Fundamentals of Management Chapter 2

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					Fundamentals of Management Chapter 2
Xiaolan second universal basic quality education

Fundamentals of Management

Chapter 2

The basic principles and methods of management

Learning Objectives

1. To understand management principles on the management of the people of the
basic content.

2. Grasp to arouse people's enthusiasm and creativity of an effective way.

3. Understanding of the system principles of methodology.

4. To grasp the concept of efficiency and ways to improve efficiency.

5. Master administrative methods, economic methods, the working methods of legal
methods and the use of thinking skills.

Section in the Management Principles

First, the "people" as the center of the management activities

The main activities of management, people, and at the same time, people management
activities is the subject of people's enthusiasm and creativity of the play, is
to ensure the success of modern management. Therefore, management activities
should be a good person, and fully mobilize the enthusiasm of people as the
fundamental. However, people living in the objective environment, although they
were in an organization or part of the work, but their thinking, behavior and other
aspects, may be inconsistent with the organization. Attention to human factors, is to
pay attention to the social nature of human needs to be research and exploration, in
certain conditions, the maximum extent possible to meet people's needs, to
ensure that all members of the organization work together to complete the
organizational goals and conscious effort.

(A) the concept of people management

In the management of the entire development process, the "man"
has always been a basic concept. Any kind of management theory, are based on a
person's views and put forward some, the difference between the various
management theories, in the final analysis is due to different understanding of the
people. Management from the perspective of the development of human knowledge in
general there are several different points of view;

1. On the "tool man" point of view

This view of man as a tool that production activities in the role played by such as the
role of the machine is the same, the task of management is to make as a management
object like machines to operate. Which have become passive tools of production. This
view as a manager and the managed object as people against each other. As a manager
who is active, they issue orders; and others as a management object is completely
passive, they just following orders and in accordance with the command operation.

2. On the "economic man" point of view

"Economic man" is representative of the views of Taylor. This
view began to look for people from the economic point of view for labor power, that
person can not be completely passive mechanical equivalent, who is driven by
economic motives. Managers and managed objects are not diametrically opposed, in
the economic motivation that is common, such as the motivation of workers labor for
wages as high as possible, and entrepreneurs to do business motive is to obtain the
highest possible profits, wages and profit with an economic motive. Therefore, as
entrepreneurs, managers and workers the same as the managed object is
"economic man." As the same as "economic
man", their objectives are a common addition to their economic motives
may also be met. That is, when the workers to improve production unit of labor time,
the entrepreneurs of high wages paid to workers at the same time, high yield also
brought high profits to the entrepreneurs. According to this "economic
man" hypothesis, the whole management system would serve to meet the
economic motive.

3. On the "social man" point of view

"Society" is representative of the views of Mayo. In this view,
as long as people, whether business owners or employees, whether managers or by
managers, are in relationships among people, which is a member of group or
collective. No one exists in isolation, who has a sense of belonging and a sense of
security, and sense of belonging and a sense of security is only as collective needs can
be met one. Attributed to the collective, it is a social motivation, social motivation that
the role of human greater than the economic motive. So, people are not
"economic man", but "social man."

4. On the "perpetrator" perspective
In this view, most people do not naturally dislike work, he engaged in the use of
physical and mental work as natural as play and rest; people not only accepted under
appropriate conditions, but also the pursuit of duty, not human nature to avoid
responsibility, but the experience results; external control and the threat of punishment
is not prompted efforts to achieve organizational goals only way to stimulate the
economy is not always an effective approach, because the economic need of the
human needs of its one of the elements; people's organizations to take
negative attitudes or resistance is not innate, but they happened within the
organization caused.

5. On the "decision makers" point of view

This view and the "perpetrator" of like-minded place is to focus
on the activities and behavior, the difference is the "perpetrator"
perspective focus on the root causes to explain human behavior, which according to
this explain the establishment of management model, and the "decision
makers" point of view is to determine the nature of human activity, then
that human activity is a decision-making, whether by managers or administrators, who
are decision-makers. More importantly, their decisions are to achieve the common
goal. From everyone can make their own decisions, they are
"individual"; from their decisions are in order to achieve some
common purpose, they are "society".

6. On "complexity" and the point of view

"Complex" and the view is representative of Shike Si, this view
combines the previous assumptions about human nature that people are not simply a
person who is complex.

(1) human needs are diverse, and along with human development and changes in
living conditions change, each person's needs vary, the level of need and
also individually.

(2) people at the same time, there will be a variety of needs and motivation, they will
interact and integrate into a unified whole motivation for the formation of complex
patterns. For example, two people want to get high bonuses, but motivations may be
very different, one may be to improve living conditions, another may be the high
bonuses as a sign of maturity of the technology.

(3) people in the organization of work and living conditions are constantly changing,
so will continue to generate new needs and motivations.

(4) As the needs of different people, different abilities, different management methods
for different reactions, therefore, did not set any time for any organization and any
individual, universal and effective management.

In    the    management        of    the     development   process,    proposed    the
"Tools"           and       "economic      man",
"social"            and      "behavior"        and
"decision makers" and "complex" and the
point of view, these views have made, showing step by step on people's
understanding of the depth. Reveals the economic needs, social needs, self-fulfillment
needs. Every step of this understanding, people in the management of the status of
step also been raised. For people with modern management is management by being
placed in the center of all management activities are carried out around the center of
people, the management of human activities, while management is for people that is
at the service activities. Therefore, in all management activities, we must implement
people-oriented principle.

(B) the person is a management objective

In the management of historical development, from the "Tools"
and point to the "complex" and view the transition process, in
fact, a "person means" or "man is the
purpose" issue. For specific management activities, for specific
organizations, has a direct purpose and a supreme goal. In modern management,
"who is the target" is the principle of specific management
activities. That require specific management activities focus on human factors, the
people on a fundamental importance to the role of up prominent people, so suddenly
to the people's initiative into full play and to improve management

In modern management, "who is the target" is not an empty
philosophy of preaching, but the principle of specific management activities, namely,
the management of activities in specific attention to human factors put people at a
fundamental importance to highlight the people up role, so as to achieve
one's subjective initiative into full play and to improve management
efficiency. Because management activities are the subject of people's
enthusiasm and creativity into full play, is to ensure the success of management

(C) management must be people-centered

Management history that people are not machines, people have the will, emotional
and rational. Apparently, people have a strange difference between each other, but on
them as people, each other are equal. This is the foundation of modern management
activities. In other words, managers and division managers should not be covered up
their personality equality. Which managers can meet the needs of modern
management, is that if he could realize this and consciously in the management of
activities as action guidelines for this point. Moreover, the successful management
also shows that modern management is adopted by the Supervisors and the
coordination of activities to improve their living environment and lifestyle activities.
And between administrators and managers among the members of equality, mutual
interest, mutual love, mutual respect, is the person best able to fully mobilize the
enthusiasm of the. Of course, in the management system, including the human,
financial and material elements of three forms, in fact, these three elements can be
reduced to two categories, namely "human" and
"material." Objects in the system is completely passive and
simple dominance, and even though management including property management, but
management has said the management, it mainly refers to interpersonal relations, the
relationship between the human and material management And first of all refers to the
management of human relations. Because management relationship is the people in
the management of activities in the form of a constantly changing human relationships,
as the relationship between persons and things just to meet the changing relationship
between people and adjust accordingly. Therefore, management should be

1. Establish a people-centered management thinking, is doing a good job of modern
management's most basic protection. Because everything in the
management of all aspects of various objective factors and are necessary for people to
understand and operate; management activities of the various functions effectively,
the effective realization of management objectives should be achieved through human
activities, leaving the people management activities on the existing basis and lost

2. In the management of human-centered is the subjective initiative into full play the
premise. The initiative is the man who actively take the initiative to explore and
transform the objective world as a nature. All the elements in the management
activities, the only person with this initiative, while other elements are passive,
dominated by men. However, human activity are often in potential form, due to the
inhibition of negative factors, play this potential initiative is always restricted.
Therefore, how to create various positive factors, as fully as possible to mobilize
people's initiative, so that people can actively and positively participate in
the management of activities in order to strive for the realization of organizational
goals, has become the central task of modern management.

In short, people-centered management, require managers to take the initiative to
establish and develop interpersonal trust, intimacy, put an end to the traditional
patriarchal system management and autocratic style, scientific management methods
and measures to guide and encourage staff enthusiasm , especially through the
people's sense of priorities, attitudes, and to provide staff with
opportunities for growth and development, to promote co-workers with managers to
achieve organizational goals.

Second, and arouse people's enthusiasm and creativity

(A) management requires the participation of people

Respect for human rights, equality between people of each other, is reflected in the
management of a wide range of democratic participation. Because democracy is a
healthy and vibrant organization prerequisite for the development, management of
any organization is the management of real people, real people not omnipotent, and
his aide in each activity to be democratic. Who is impossible not to make mistakes,
and always face the complexities and management activities, particularly, this, that
only democracy can make the best make up, because democracy is the best error
correction mechanism. Democratic management can make every employee, every
member of an organization establish a master consciousness, this fundamental
guarantee for their enthusiasm, creativity and wisdom into full play.

(B) attention to the needs of people

People-centered management requires management attention to people's
needs, was manager of economic life, political life and spiritual life to be reasonable