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Indirect Speech Act Direct speech act:there is a direct

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					                     Indirect Speech Act
1. Direct speech act:there is a direct relationship between a structure
   and a function, we have a direct speech act.(Yule 1996:55)
例1.     I beg you not to stay here for a long time.
In this example, both the structure (literal meaning) and the function of
the sentence are expressing a request. So, it is a direct speech act. And the
verb “beg” is called a performative verb


Characteristics of DSA
   • Subject : the first person and singular number
   • Tense :the simple present
   •   To add “hereby” before the verbs: in example 1 we can say like
       that I hereby beg you not to stay here for a long time.


2. Indirect speech act
A. There is an indirect relationship between a structure and a function, we
   have an indirect speech act. (Yule 1996:55)
B. In such cases a sentence that contain the illocutionary force indicators
   for one kind of illocutionary act can be uttered to perform, in addition,
   another type of illocutionary act.(Searle 1975b:168)
例 2.    Could you pass the salt?
The surface form of this utterance is an interrogative one, but is not
typically used to ask a question. In fact, the speaker does not to ask
whether the hearer have ability to pass the salt, while expressing his
intention which is a request. Sentence like that is indirect speech act.
(Searle,1975)此句的施为用意是“请求”,而“请求”的言语行为是间接
地通过“询问”这一言语行为来完成的。


“请求” primary illocutionary act
“询问” secondary illocutionary act



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例 3.A: Let’s go to the cinema tonight.
     B: I have to study for an exam
In example 3, speakerA obviously invites B to go to movie, that is, A does
a speech act of an invitation. However, speakerB does not answer A
directly, he just tells B a fact that he has to study for an exam. Although
what B said likes a statement, but he refuses A indirectly. Then we think
B does an indirect speech act which is refusal.
In this example, we can think the secondary illocutionary act of B is a
statement, and the primary illocutionary act of B is a refusal.
3. The types of ISA:
  A. Conventional indirect speech act:refers to the relation between
linguistic form and literal meaning, which is arbitrary, a matter of
knowledge of language.
  例 4.    Could you pass the salt?
          请安静一会儿好吗?
  These two utterances are regarded as a certain speech act owing to the
  conventionality of the society and culture, and accepted by people. It
  means that the two utterances are no longer expressing their literal
  meaning “inquiry”, they are understood directly as a kind of “request”.


  B. Non- conventional indirect speech act:it is much more flexible than
     the conventional indirect speech act, the hearers can not infer the
     speakers’ meaning from the linguistic forms mainly depend on the
     mutual knowledge among speakers and hearers and the contexts.


     例5. A: Would you like to have tea?
           B: Tea would make me awake
     例6. A: 晚上打扑克吧。
           B: 女朋友要来



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         From the analysis before, we know that B does an indirect speech act
         which is a refusal respectively in two examples. However, A can not
         indirectly understand what B wants to express from the surface of
         the utterance. He must consider the context which the conversations
         happened. (Example5 maybe happen in a restaurant or a hotel,
         example 6 maybe in a party or after work)


Additionally, we should know that the same non-conventional ISA in
different contexts maybe have different illocutionary function or express
different pragmatic meaning.
例 7.The rubbish bin is full.
This sentence can have different illocutionary force in different contexts.
e.g.      1) The addressee should put it outdoors. (ISA of suggestion)
          2) The addressee should change it (ISA of advice)
          3) Why do not change it? (ISA of blame)
          4) I go out for throwing it away. (ISA of remind)
4. Conclusion
     There is no one-to-one relation between the structure and the
illocutionary force of a sentence. The same structure of a sentence can
have many illocutionary forces (例 8), the same illocutionary force can be
expressed by different sentences.( 例 9),because different context defines
the different meaning.
    例 8. It’s weekend today.
     •     a. The shopping time is coming. (ISA of advice)
     •     b. I want to be relaxed. (ISA of request)
     •     c. We had better visit our parents. (ISA of advice)
.   例 9.     a.   Will you please turn on the light?
              b. Why don’t you turn on the light?
          a and b have the same force, that is a request to hearers to turn on
          the light.



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