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					                                     Circulatory System Lesson Plan
                                       Saturday, February 21, 2009

Please read:
How to interpret your blood test results
The anatomy of the heart
Look over:
Blood test reference range chart
Helpful website: []

Slide 1: Opening slide.

Slide 2: Briefly explain what each abnormality is. I am assuming they have heard these terms before.
High blood pressure: blood circulates through the arteries with too much force
Coronary heart disease: narrowing of coronary arteries so less blood gets to the heart muscle
Heart attack: blood supply to heart is disrupted
Chest pain: more mild than a heart attack, but also caused by reduced blood flow to heart muscles
Stroke: lack of oxygen to the brain usually caused by lack of blood flow
Heart failure: heart loses ability to pump blood efficiently through the body (weak heart)

Have students compare the total population of the US in 2006 with the number of people with CVD.
About what fraction of the population has some type of CVD?
The picture is a cross section of an artery with fat build-up known as plaque that can lead to heart
attacks because it hinders blood flow to the heart.
Youtube clip

Slide 3:
Organ system: a group of organs that work together to perform a particular task
Homeostasis: ability of the body (meaning organ system or entire body which is composed of many
organ systems) to adjust its internal environment to maintain stability. For example, when body
temperature increases, maybe because the weather is hot, you begin to sweat. Sweating helps the body
cool down because when the sweat evaporates, it uses up heat from the body (evaporation as a result of
heat from the body).

Make sure students understand that the circulatory system is composed of the cardiovascular system and
the lymphatic system, and that we are focusing on the cardiovascular system, the circulation of blood.
The left picture is of the circulatory system and right one is of the lymphatic system.
Have students compare and contrast the two systems, mainly to get the idea that they both network
throughout the entire body and if you superimpose the images, the two systems overlap each other. In
reality, they work together with chemicals flowing in between the blood and lymph.
Ask students how the two systems are separated from each other to get to the ideas of filtration and

Slides 4-6: Have students think first and then introduce the function. Make analogies to explain the
functions of the cardiovascular system. Slide 4---subway system; Slide 5---police force of white blood
cells. For Slide 6, the picture shows how the brain detects a change in body temperature and then
regulates the body temperature by directing the cardiovascular system to operate in a certain way. In this
case, blood vessels dilate, sweat forms, and then evaporates, cooling the body down. This is a segue into
the next slide which connects the cardiovascular system with other systems in the body.

Slide 7: Please take the time to go over the pictures. Thank you! The first one shows how each part of
the spinal cord is responsible for regulating a part of the cardiovascular system. The second picture shows
a microvillus and the vessels within it. Please explain that microvilli line the small intestine where the
digested food is, and through diffusion, small chemicals/nutrients pass into the blood vessels. Also point
out the lymphatic system that is right next to the vessels of the cardiovascular system. The third picture is
that of an alveolus. Show how closely the capillary is in proximity to the rest of the alveolus, and how the
CO2 and O2 can diffuse through the wall of the vessels.
Have students think about how the cardiovascular systems connects to the musculoskeletal and
excretory systems (i.e. delivering blood and oxygen; different muscles make up the heart; draw on cellular
metabolism from previous lessons; bringing waste to the kidneys)

Slide 8: Make sure students understand the terms. Refer to the pictures.

Slide 9: Ask students why they think capillary sphincters are important.

Slide 10: Give hints so the students can identify the glucose molecule. The final picture is of fat globules.

Slide 11-15: Explain the parts of the heart using information from the articles. It is okay if the students
don’t remember all the names of the parts of the heart. The goal is for them to understand the main
     Ask students after they look at the pictures of the heart: What are some characteristics of the heart?
     Make sure they understand:
              -Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
              -The structure of the heart in terms of being divided into chambers and that valves regulate
              the flow of blood (you can mention when the valves don’t function, there is backflow of
              blood, resulting in heart murmurs)
              -The connection between coronary, pulmonary, and systemic circulation
              -The pathway of blood flow through the heart
     Have students follow along on their sheet, the flow of blood through the heart.
     Youtube video

Slide 16-18: Get across main ideas:
      -heart beats at steady pace—rhythmic cycle
      -there is an active phase and a resting phase (systole and diastole)
      -consistent beating is due to the SA node --- review involuntary muscles
     Youtube videos

Slide 19-21: Have students understand how the signals sent by the nodes correspond to contraction and
relaxation of the heart muscle, and how this activity can be measured via an EKG. Point out that the
electrical activity is measured in millivolts.
 Have students compare various EKG graphs.
 For slide 21, have students calculate the number of heart beats in the given interval.
 Youtube videos

Slide 22: Explain what blood pressure refers to and go over how the blood pressure is measured. Mention
how its measured in mmHg. Have them understand that the force with which the blood impacts the wall
is reflected by the blood pressure.
 Ask: What does it mean, in terms of the elasticity of the blood vessel walls to have high blood pressure?
What does it mean, in terms of the elasticity of the blood vessel walls to have low blood pressure?

Slide 23: Students will be given the reference range chart. Some more common blood component parts
that they would find interesting are in bold. Go over them, and what else the students are curious about.
Don’t let them get scared by the big words.

Slide 24: Have students take their pulses. If possible, have them run around or do jumping jacks and then
take their pulses. Compare the readings. Worksheet.

Slide 25: Thank you all! (from the heart)

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