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Circulatory System Worksheet - DOC

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					Circulatory System Worksheet.

C3 describe the inter-relationships
of the structures the heart
C4 analyse the relationship
between heart rate and blood
pressure
C5 analyse the functional inter-
relationships of the vessels of the
circulatory system
C6 describe the components of
blood



   1. Identify and give functions
      (including where blood is
      coming from and going to, as
      applicable) for each of the
      following:


Letter  Structure                              Function
on
diagram
        – left and right atria

          – left and right ventricles

          – coronary arteries and veins

          – anterior and posterior vena cava

          – aorta

          – pulmonary arteries and veins

          septum

          semi-lunar valves

          chordae tendineae

          atrioventricular valves

          pulmonary trunk
•   Mostly made of                       . Beats about                times per minute

•   Is comparable to two                  joined together. Has        chambers:
Right                 , Right                   , Left                      , Left

Chordae Tendineae: The AV valves are supported by                                    since they have
incredible                                       exerted on them with each ventricular contraction.


    2. Recognize heart structures using both internal and external diagram views
                                                                           a.
                                                                           b.
                                                                           c.
                                                                           d.
                                                                           e.
                                                                           f.
                                                                           g.
                                                                           h.
                                                                           i.
                                                                           j.
                                                                           k.
                                                                           l.
                                                                           m.
                                                                           n.
                                                                           o.
                                                                           p.
                                                                           q.

    3. Describe the location and functions of the sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, and
       Purkinje fibres
 Our heartbeat is                        , controlled by                             TISSUE, which
    has characteristics of both                          and                         tissue.
There are TWO nodal regions in the heart:
Structure               Location                      Function
Sinoatrial node

Atrioventricular node

Purkinje Fibres


   4. describe how the autonomic nervous system increases and decreases heart rate and blood
      pressure.
   -Which part of the ANS is responsible for INCREASING the heart rate? (Sympathetic or
   Parasympathetic?)

   -What part of the heart does the ANS affect in order to increase or decrease the heart rate?


   Complete labeling the diagram below.
While the SA and AV nodes control the heart                     , the brain controls the heart

The Cardiovascular Centre in the                                       controls how fast or slow the
heart pumps in response to sensory input it receives from many different sources:
1. Higher                    centers (telling you to prepare for something)
2.                                  - monitoring blood pressure by using STRETCH receptors in the
blood vessels
3. CHEMORECEPTORS - monitoring                   ,      , and          concentrations in the blood

     5. differentiate between systolic and diastolic pressures. Label the diagrams below, then describe
        in words the difference between systole and diastole.
     Systole:

     Diastole:




Regulation of Blood Pressure occurs by Four Mechanisms: Altering heart                            ,
Altering                           (how hard it pumps), Altering Blood Vessel
(vasoconstriction or                             ), Altering Blood                           (kidneys
either re-absorb or expel extra                  )


   6. describe hypertension and hypotension and their causes
Condition        Description                                Cause
Hypertension

Hypotension
Some Factors that can affect BP:
Exercise: raises BP during                              , but                        BP after because
the heart is                        .

•   Sodium intake: Increases Blood                              which increases BP

•   Calcium and potassium intake:                                     BP

•                    Consumption: Increases BP because in increases the                            of the
    blood, which stimulates the cardiovascular system to                             BP (can you
    remember why? From the respiratory system…)

Some more Factors that can affect BP:
Body Weight: Being overweight puts extra strain on the heart:                        BP

•                    : increases BP

•   Stress: The                                  NS thinks that you must prepare for a
                     , therefore                        the BP

•                            : Decreases the diameter of vessels - therefore               BP

•   ETC.!!

    7. demonstrate the measurement of blood pressure. Describe in words how blood pressure is
       measured using a blood pressure cuff.




   8. identify and give the function (including where the vessel is carrying blood from and where it is
       carrying blood to) of each of the following:
Letter    Structure                                 Function
          – subclavian arteries and veins
          – jugular veins
          – carotid arteries
          – mesenteric arteries
          – anterior and posterior vena cava
          – pulmonary veins and arteries
          – aorta
          – coronary arteries and veins
          – iliac arteries and veins
          – renal arteries and veins
          – hepatic portal vein
          – hepatic vein
   9. describe and differentiate among the five types of blood vessels with reference to
      characteristics such as structure and thickness of vessel walls, presence of valves and
      direction of blood flow (toward or away from the heart).
Blood Vessel Structure and thickness of          Presence of valves        Direction of blood flow
               vessel walls                                                (toward or away from the
                                                                           heart)
1
2
3
4
5

    10. differentiate between pulmonary and systemic circulation with respect to oxygenation or
        deoxygenation of blood in the vessels involved.
    - What is the function of pulmonary circulation?

   - What is the function of systemic circulation?
Vessels                          Carry Oxygenated blood?                       Carry Deoxygenated blood?
Pulmonary Arteries
Pulmonary Veins
Systemic Arteries (give an
example: ________________)
Systemic Veins (give an
example: _____________)

     Coronary Blood vessels: The heart does not use the blood inside the atria or ventricles to get it’s nutrients
     and                                   . Instead, it has its own set of
     and                                   , called                                         arteries
•   These are the ones that get blocked, causing
11. demonstrate a knowledge of the path of a blood cell from the aorta through the body and back
    to the left ventricle. Draw arrows on the diagram below to
    indicate the direction of blood flow through the chambers,
    valves, arteries and veins of the heart. Then, complete the flow
    chart on the right following the path of the blood through the
    systemic and pulmonary systems. Don’t forget to mention the
    names of the valves that the blood passes on it’s way through
    the heart, and indicate where the blood gets oxygenated and
    deoxygenated.




12. relate blood pressure and blood velocity to the total cross-sectional area of the five types of
    blood vessels. Label the following diagram with the following words: veins, venules, capillaries,
    arterioles, arteries, cross-sectional area, blood velocity, blood pressure.
a. What happens to the blood pressure (general trend) as the blood travels from the arteriole
   through the capillary and into the venule?
b. What happens to the total cross sectional area of the blood vessels as you move from an
   arteriole, through a capillary and into a venule? (general trends)

c. What happens to the overall velocity of the blood as it moves from an arteriole through a
   capillary and into a venule?


13. describe capillary-tissue fluid exchange. Label the diagram below: blood pressure (x2),
    osmotic pressure (x2), net pressure in, net pressure out, venous, arterial, tissue cells,
    interstitial fluid.




What is osmotic pressure?


When you are looking at the arterial end of the capillary, what force is greatest, blood pressure or
osmotic pressure?                             At the venous end?

Notice that “Net pressure OUT” is greater than “Net pressure IN”. How does this effect the overall
blood concentration as it returns to the heart after it has passed through the capillary?


How does the fluid that does not make it back into the venule end eventually get back into the
blood?
14. identify and describe differences in structure and circulation between fetal and adult systems,
    with reference to umbilical vein and arteries, oval opening, venous duct, arterial duct.
Complete the web to illustrate the path of blood through the fetal circulatory system.




                                  Label the diagram below.
   15. describe the shape, function, and origin of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
       Where do blood cells originate?




Blood Cell                Shape                        Relative Size             Function




   16. list the major components of plasma. (I count 6 major categories of components)




   17. explain the roles of antigens and antibodies.




   18. describe the functions of the lymphatic system. There are 3 main functions, concerning 3
       different systems.




   19. identify and give functions of lymph capillaries, veins and nodes

Vessel                    Functions
Lymph Capillaries
Lymph Veins
Lymph Nodes

				
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