Dr. Kingsley K. Akinroye
                Vice – President
             African Heart Network
       African Heart Network Workshop
    Maputo, Mozambique Nov. 20 – 22, 2008

                   Dry savannah
                   Humid forest
                   Moist savannah
Nigeria- a brief profile

   Nigeria is home to some 140 million people
   It occupies a total landmass of about 923,850km2
   It is rich in oil and gas resources , both account for over
    90 per cent of the country’s foreign exchange
   Despite its oil wealth, over 54 per cent of Nigerians live
    below poverty line
   More than half of Nigerians live in rural areas without
    access to basic amenities
   Life expectancy is put at 47.2 years for males and 48.5
    years for females
Tobacco Use and Exposure

 Available Resource
  Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2003
  GYTS 2001
  Tobacco Control Country Profiles , Second editionACS
  Tobacco Atlas, ACS & UICC, 2006
  WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2008;The
   EMPOWER Package, WHO 2008
  The WHO Global InfoBase.
  Nigerian Health Behaviour Risk Factor Surveillance
   Nigerian Heart Foundation 2003
Tobacco Use and Exposure
 Most data are not current
 Most data not national in coverage
Tobacco Atlas:
 Adult smoking ;total 8.6%,Male15.4,female 1.7 %
 Youth Smoking; total 18.1, male 22 %, female 16.0
Empower: inconclusive data; currently using cigarette female
  0.5,current tobacco smoking 1.0,
Country Profile:
 Adult smoking ;total 8.9%,Male15.4,female 1.7 %
 Youth Smoking; total 18.1, male 22 %, female 16.0
 Tobacco Control Stakeholders
 Health is on the concurrent legislative list; Federal, State
  and Local Governments can legislate on tobacco control
 The Federal Government has demonstrated more
  commitment to tobacco control
 In 2007, the Federal Government and some states filed
  a suit against tobacco companies seeking some
  damages and public health reliefs
Tobacco Control Stakeholders..ctd
 The Ministry of Health has concluded work on a draft
  National Tobacco Control Bill which will domesticate
  provisions of the WHO –initiated Framework Convention
  on Tobacco control
 On May 31,2008 the Federal Capital Territory declared
  that it would commence enforcement of the ban of
  Smoking in public places from June 1.
Tobacco Control Stakeholders..ctd
Research Institutions/Researches,
 Nigerian Heart Foundation
 Ministries of Health
 Nigeria Cancer Society
 Teaching Hospitals
 Academics
Tobacco Control Stakeholders..ctd
Issues, Professionals/Professional organisations
     Identified professionals that could play key
    roles in tobacco control include; include Nigeria
    Medical Association (NMA), National Association
    of Nurses and Midwives, Nigeria Bar Association
   Findings: Besides the NBA (Ikorodu, Lagos
    branch), the above professional bodies have not
    been very active in tobacco control.
Tobacco Control Stakeholders..ctd
Issues, Media
 Nigeria has a vibrant media
 There are close to 20 national newspapers, about 10 magazines ,
   close to 100 radio stations and over 40 TV stations
   There is a media-focused tobacco control group; Journalists
    Action on Tobacco and Health (JATH) and Development
    Strategies Nigeria (DSN)
   Findings: The media is a contested terrain between
    tobacco control activists and the tobacco industry. There
    have been more reports in favour of tobacco control.
    There is yet need for capacity building
Issues, Media..ctd

   The tempo of activities to garner public support
    for anti-tobacco legislations is sustained through
    regular press releases and articles in national
    newspapers and press interviews on television,
    complemented by a radio magazine programme
    –Tobacco and You, that is used to reach
    masses at the grassroots on Metro FM 97.6
    (Lagos), Kapital FM 92.7 (Abuja), and Pyramid
    FM 193.7 (Kano).
Tobacco Control Policies
FCTC status
   Nigeria signed the FCTC on June 20, 2004
   It ratified the treaty on October 20,2005
   There are on-going efforts at domesticating the treaty by way of a
    National Tobacco Control Law. The draft bill is complete and will
    soon be going to parliament
Tobacco Control Policies..ctd
Existing Legislation
   Tobacco Smoking (Control) Act ( formerly
    Tobacco Smoking (Control) Decree 20 of 1990,
   The Code of Advertising Practice (APCON),1993.
   APCON Resolution at its 89th meeting held on
    July 11,2001, issued as a directive on January 8,
Tobacco Control Policies..ctd
Existing Legislation.. Tobacco Control Act
 Prohibits smoking in specified public places
  (cinema, theatre or stadium; offices; public transportation; lifts; medical
  establishments; schools and nursery institutions.)

 It requires health warnings on packs (tobacco
  smoking is dangerous to health or smokers are
  liable to die young )
 Ban tobacco industry’s sponsorship of sports
 Requires that tar and nicotine content be stated
  on the packs.
Tobacco Control Policies..ctd
Existing Legislation.. Tobacco control Act
Penalty for smoking in prohibited places:
  “Any person who smokes tobacco contrary to the
  provisions of this Act shall be guilty of an offence
 under this Act and shall be liable on conviction to a
    fine of not less than N200 and not exceeding
   N1,000 or to imprisonment to a term of not less
  than one month and not exceeding two years or
           both such fine and imprisonment.”
Tobacco Control Policies..ctd
 The price of a pack of 20 cigarettes range between
 Sale by single stick is not prohibited, the average cost of
  a single stick is N5
 There is 40 per cent excise duty tax on cigarette
 Policies like EEG extended to BAT make it possible for
  them to make excess profit and to make cigarette
  manufactured in Nigeria cheaply available in
  neighbouring countries
 Cigarette prices have been relatively stable in Nigeria
Tobacco Control Policies..ctd
Health care cost associated with tobacco use
 The known statistics in this area is by the Lagos state
  ministry of health
 It States that the government spend about N286,000 on
  each tobacco related case and that the patient also
  augment that among with N70,000
Tobacco Control Policies..ctd
Percentage of family income spent on
 No available data on this area
 There is information that a consortium
  based in Ilorin is working on economics of
D,The Tobacco Industry
   Over 20 brands now on sale in the open market
   BAT controls over 75% of the market
   BAT on June 17, 2003, commissioned a $150 million
    cigarette manufacturing plant in Ibadan
   BAT upgrades its Zaria factory with a $1million new GDXI
    machine capable of producing 7,200 sticks a minute
   Nigeria has become an exporter of tobacco products
The Tobacco Industry
   There is a partial ban of advertisement but the
    tobacco industry is exploiting loopholes like vans,
    posters, point of sale etc
   Cigarettes from parts of Asia are still smuggled
    into the country. Nigeria has also become an
    exporter of tobacco products
Thank You

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