Digital agricultural atlas of the Union of Myanmar - Atlas description by vgs12124

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									ATLAS DESCRIPTION
                   DIGITAL   AGRICULTURAL   A TLAS   OF   THE   UNION   OF   MYANMAR - ATLAS   DESCRIPTION




Atlas content

The atlas contains general data sets from international data providers and agricultural-related data sets generated
from 2001–2002 statistics collected at state/division and district level. Population and development credit data were
collected by township. Tabular information and maps are available in order to support agricultural resources
managers.



Maps introduction

Most maps show the following common spatial layers:
•   international boundaries;
•   national, state/division and district boundaries;
•   district capitals;
•   perennial rivers.
International boundaries and perennial rivers are derived from the Vector Map (VMap) Level 0 database, which
represents the third edition of the Digital Chart of the World (DCW). VMap Level 0 is a comprehensive vector-based
geospatial data of the world at 1:1 000 000 scale. The primary source for the database is the National Imagery and
Mapping Agency's (NIMA) Operational Navigation Chart (ONC) series. This is the largest scale unclassified map
series in existence that provides consistent, continuous global coverage of essential base map features. The
database contains vector data and it is organized into ten thematic layers. Data include major road and rail
networks, major hydrologic drainage systems, major utility networks (cross-country pipelines and communication
lines), all major airports, elevation contours (with a 1 000 feet interval and 500 and 250 feet supplemental
contours), coastlines, international boundaries and populated areas.
The national and subnational boundaries were compiled by Suntac Technologies Inc. of the Union of Myanmar from
national topographic map series.
The following descriptions of maps and tabular data are divided into nine main sections.




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1. General maps

These maps present an overview of the region with regional and country-wide characteristics and contain
information derived from general data providers.


   i) Political/Administrative
This map portrays Myanmar basic details such as political and administrative boundaries, populated places, etc.
state/division, district and township codes and names are associated with every administrative polygon; they
constitute the basis for linking the tabular information available from the agricultural survey to spatial features.
Boundaries were compiled by Suntac Technologies, Inc. from national topographic map series.

   ii) Infrastructure
Infrastructures described in this map are roads, railroads and utility networks. Data depicted in this map were
mainly derived from Vector Map (VMap) Level 0 database (ESRI's Digital Chart of the World - DCW), which is more
suitable for regional scale mapping. No higher resolution data could be retrieved for the Union of Myanmar.


   iii) Population
This map shows the distribution of male, female and total population at state/division, district and township levels
of aggregation (data source: 2001-2002 statistical survey).
Furthermore, the map contains a layer on population density at township level, retrieved from different sources:
the Myanmar 2001-2002 statistics and the 1998-2002 Landscan Global Population program. Townships located in
Mandalay, Tanintharyi and Shan North had no population data available; instead, the total population was available
by district. Therefore, gaps of population density at township level were filled by using district averages.

   iv) Satellite
The topic shows physical features through satellite imagery. The data set is a mosaic for the entire country of
Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from the 1990's combined as a false colour composite (7,4,2). Vegetation
and humid/wet areas are particularly detectable with this band combination. The primary data source is the
University of Maryland-Global Land Cover Facility program, while FAO-SDRN provided additional processing to
create the mosaic.



2. Physical


   i) Shaded relief
The map shows canyons, plains, mountains and other features resulting from erosion, deposition, mountain
building and other processes. It also shows the relationship between landforms, settlement and landscape
processes.

The layer was derived by applying a hillshade to Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. The
shading effect was produced using an azimuth of 315 degrees and an angle of illumination of 45 degrees.
SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth and
is characterized by a horizontal grid spacing of 3 arc seconds (approximately 90 m) and 1 m vertical resolution. It
was produced by a specially modified radar system that flew onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an
11-day mission in February 2000. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).



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   ii) Topography
This map depicts elevation combined to main transport networks, urbanized areas, hydrology and other features.
The topographic maps show shape and elevation of landscape features such as mountains and valleys and use
digital elevation model and elevation points to indicate them.

   iii) Hydrology
This map portrays main major hydrologic features and boundaries such as main rivers and streams, watershed
boundaries and extent, inland water bodies, coastal features, etc. The layers in the hydrology map were derived
from a variety of sources, especially ESRI's Digital Chart of the World; most data sets are for regional scale
therefore their use at national and sub-national scale is to be intended for display purposes only.

   iv) Land Cover
This subsection has been derived from the regional land use/land cover map of Southeast Asia, which was
compiled by the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing as part of the global land cover classification project for the
year 2000 (GLC2000). The land cover was mapped from SPOT Vegetation S10 data using dry season images
(January to March) for the years 1998/99 and 1999/2000. The methodology for classifying the images was based
on unsupervised classification(i.e. through an automatic definition of the classes), supported by visual interpretation
from available Landsat TM images and by consultation of existing maps.
The data set has a spatial resolution of 1 km at the equator (0.00892857 dd) and a calculated 85 percent accuracy
with the Forest survey of India report (for the Indian region).
The land use/land cover map of Myanmar shows categories such as urban areas, crop land, grassland, shrub land,
forest types, wetlands, water, etc.
The great variation of rainfall, temperature, soil and topography in Myanmar has produced different forest types.
Tropical evergreen forest occurs in many places of the highest rainfall zone especially in the southern part of the
country. Hill and moist temperate forests are found in the eastern, northern and western regions where elevation
exceeds 900 m. The forest type changes to deciduous, then to dry forests along the transect towards the middle of
the country as a result of decreasing rainfall.
Forest lands, irrespective of their status, are affected to some extent by human interference or encroachment,
shifting cultivation, etc. However, there are still large tracts of undisturbed forests in the northern hilly region of
the country.
Other resources in this topic include the 2001 UNEP Land Cover data and the 1998 Land Cover data set from the
Global Landscan program.


   v) Soils
This topic portrays soils of the Union of Myanmar derived from the classification produced by the Ministry of
Agriculture and Irrigation, Land Use Division, based on soil data collected in the 1950s. Suntac Technologies Inc.
conducted the scanning and digitizing of hardcopy maps to produce the digital layer.
In the period 1955–1957, the Agricultural Planning Commission made a classification mainly based on data from
aerial photo interpretations. It was only in 1957, when the Land Use Bureau was established with the help of Soviet
soil experts that a general scientific classification was made by Dr B.G. Rosanov of Moscow University, based on the
Soviet system. In 1970, the Land Use Division of the Agricultural Service of the Union of Myanmar modified the old
classification system. It was still based on the Rosanov system but the taxonomy, nomenclature, definition of types
and properties were more fully defined, additional data added and an attempt was made to correlate it with the
FAO/UNESCO classification.
The Land Use Division is responsible for carrying out soil surveys and making soil maps, and coordinates the
research activities with related agencies for the introduction of soil conservation and land improvement practices. It
also undertakes research activities for problem soils and soil fertility investigations in farmers’ fields.
According to the modern classification, there are 24 main soil types. The characteristics of these soils are
determined by:


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•   ·the physical and mineral composition of the parent material;
•   ·the relief (physical features);
•   ·the climate under which the soil material has been developed; and
•   ·the vegetation.
Soil classification has generally been based on the distribution of the important land resources for agriculture.
Further detailed soil surveys will provide more information on the particular soil characteristics required for any
region and also for the individual cadastral (kwin) map area. The different varieties of the individual soil
characteristics are described as follows.
•   Alluvial Soils (Fluvisol)
•   Meadow Soils (Gleysol)
•   Meadow Alluvial Soil (Gleysol Fluvic)
•   Meadow Swampy (Humic Gleysol)
•   Meadow Carbonate (Calcaric Gleysol)
•   Lateritic Soils (Plinthic Ferralsol)
•   Red Brown Forest Soils (Rhodic Ferralsol)
•   Yellow Brown Forest Soils (Xanthic Ferralsol)
•   Dune forest and Beach Sand (Arenosol)
•   Mangrove Forest (Orthic Solonchak)
•   Saline Swampy Meadow Gley (Gley–Gleysol)
•   Yellow Brown Dry Forest and Indaing (Orithic Cambisol)
•   Light Forest Soils (Cinnamon) Nitisol
•   Red Brown Savannah Soils (Luvisol)
•   Dark Compact Soils (Vertisol)
•   Red Earth and Yellow Earth (Acrisol)
•   Mountainous Yellow Brown and Red Brown soils (Histic Cambisol and Chromic Cambisol)
•   Chin Hills Complex (Orthic Cambisol)
•   Northern Hills Complex (Orthic Cambisol)
•   Alpic Complex (Gelic Cambisol)
•   Popa Complex (Andosol)
•   Turfy Primitive and Primitive Crushed stones (Lithosol)



    vi) Geology
The topic depicts the geology of the Union of Myanmar. The layer was compiled through screen digitization by
Suntac Technologies, Inc. The user is warned that there will be discrepancies on bordering features. The regions
were approximately located and should be used as a geologic guide.




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3. Land Use

These maps show the distribution of cropping pattern and land type at the levels of aggregation of state/division
and district; data source is the 2001-2002 statistical survey.

   i) Cropping pattern by land type
The map shows political boundaries, populated places, roads, rivers, etc. Cropping pattern data are available in
tabular format.

      DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION
      PATT_PMON                  Pre-monsoon cropping pattern
      PATT_MON                   Monsoon              "
      PATT_WIN                   Winter               "
      PATT_SUM                   Summer               "

   ii) Land type
The topic shows the distribution of land types such as woodland, forest, fallow, sown, unused area etc. Data are
available in spatial and tabular format.

      DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                              UNIT OF MEASURE
      rfor_ha                    Reserved forest areas                          (hectare)
      cfall_ha                   Current fallow areas                                "
      nsown_ha                   Net sown areas                                      "
      occup_ha                   Sown and fallow areas                               "
      cwaste_ha                  Cultivable wastelands                               "
      owood_ha                   Other woodland areas                                "
      other_ha                   Other areas                                         "
      tot_ha                     Total areas                                         "



4. Climate

These maps present the climatic data of the region from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and from
the FAOCLIM database.

   i) WMO
This section of the atlas presents three distinctive themes: rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum
temperature. Data sources are 24 WMO (World Meteorological Organization) climate stations.
WMO collects records for a variable range of years depending on the parameter considered. Data in this atlas are
monthly means of 30 years (1961–1990) measurements. Each station records a set of climatic parameters, which
always includes rainfall and temperatures.
Surfaces for rainfall and temperature data have been processed by FAO-SDRN GIS staff.


      •   Rainfall
The Union of Myanmar receives its annual rains primarily from the southwest monsoon from mid-May to
mid-October. Rainfall varies, however, depending on the locality, elevation and months. July is generally regarded
as the period of maximum rainfall throughout the country.
The rainfall annual average data for each station are represented in the first map (marked with “Stations” suffix)
and they were used to generate an interpolated surface, which was then classified by using equal interval ranges.
The surface (map with “Polygons” suffix) displays information on rainfall distribution throughout the country.


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        •   Minimum temperature
The annual mean of minimum monthly temperatures for each station is represented in the first map (with
“Stations” suffix) and it was used to generate an interpolated surface, which was then classified by using equal
interval ranges. The surface (map with “Polygons” suffix) displays information on minimum temperatures
distribution throughout the country.


        •   Maximum temperature
The annual mean of maximum monthly temperatures for each station is displayed in the first map (with “Stations”
suffix) and it was used to generate an interpolated surface, which was then classified by using equal interval
ranges. The surface (map with “Polygons” suffix) displays information on maximum temperatures distribution
throughout the country.
Details on station name, code, location and elevation were provided together with monthly and annual average and
reference years.


        DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION
        nameWMO                    Station name from WMO
        ELEVATION                  Station elevation above (or below) Mean Sea Level (metre) provided by Member
        STATION                    WMO international index station number
        FIRST_YEAR                 First year of period which normals or extremes are based on
        LAST_YEAR                  Last year of period which normals or extremes are based on
        HOMOGENIT                  Standard/provisional normal and homogeneity indicator code (1)
        STATISCODE                 Statistic code (1)
        QC                         Code indicating which QC tests were performed on the values in this record (1)
        JANUARY - DECEMBER         Normal data values for January to December (real with explicit decimal point, or
                                   integer, depending on climatic element)
        annNCDCmon                 Annual normal values computed by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) from
                                   the monthly values provided (real with explicit decimal point, or integer,
                                   depending on climatic element)
(1)
  For additional information, refer to the WMO metadata (“DOC: WMO Table”) in the “x. Metadata/Docs/Legends”
topic of the atlas.

      ii) FAOCLIM
This topic shows climatic parameters such as average monthly and total annual precipitation, maximum and
minimum temperature and more in the Union of Myanmar. Data source is the FAOCLIM database by FAO, which
collects records for a variable range of years depending on the parameter considered. Information is available as
average, by station and per month.

        DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION
        STN_NAME                   Name of the station
        WMO_CODE                   WMO code of the station
        ELEVATION_                 Station elevation (metre)
        STATION_ID                 Identification number of the station
        ELEMENT_CO                 Code of the climatic parameter
        UOM                        Unit of measure
        BEGIN_YEAR                 First year of the observation period
        NUMBER_OF_                 Number of years in the observation period
        JANUARY - DECEMBER         Monthly value of the climatic parameter
        ELEMENT                    Description of the climatic parameter
        REMARKS                    Notes and references
        AVG                        Average value (if applicable)
        TOT                        Total value (if applicable)


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5. Irrigation and water resources

The following maps present data for water availability in the region as provided by the Agricultural Water
Resources Study prepared as part of the FAO Agriculture Sector Review 2004.
The study, based on data of the year 2000/2001, was conducted by the Irrigation Department (ID), that focused
on surface water, and the Water Resources Utilization Department (WRUD), that focused on groundwater.
Tabular values are available in imperial and metric system.

   i) Annual rainfall
The map displays the sum of the seasonal data set (dry and wet seasons) of the average rainfall.

      DATA SET FIELD            FIELD DESCRIPTION                                UNIT OF MEASURE
      ACRE                      District area                                    (acre)
      SQMI                              "                                        (square mile)
      HA                                "                                        (hectare)
      KM2                               "                                        (square kilometre)
      ANN_RAI_IN                Annual rainfall                                  (inch)
      ANN_RAI_MM                        "                                        (millimetre)
      ANN_RAI_CL                Annual rainfall by class                               "

   ii) Available surface water
The available annual surface water is obtained as the sum of Runoff and Storage data. Tabular values are available
as volumes (acre x foot and square kilometre x metre) and as absolute figures (foot and metre or millimetre).

      DATA SET FIELD            FIELD DESCRIPTION                                UNIT OF MEASURE
      ACRE                      District area                                    (acre)
      SQMI                             "                                         (square mile)
      HA                               "                                         (hectare)
      KM2                              "                                         (square kilometre)
      SUR_WAT_AF                Surface water(runoff + storage)                  (acre x foot)
      SUR_WAT_F                                  "                               (foot)
      SURWT_KM2M                                 "                               (square kilometre x metre)
      SUR_WAT_M                                  "                               (metre)
      SUR_WAT_MM                                 "                               (millimetre)
      SUR_WAT_CL                Surface water(runoff + storage) by class               "

   iii) Groundwater potential
The map displays renewable annual groundwater resources contained in Alluvial and Irrawaddian aquifers. Tabular
values are available as volumes (acre x foot and square kilometre x metre) and as absolute figures (millimetre).

      DATA SET FIELD            FIELD DESCRIPTION                                UNIT OF MEASURE
      ACRE                      District area                                    (acre)
      SQMI                              "                                        (square mile)
      HA                                "                                        (hectare)
      KM2                               "                                        (square kilometre)
      GR_WAT_AF                 Groundwater potential                            (acre x foot)
      GRWAT_KM2M                        "                                        (square kilometre x metre)
      GR_WAT_MM                         "                                        (millimetre)
      GR_WAT_CL                 Groundwater potential by class                          "




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      iv) Irrigated areas
Irrigated areas can be managed by the Irrigation Department (ID), the Water Resources Utilization Department
(WRUD) or private operators. Tabular values are available as acre, square kilometre and hectare.

         DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
         ACRE                       District area                                     (acre)
         SQMI                               "                                         (square mile)
         HA                                 "                                         (hectare)
         KM2                                "                                         (square kilometre)
         TOT_IRR__A                 Total irrigated area(1)                           (acre)
         TOT_IRR__K                         "                                         (square kilometre)
         TOT_IRR_HA                         "                                         (hectare)
         IRR_AR_CL                  Total irrigated area(1) by class                       "
(1)
  Total irrigated area is considered as the sum of the net sown irrigated area managed by the Irrigation
Department (ID), the Water Resources Utilization Department (WRUD) or private operators.

      v) Dams & weirs
This map portrays irrigable areas and storage capacity of dams and weirs aggregated by districts. Source of data is
the 2001-2002 statistics of the Union of Myanmar.

         DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
         STORAGE_CP mln m3          storage capacity                                  (million m3)
         DAM_IR_HA                  irrigable area                                    (hectare)



6. Crops

Crop maps portray agricultural statistics data from the 2001–2002 survey of the Union of Myanmar. Twenty
selected crops are mapped according to five main categories:
•     cereals
•     oilseeds
•     pulses and beans
•     industrial crops
•     horticulture crops
Data are available generally for the sown area, the harvested area, the yield and the production and are presented
for up to three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) and as annual total.
The information is mainly at district level with few maps at state/division and township level. Units of measures are
in imperial and metric system, occasionally in local units.

Vegetables include all horticulture crops other than onion, potato and dry chili.


         DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
         SOWN_AC                    Sown area                                         (acre)
         HARV_AC                    Harvested area                                       "
         YIELD_BSK(2)               Yield                                             (basket)
         PROD_BSK(2)                Production                                             "
         SOWN_HA                    Sown area                                         (hectare)
         HARV_HA                    Harvested area                                         "
         YIELD_KG                   Yield                                             (kilogram)

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       DATA SET FIELD              FIELD DESCRIPTION                                  UNIT OF MEASURE
       PROD_MT                     Production                                         (tonne)
       PROD_VISS(3)                Production                                         (viss)
       YIELD_VISS(3)               Yield                                                 "
       (2)
         “Basket” equivalents in imperial and metric system:

              CROP                                                         POUNDS (LB) KILOGRAMS (KG)
              Groundnut                                                            25          11.34
              Soya bean, green gram, pigeon pea, black gram                        72          32.66
              Sesame                                                               54          24.49
              Rice                                                                 46          20.87
              Maize                                                                55          24.95
              Pulses                                                               70          31.75
       (3)
         “Viss” equivalents in imperial and metric system:

              CROP                                                         POUNDS (LB) KILOGRAMS (KG)
              Potato, onion, dry chilli, cotton, coffee                           3.6           1.63



7. Livestock and aquaculture

Livestock plays a considerable role in the agriculture of the Union of Myanmar. Cattle, buffaloes, pigs, poultry, and
small ruminants such as sheep and goats are raised for local consumption. Pure beef cattle are almost unknown
and dairy cattle breeding is still at an early stage. Most cattle and buffaloes have a multipurpose function, playing a
key role in agriculture as the principal source of draft power for cultivation, as providers of organic fertilizer and as
a means of transport in rural areas. They also represent the most important financial assets possessed by most
farming families. Consumption of meat is quite low in comparison with developed countries, accounting for only
9.85 kg per capita consumption in 2001–2002. In contrast, the per capita consumption of fish in that year
was 28.45 kg.
Livestock breeding of pedigree stock, of cattle, buffaloes, pigs, poultry, sheep, goats, etc., forms an integral part of
the rural economy. Ownership of all forms of livestock is characterized by small individual herds and flocks. For the
development of the cattle industry, vast pasturelands with suitable climate are available in different regions.
In order to ensure an adequate supply of draft cattle and to achieve a steady growth in animal population, the
Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department of the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries has given special emphasis
to extension services and animal health services, including artificial insemination of cattle and pigs.
All forms of commercial breeding and marketing of livestock and livestock products are owned, managed and
operated by private entrepreneurs. The government provides the extension services needed by the farmers, such
as:
•   ·improvement and conservation of genetic resources of indigenous breeds;
•   ·control over infectious diseases;
•   ·production of biological products for animals;
•   ·transfer of technical know-how to livestock farmers;
•   ·distribution of pedigree stock.
Livestock data include draft cattle and are aggregated at district level. Separate maps for draft water buffalo and
draft cattle are available. Fisheries data are based on aquaculture only, that is fish ponds and prawn ponds. Data
are not available for river and marine fisheries.




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   i) Water buffalo
      DATA SET FIELD               FIELD DESCRIPTION                                    UNIT OF MEASURE
      MALE_BUFF                    Male water buffaloes (over 3 years)                  (number)
      FEM_BUFF                     Female water buffaloes (over 3 years)                    "
      OTHER_BUFF                   Other water buffaloes (under 3 years)                    "
      DAIRY_BUFF                   Dairy water buffaloes                                    "
      BUFF_WORK                    Draft water buffaloes                                    "

   ii) Cattle
      DATA SET FIELD               FIELD DESCRIPTION                                    UNIT OF MEASURE
      CATTLE                       Cattle (over 3 years)                                (number)
      COW                          Cows (over 3 years)                                      "
      OTHER_CATT                   Other cattle (under 3 years)                             "
      DAIRY_CATT                   Dairy cattle                                             "
      BUL_WORK                     Bullocks                                                 "

   iii) Goats & sheep
      DATA SET FIELD               FIELD DESCRIPTION                                    UNIT OF MEASURE
      GOAT_SHEEP                   Goats and sheep                                      (number)

   iv) Poultry
      DATAS ET FIELD               FIELD DESCRIPTION                                    UNIT OF MEASURE
      DUCK                         Ducks                                                (number)
      CKEN_LAYER                   Layer chickens                                           "
      CKEN_BROLI                   Broiler chickens                                         "
      INDIGENOUS                   Indigenous chickens                                      "

   v) Pigs


      DATA SET   FIELD             FIELD   DESCRIPTION                                  UNIT OF MEASURE
      PIGS                         Pigs                                                 (number)

   vi) Aquaculture
      DATA SET FIELD               FIELD DESCRIPTION                                    UNIT OF MEASURE
      Fish PONDS_NO                Fish ponds                                           (number)
      Fish PONDS_HA                Fish ponds                                           (hectare)
      Prawn PONDS_NO               Prawn ponds                                          (number)
      Prawn PONDS_HA               Prawn ponds                                          (hectare)
      TOTAL_NO                     Total ponds                                          (number)
      TOTAL_HA                     Total ponds                                          (hectare)



8. Mechanization

The development of the agriculture sector constitutes the first and foremost aspect in the government's economic
objectives and as a result, mechanized agriculture has gained relevance.
In agriculture, as well as in many other production systems, mechanization has assumed an increasingly important
role and permitted higher production levels, expansion in cultivation and a radical change in cropping methods.
Apart from the essential role in land preparation, machines have been called upon to take a greater share in
harvesting, threshing, drying, etc.
Until recently, mechanized land preparation was generally undertaken by farmers using tractors hired from the


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Agricultural Mechanization Department. At present, however, power tillers, water pumps, etc. are being imported
and distributed directly to farmers with a view to improve their agricultural activities. Power tillers, seeders,
weeders, dryers and engine-driven threshers are being modified and manufactured locally to complement partially
the requirements and distribution of farm machineries. Private sector participation continues to be encouraged and
given necessary assistance.
Mill industries are classified into three categories: large (>50 tonnes/day), medium (25–50 tonnes/day) and small
(<25 tonnes/day). Power tiller and tractor data are presented at district level as number of items.



   i) Rice mills
      DATA SET FIELD              FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      S_RICEMIL                   Small rice mills                                  (number)
      S_RICEVER                   Small rice vermicelli mills                           "
      L_RICEMIL                   Large rice mills                                      "
      L_RICEVER                   Large rice vermicelli mills                           "
      M_RICEMIL                   Medium rice mills                                     "
      M_RICEVER                   Medium rice vermicelli mills                          "
      RIMILL_TOT                  Total rice mills                                      "

   ii) Oil mills
      DATA SET FIELD              FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      S_OILMIL                    Small oil mills                                   (number)
      M_OILMIL                    Medium oil mills                                      "
      L_OILMIL                    Large oil mills                                       "
      OILMIL_TOT                  Total oil mills                                       "

   iii) Other mills
      DATA SET FIELD              FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      S_FLOMIL                    Small flour mills                                 (number)
      S_WHETMIL                   Small wheat mills                                     "
      S_WHETVER                   Small wheat vermicelli mills                          "
      S_BEANMIL                   Small bean mills                                      "
      M_FLOMIL                    Medium flour mills                                    "
      M_WHETMIL                   Medium wheat mills                                    "
      M_WHETVER                   Medium wheat vermicelli mills                         "
      M_BEANMIL                   Medium bean mills                                     "
      L_FLOMIL                    Large flour mills                                     "
      L_WHETMIL                   Large wheat mills                                     "
      L_WHETVER                   Large wheat vermicelli mills                          "
      L_BEANMIL                   Large bean mills                                      "
      OTHER_TOT                   Total other mills                                     "

   iv) Power tillers
      DATA SET FIELD              FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      PTIL_VALK                   Walking type power tillers                        (number)
      PTIL_RID                    Riding type power tillers                             "
      PTIL_ROT                    Rotavators for power tillers                          "
      PTIL_PLGH                   Ploughs for power tillers                             "
      PTIL_PUDD                   Puddlers for power tillers                            "
      TOT                         Total power tillers                                   "




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   v) Tractors
      DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      TRT_80HP                   80 HP tractors                                    (number)
      TRT_70HP                   50-70 HP tractors                                     "
      TRT_50HP                   <50 HP tractors                                       "
      TOT                        Total number of tractors                              "
      TRT_DPLGH                  Disc ploughs                                          "
      TRT_DHARR                  Disc harrows                                          "
      TRT_ROTAV                  Rotavators                                            "

   vi) Cultivation equipment


      Combined harvesters
      DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      CHARV_JAP                  Combined harvesters - Japanese type               (number)
      CHARV_CHI                  Combined harvesters - Chinese type                    "
      TOT                        Total combined harvesters                             "

      Reapers
      DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      REAP_TILL                  Reapers - Power tilters mounted                   (number)
      REAP_POW                   Reapers - Power reapers                               "
      TOT                        Total reapers                                         "

      Threshers
      DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      THRE_POW                   Power threshers                                   (number)
      THRE_MAN                   Manual threshers                                      "
      TOT                        Total threshers                                       "



9. Inputs

The application of modern agrotechnologies constitutes one of the Ministry's main initiatives, and is being carried
out on different crops, with various experiments on improved farming methods, weed and pest control,
mechanization, irrigation, post-harvest technology, etc.
This section includes maps showing the use of fertilizers and pesticides and the access to production credit in
Myanmar according to 2001–2002 agricultural statistics. Fertilizers and pesticides use are collected at district level.
Production credit data are collected at township and district level. Note that the production credit map shows
statistical data for development loans aggregated at township level.



   i) Fertilizers
      DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                 UNIT OF MEASURE
      UREA_TON                   Quantity of urea                                  (tonne)
      TSP_TON                    Quantity of triple superphosphate                     "
      MOP_TON                    Quantity of muriate of potash                         "
      OTHER_TON                  Quantity of other fertilizers                         "




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   ii) Pesticides
One of the main factors limiting crop production is pest infestation, although this occurs only on a few crops, in
some areas and during certain seasons. Necessary countermeasures include systematic use of both organic and
chemical protections; at the same time, proper care is exercised in the use and application of pesticides to
minimize hazards and environment pollution.
From a legislative point of view, the Pesticide Law, introduced on 11 May 1990, sets rules for the management of
pesticide utilization, production and distribution. Furthermore, the Plant Pest Quarantine Law 93, was introduced in
June 1993 and covers quarantine procedures, disinfection treatment of plant products for export and the issuance
of phytosanitary certificates.
The Plant Protection Division, as part of the Agriculture Service, is assigned with technically qualified staff to carry
out plant protection activities at state/division and district levels. Their daily duties include insecticide tests,
fumigation operations on export commodities, issuance of phytosanitary certificates, development of integrated
pest management practices, prevention and control of plant diseases, performance and evaluation in quality
control, and technical support to the pesticide registration board.
The following information is presented in the atlas.


      DATA SET FIELD              FIELD DESCRIPTION                                UNIT OF MEASURE
      PEST_LIT                    Quantity of pesticides                           (litre)
      PEST_KG                     Quantity of pesticides                           (kilogram)

   iii) Production credit
Successful, productive and profitable agriculture mainly depends on time, weather and investments. The
government provides funds for investments in the form of agricultural loans through the Myanmar Agricultural
Development Bank (MARDB).
Various types of loans are available to farmers and growers at favourable interest rates: annual loans, short-term
loans, long-term loans and development loans.
Information is presented on the crop loans–seasonal loan disbursement (2001–02) and development loans.



      Crop loans - Seasonal loan disbursement (2001-02)
      DATA SET FIELD              FIELD DESCRIPTION                                UNIT OF MEASURE
      paddy_pm                    Paddy pre-monsoon                                (million kyats)
      paddy_m                     Paddy monsoon                                            "
      paddy_w                     Paddy winter                                             "
      maize                       Maize                                                    "
      gnut_m                      Groundnut monsoon                                        "
      gnut_w                      Groundnut winter                                         "
      sesame                      Sesame                                                   "
      sugarcane                   Sugar cane                                               "
      cotton                      Cotton                                                   "
      bgram                       Black gram                                               "
      ggram                       Green gram                                               "
      pigpea                      Pigeon pea                                               "
      soybean                     Soybean                                                  "
      pelun                       Pelun                                                    "
      greentea                    Green tea                                                "
      total                       Total seasonal loan disbursement                         "




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     Development loans
     DATA SET FIELD             FIELD DESCRIPTION                                  UNIT OF MEASURE
     Disburs                    Disbursement                                       (million kyats)
     Repaid                     Amount repaid                                              "
     Rec_ratio                  Recovery ratio                                     (%)



10. Legends/Metadata/Docs

The following references, concerning the Union of Myanmar or the data in the atlas, are available as Related
Information:

     •   DOCuments
     •   LEGends
     •   METAdata
     •   URLs




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