labor costs low is
relative "depression."

What is the Hawthorne effect?
Additional attention due to performance or caused to rise in what we call
"Hawthorne effect."

Hawthorne effect was found from a failure of management research. November 1924,
the U.S. National Research Council was organized by Harvard University
psychologists entered the Mayo research team led by Westinghouse (Westinghouse)
Electric Company's Hawthorne plant, their mind is trying to improve
working conditions and environment external factors, to find ways to improve labor
productivity. They selected six women relay workshop to observe the object. In the
seven stages of the experiment, the host changing lighting, wages, rest breaks, lunch,
environmental factors, hoping to find the relationship between these factors and
productivity ---- This is the traditional management theories persist in view. But,
regrettably, no matter how external factors change, the productivity of test group has
been on the rise.

Later this led to confusing results on the management revolution.

During the nine years of testing and research, scholars have finally realized that the
people affected by external factors not only stimulate more motivation on their own
subjective, thus the birth of the management behavior, began to treat people as
"human" rather than machine attachment to look at the. The
Hawthorne test itself, when it was out of the six women as a group when they realized
they were a special group, is the test object is the object of these experts have been
concerned about this subject to attention feel makes them work harder to prove he is
good, is worth attention.

?"Hawthorne effect" is very common in the schools. There is a
foreign school, the time of admission every student will carry out intelligence test,
intelligence test results to be excellent students into classes and regular classes. The
results have a routine check found that a group of students enrolled a year ago, the test
results for some mistakes to be reversed, that is now the best class is an ordinary child,
and really smart kids are in general classes. But this year's course grade is
the same as in previous years, significantly higher than the regular class outstanding
class, not abnormal. Children had been treated as Excellence in the ordinary concerns
of their own that they are also excellent, with additional attention to psychological
suggestion really makes the ugly duckling became a swan.

Hawthorne effect tells us: From the perspective of others, white lies and praise can
really bring a person; from the perspective of self, you think you are the kind of
person, you can be what kind of person.

What is the domino effect?
The physical reason of this effect is: dominoes on end, the center of gravity high, the
focus of the fall down, down process, its gravitational potential energy into kinetic
energy, it fell to the second card, this kinetic energy to transfer to The second card, the
second card will be the first card transfer to the kinetic energy and their own collapse
by a process of transforming itself to the gravitational potential energy and kinetic
energy of, and then spread to the third board .... .. so each card down when the kinetic
energy than the former one with the big cards, so they speed than a fast one, that is,
they in turn pulled down energy than a large one.

What is the crowding-out effect?

1. Expansionary fiscal policy caused interest rates to rise, misuse of private
investment, inhibit the increase in aggregate demand phenomenon, known as the
crowding-out effect.

2. That the government and enterprises are investing in the investment projects under
certain conditions, the Government has put companies out of more than vote went,
this is the crowding-out effect.

What is the halo effect?

Halo effect was first used by the famous American psychologist Thorndike in the
twenties of this century made. He believed that people's knowledge and
judgments are often only partial departure from diffusion to derive the overall
impression that is often generalized. If a person has been identified is good, he would
be a positive definite aura, was assigned all right quality; If a person is marked as bad,
he was a negative in the negative aura that enveloped and was considered to have a
variety of bad quality. It is as if the eve of the moon around the windy weather,
there's ring (halo), actually, circle the moon light, but only enlarged.
Accordingly, Thorndike for this psychological phenomenon a fitting name from the
"halo effect", also known as the "halo

Psychologists Dane did such a test. He let be look at some photos, pictures and some
very attractive people, some without charm, and some medium. Then let its charm has
nothing to do with the Assessment of the characteristics of respect these people. The
results showed that subjects on the attractive charm than to give more to non-ideal
personality characteristics, such as gentle, calm, good communication and so on.

Halo effect is not only reflected in the Yimaoquren on regular, but also often reflected
in the set position to clothing, personality, to the initial conversation can be people
with character and so on. In persons not familiar with the evaluation, this effect was
reflected in particular.
From a cognitive perspective, only to seize the halo effect and in accordance with the
individual characteristics of things, but on the nature of things or all of the features of
a conclusion, is very one-sided. Thus, interpersonal communication, we should pay
attention to remind ourselves that other people will not be affected by halo effects,
which fall into the error of halo effect.

What is the bullwhip effect?

Bullwhip effect describes the subtle changes in market supply chain will lead to
dramatic changes in production companies, supply chain farther away from the end
customer, this amplification effect is obvious. Typically 10% of client changes in
market demand will lead to component suppliers orders 200% changes. Solve the
bullwhip effect in three ways: the order between the supply chain to be very clear;
supply chain to strengthen the cooperation between; supply chain information
between the relatively transparent.

What is Matthew?

Matthew (Matthew Effect), is the better good, bad, more bad, more and more, little
less of a phenomenon. Name comes from the Bible, Matthew's a fable.

"Holy Bible", "Matthew," so a few words
from the twenty-five chapters: "Whoever has will be given to him tell him
to spare; not, even he has will be taken from him." 1973 Morton American
History of Science researchers with these words sum up a social psychological
phenomenon: "The scientists have made quite a reputation to honor the
scientific contributions to the increase, and for those not well-known scientists did not
recognize them results. "Morton to this social psychological phenomenon
called" Matthew Effect. "

What is the butterfly effect

The Butterfly Effect is a meteorologist Lorenz put forward in 1963.

The effect that: a South American rain forest in the Amazon River Basin butterfly,
occasionally flapping its wings a few, may lead to Texas in two weeks caused by a
tornado. The reason is: the butterfly wings of the movement, leading to changes in air
system around, and cause a weak flow of production, while production will rise to
weak flow of air around it, or other system to produce changes in the resulting chain
reaction, eventually lead to significant changes in other systems.

This effect shows that the results of the development of things, extremely sensitive to
initial conditions dependence of the initial conditions of small deviations, the results
will cause a great difference.
"Butterfly effect" in social circles to illustrate: a bad tiny
mechanism, if not timely guidance, regulation, would bring great harm, dubbed the
"Tornado"         or   "Storm";     a good
microscopic mechanism, as long as proper guidelines, the efforts over time will
produce a sensational effect, or "revolution."


Xiang Jie:

Non-linear, commonly known as "butterfly effect."

What is the butterfly effect? Start with Massachusetts Institute of Technology
meteorologist Lorenz (Lorenz) about the discovery. In order to predict the weather, his
use of computer simulation of Earth's atmosphere, the 13 equations, the
intention is to use the computer's high-speed operation to improve the
accuracy of long-term weather forecasts. An experiment in 1963, in order to more
closely examine the results, he took out an intermediate solution 0.506 to improve the
accuracy to .506127 and then returned. And when he went to drink a cup of coffee
after coffee actually shocked when look back: had a very small difference, the result is
deviated from the cry! Checking the computer again found no defects, Lorenz (Lorenz)
found that, because the error will grow exponentially, in this case, a tiny error with the
continued passage caused great consequences. He therefore finds it as:
"The initial value of the extreme instability", namely:
"Chaos",          also known as the               "butterfly
effect", a pat on the Asian butterfly wings, after a few months will make
America powerful than the wind also Tornado!

This discovery was significant, so scientists do not understand, several scientific
journals have also disapproved of his article, that "contrary to common
sense": initial value of similar substitution to determine the equation, the
result should be similar to fishes, how it can greatly from !

Linear, that proportion between the amount and quantity, a linear relationship, in
space and time on behalf of the rules and smooth movement; and non-linear, it means
not to scale, not a linear relationship, on behalf of irregular movement and mutation.
If Q: two eyes, visual acuity is the eye of the times? Is easy to think that twice could
actually 6-10 times! This is non-linear: 1 +1 does not equal 2.

Laser generation is nonlinear! When the applied voltage is small, the laser like
ordinary light, light scattering in all directions; and when the applied voltage reaches a
certain value, will suddenly rise to a new phenomenon: I hear the excited atoms,
"Xiangyoukanqi" command, launch of phase and direction are
the same monochromatic light is laser.

Nonlinear characteristics: cross-sectional various professional, infiltration areas,
almost can be said: "everywhere always have."

Such as: the existence of chaotic movement of celestial objects; electrical, optical and
acoustic oscillations, will suddenly trapped chaotic; to the magnetic field at 400
million years, the direction of mutation 16, is as chaotic. Even human beings
themselves, the original is nonlinear: contrary to traditional thinking, healthy human
EEG and heart beat is not the rule, but chaos, chaos is the vitality of the performance
of the chaotic system response to external stimuli , faster than non-chaotic system.

Thus, non-linear on around us, hiding also escape the.

December 1979, Lorenz (Lorenz) AAAS in Washington, made a speech: a butterfly
flapping its wings in Brazil are likely to be caused in the United States, Texas, a
tornado. His speech and conclusions to the people left a profound impression. Since
then, the so-called "butterfly effect" is said to spread like
wildfire, the notoriety.

"Butterfly Effect" to be fascinating, exciting, thought-provoking,
not only in its bold aesthetic imagination and charming colors, also in its profound
philosophy of science content and the inherent charm.

Scientists to chaos is defined as: chaos is deterministic system in seemingly random
irregular movement, a deterministic theory to describe the system, its behavior is
reflected uncertainty - can not be repeated, unpredictable, this is chaos. Further
studies show that chaos is inherent characteristic of nonlinear dynamic systems is a
common phenomenon in nonlinear systems. Newton's deterministic theory
can perfectly handle the multi-linear systems, linear systems mostly come from the
simplification of nonlinear systems. Therefore, in real life and practical engineering
problems, chaos is everywhere. Lorenz chaos first discovered so far, has been on the
Chaos scientists, sociologists, writers and concerned people. Of chaos, in fact, found
that disorder in the order, but today's world there are still too many
unpredictable, chaotic, this topic will certainly be all of humanity issues. Here,
because knowledge is limited, we have only done a very superficial introduction and
the introduction of the hope that more students can enter the door to chaos in a more
profound vision to look at the world. Perhaps future research in this area can be

In short, the chaotic rule can only understand, visual imagery, intuition, speculation,
but do not reveal, deduction and accurate description. We can use in the West spread
of a folk song to give a description of the image.
This is the first folk song said:

Loss of a nail, a shoe bad;
Broken a shoe, a horse folded;
Folded A horse, a knight wounded;
Injury of a knight, lost a battle;
Lost a battle, death of an empire.

Horseshoe will lose a nail, this is the initial conditions of the very small changes, but
the "long-term" effect is an empire of the fundamental
difference between survival and death. This is the military and political areas of the
so-called "butterfly effect."

A bit weird, but really can cause such consequences. A wise leader must be a
preventive measure, seemingly insignificant things that there are a number of possible
collective internal fragmentation, then it not too late? Suspension bridge across the
ravine, often tied to a small stone from a thread started.

What is a catfish effect?

A long time ago, Norwegian sardines from the deep-sea fishing, always had froth at
the mouth yet to reach the shore, the fishermen would like countless ways, want to
live landed sardines, but they all failed.

However, there is always a fishing boat with fish ashore, they bring the price of fish
natural than the dead fish several times more expensive.

Why is this? Boat what secret?

It turned out to put a slot in the sardine catfish. Catfish are the natural enemies of
sardines, fish tank in the same time when placed on sardines and catfish, the catfish
out of nature will continue to chase sardines. Being pursued in the catfish, sardines
swimming desperately to stimulate the vitality of its interior, which survived.

This is the "catfish effect" of the origin of "catfish
effect" of the reason is very simple, nothing more than people outside of
the competitors through the introduction of the internal energy to activate.

But even such a simple truth from the start in Norway and Japan are also only a few
old fisherman to know.

Since the "catfish effect" after the secret is we all know, has
been used in all aspects of life

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