$1.00 4‑H 93111 Reprinted February 2006 Glossary of Food Terms E. Husted T ested recipes and good measuring techniques help ensure good results when cooking and baking. It’s also important to understand the terms Baste To moisten meat or other foods while cooking, in order to add flavor and to prevent drying of used in the instructions of a recipe. Each term has the surface. The liquid usually is melted fat, meat a specific meaning. Understanding these terms and drippings, fruit juice, sauce, or water. using the correct procedure contribute to the success of the food product. The terms describe techniques to Batter use when working with the ingredients. Some of the A mixture of flour and liquid, usually combined with most common terms are listed below to help you as other ingredients, as in baked products. The mixture is you prepare food and learn about food preparation. of such consistency that it may be stirred with a spoon and is thin enough to pour or drop from a spoon. Bake To cook in an oven or oven‑type appliance. Covered Beat or uncovered containers may be used. When To make a mixture smooth by introducing air with a applied to meats in uncovered containers, the brisk, regular motion that lifts the mixture over and method generally is called roasting. Common oven over, or with a rotary motion as with an egg beater or temperatures are: electric mixer. 250°F to 275°F Very slow oven Blanch 300°F to 325°F Slow oven (Precook.) To preheat in boiling water or steam. (1) Process used to deactivate enzymes and shrink 350°F to 375°F Moderate oven some foods for canning, freezing, or drying. 400°F to 425°F Hot oven Vegetables are blanched in boiling water or steam, 450°F to 475°F Very hot oven and fruits in boiling fruit juice, syrup, water, or steam. 500°F to 525°F Extremely hot oven (2) Process used to aid in removal of skins from nuts, fruits, and some vegetables. Barbecue To roast slowly on a gridiron or spit, over coals, or Blend under free flame or oven electric unit, usually basting To mix two or more ingredients thoroughly. with a highly seasoned sauce. Popularly applied to foods cooked in or served with barbecue sauce. Elaine Husted, Extension agent, Grant County; Oregon State University. Resources used: American Home Economics Association Handbook of Food Preparation, Cardinals Handbook of Recipe Development, and World of Food, 3rd edition. Boil Fold To cook in water or a liquid consisting mostly of To combine by using two motions, one which cuts water in which bubbles rise continually and break on vertically through the mixture, the other which turns the surface. The boiling temperature of water at sea over by sliding the implement across the bottom of level is 212°F or 100°C. the mixing bowl. Braise Fry To cook meat or poultry slowly in a covered utensil in To cook in fat. Applied especially to (1) cooking in a small amount of liquid or in steam. (Meat may or a small amount of fat, also called sauté or pan‑fry; may not be browned in a small amount of fat before (2) cooking in a deep layer of fat, also called deep‑fat braising.) frying. Bread Grill To coat with crumbs of bread or other food; or to coat To cook by direct heat. Also a utensil or appliance with crumbs, then with diluted, slightly beaten egg or used for such cooking. evaporated milk, and again with crumbs. Grind Broil To reduce to particles by cutting or crushing. To cook by direct heat. Julienne Caramelize To cut into slivers resembling matchsticks. To heat sugar or foods containing sugar until a brown color and characteristic flavor develop. Knead To manipulate with a pressing motion accompanied Chop by folding and stretching. To cut into pieces with a knife or other sharp tool. Marinate Cream To let food stand in a marinade which is a liquid, To soften a solid fat such as shortening or butter with usually an oil‑acid mixture such as French dressing. a fork or other utensil, either before or while mixing with another food, usually sugar. Mince To cut or chop into very small pieces. Cut To divide food materials with a knife or scissors. Mix To combine ingredients in any way that effects a Cut In distribution. To distribute solid fat in dry ingredients by chopping with knives or pastry blender until finely divided. Pan‑Broil To cook uncovered on a hot surface, usually in a fry Dice pan. Fat is poured off as it accumulates. To cut into small cubes. Pan‑Fry Dredge To cook in a small amount of fat. (See Fry and To cover or coat with flour or other fine substances Sauté.) such as bread crumbs or corn meal. Panning Scallop Method of cooking vegetables in their own juices in a To bake food (usually cut in pieces) with a sauce tightly covered pan. A small amount of fat is used to or other liquid. The food and sauce may be mixed moisten the pan before juices escape. together or arranged in alternate layers in a baking dish, with or without a topping of crumbs. Parboil To boil until partially cooked. Usually cooking is Sear completed by another method. To brown the surface of meat by a short application of intense heat. Pare To cut off the outside covering. Simmer To cook in a liquid just below the boiling point, at Peel temperatures of 185 to 210°F (85 to 99°C). Bubbles To strip off the outside covering. form slowly and collapse below the surface. Poach Steam To cook in a hot liquid, using precautions to retain To cook in steam with or without pressure. The steam shape. The temperature used varies with the food. may be applied directly to the food, as in a steamer or pressure cooker. Reconstitute To restore concentrated foods such as dry milk or Steep frozen orange juice to their normal state by adding To allow a substance to stand in liquid below the water. boiling point for the purpose of extracting flavor, color, or other qualities. Rehydration To soak, cook, or use other procedures with Stew dehydrated foods to restore water lost during drying. To simmer food in a small amount of liquid. Roast Stir To cook uncovered in hot air. Meat usually is roasted To mix food materials with a circular motion for the in an oven or over coals, ceramic briquettes, gas flame, purpose of blending or securing uniform consistency. or electric coils. The term also applies to foods such as corn or potatoes cooked in hot ashes, under coals, or Toast on heated stones or metal. To brown by means of dry heat. Sauté Warm To brown or cook in a small amount of fat. (See Fry.) A temperature of 105 to 115°F (40 to 46°C) for liquid or food. Scald (1) To heat milk to just below the boiling point, when Whip tiny bubbles form at the edge. (2) To dip certain foods To beat rapidly to incorporate air and increase volume. in boiling water. (See Blanch.) Generally applied to cream, eggs, and gelatin dishes. This publication was produced and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Extension work is a cooperative program of Oregon State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Oregon counties. Oregon State University Extension Service offers edu- cational programs, activities, and materials—without discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, marital status, disability, or disabled veteran or Vietnam-era veteran status. Oregon State University Extension Service is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Published July 1989. Reprinted February 2006.