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China_amp;_39;s current situation and modern pig breeding pig market development strategy

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China_amp;_39;s current situation and modern pig breeding pig market development strategy Powered By Docstoc
					China's current situation and modern pig breeding pig market development
strategy
2009-3-6 Source: Veterinary 114 Network
   China is a pig big country in the world's pig production plays an
important role, but we are not pig power. Genetic breeding of China's
modernization is relatively backward, so far there is not a completely modern
international commodity lean hogs and pigs from the core of long-term dependence
on imports, and a long time, " → Introduction → maintenance →
degradation re-introduction of" negative cycle, cause the subject to other
pig breeding system in advanced countries, not only in the introduction process spend
a lot of human and financial resources, but also led to the introduction of some
diseases (ring, blue ear), to result in serious economic losses in China. To change the
current situation, must change our thinking, our continuous introduction of the choice
of pig breeding, so as to maintain good performance, and in accordance with
people's need for breeding, to improve their product performance.
   Pig breeding is up from the genetic improvement of pigs and pig, the formation of
new varieties (lines), including pure-bred (lines) of rice increased, new varieties (lines)
of incubation, the utilization of heterosis, thereby enhancing support Pig industry
output and quality. In the past 30 years, the main objective of pig breeding is to reduce
backfat thickness, carcass lean percentage increase, increase growth rate. With the
reduction in backfat thickness has been basically achieved that goal, Y hybrid Carcass
lean percentage was 60%. Breeding direction is changing, except for greater lean
growth rate, feed conversion, more emphasis on improving reproductive rate and meat
quality. With the development of genetic theory, selection by the pigs to the
development of phenotypic selection breeding values of selection, to genotype
selection (ie, marker-assisted selection and gene diagnosis of boxes), computers and
the rapid development of network technology and application, making performance
Determination of the form has also undergone a great change. Pig breeding and
technological progress led directly to the accuracy of selection and breeding efficiency.
It can be said of modern pig breeding is no longer a single technology, but the genetic
theory, computer technology, systems engineering and practical experience of
breeders of a collection. Most farms have adopted the current public computer
management pig data, but essentially remain at the record level of daily data, there is
no use of existing data for further statistical analysis, nor with the practical application
of selection matching combination the main breeding species remain in the system,
using species of the above, there is no real breeding. Therefore, in modern breeding
farms to carry out a planned breeding is extremely necessary and urgent.
Keywords: Pig breeding; performance measurement; genetic diagnostic kits;
Biotechnology; Molecular Genetics and Breeding
A pig breeding technology
Theories about the genetics of animal breeding has gone through Mendelian genetics
Population Genetics → → → Molecular quantitative genetics quantitative genetics
of development process, that is, four generations of genetics. With the development of
genetic theory, the development of pig breeding techniques have undergone
phenotypic selection breeding values → Select → genotype selection process.
1.1 As the name suggests phenotypic selection, phenotypic selection is based on the
value of the level of phenotypic selection, which is the early selection of livestock and
poultry breeding methods. Although selection based on phenotypic values can be
some progress, but progress is slow speed, the effect is also unstable.
1.2 breeding value selection with the development of the theory of quantitative
genetics, breeding scientists can make use of some statistical methods will be the
phenotypic value of partition, and can be estimated from the true genetic part, that
breeding value, to livestock breeding by the development of phenotypic selection
breeding values for the selection, thereby increasing the accuracy and efficiency of
selection. Particular animal model BLUP method of application, causes a kind of
value can be estimated using different Chongfen relatives 的 信息, 在 right Chang,
年 度 and other environmental effects Jinxingguji of Tongshi, Yuce Chu
individual's breeding value to Zhidao scientific and accurate selection.
1.3 MAS with the rapid development of molecular biology, molecular genetic markers,
QTL mapping analysis of the research is deepening. Currently, livestock and poultry
genetic mapping has made great progress, making use of one or a group of markers to
distinguish between the favorable QTL genotypes of different individuals is gradually
becoming a reality. DNA marker-assisted selection is to use options to add to the level
of phenotypic values or breeding value is based on choice. Because it is not the
environmental impact, with no gender restrictions, thus allowing for early selection
can reduce generation intervals, increased selection intensity, selection to improve the
efficiency and accuracy of selection. Although the animal work of marker-assisted
selection in general is still in research phase, but still had some preliminary
applications. With the deepening of the study, marker-assisted selection in pig
breeding improvement will play out its role.
1.4 genetic diagnostic kits broad perspective, genetic diagnosis box technology is part
of marker-assisted selection. The application of genetic diagnostic kits can be said that
the current pig marker-assisted selection of the most successful example. Such as the
use of high temperature stress syndrome (MHS) pigs were detected with genetic
diagnosis of high-temperature stress syndrome, use of estrogen receptor (ESR) gene
diagnosis of high box fixed litter size of pig genes. These boxes are now gradually
applied to genetic diagnosis of pig breeding programs, these new technologies will
greatly enhance the effect of genetic improvement of pigs.
2, the choice of main economic characters Pigs
2.1 meat traits
2.1. 1 growth and appetite: the growth rate is an important trait in pig breeding. As the
daily gain of high heritability, and easy to measure, so individual choice is better.
Daily gain and feed consumption than the same time as there is between the high
negative genetic correlation, selection daily gain can both benefit. Some studies show
that the pig's appetite on the growth rate and feed conversion ratio has a
certain effect. Decreased appetite may limit daily gain and feed conversion rate the
progress of long-term selection, low appetite, so that lactation can not even get
enough energy to affect lactation. Therefore, in pig breeding, the appetite is also a trait
that should be taken into account.
2. 1.2 lean meat: Use lean meat or lean, said. While lean is a high heritability trait, but
its in vivo can not be directly measured, it is usually in the living body by choosing
easy to measure those who have a higher genetic correlation with lean traits (such as
live backfat) to indirect selection, or of siblings and other relatives of the results to
choose.
2.1. 3 fats: the fat, including subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, intermuscular fat and
intramuscular fat, fat in different parts, different types of fatty acids. The choice of fat
goal is to reduce subcutaneous fat and intra-abdominal fat and keep the right amount
of intramuscular and intramuscular fat to maintain good meat quality.
2. 1.4 and flavor of meat: pork meat quality including pH, color, water holding
capacity, tenderness, marbling, intramuscular fat content of a number of indicators,
heritability is generally low to medium level. Meat flavor is there has been concern,
although there are many reports that domestic and international flavor with certain
chemical substances, but based on the flavor of the material is still no clear conclusion.
Evaluation of the meat can be divided into two types of objective evaluation and
subjective assessment of the former, such as meat and biological indicators of
physical and chemical properties, which if carried out on meat flavor or taste score.
Improved meat quality traits is not difficult to assess the results as a basis for
selection.
2.2 Reproductive traits
2. 2.1 litter size: the pig litter size, including total number born and number born alive
of two characters, a number affected by ovulation, conception rate and embryo
survival rate and other factors of composite character. Because of low heritability of
litter size is susceptible to maternal effects and other environmental factors, and
therefore choose to increase the efficacy.
2. 2.2 motherhood: maternal sow nursing piglets for survival is important, generally
used to feed the survival rate of piglets that depends mainly on lactating sows and
sows nursing class of force. In the reproductive performance of sows choice,
motherhood is also a need to consider the character.
2.3 Outline
. 2 3. Select 1 Length: length the length of the pig carcass and meat production have a
certain amount of influence on meat production of pigs to a large high-body length,
body length pig high heritability, and so the body length for selection will get better
results.
. 2 3. 2 limb hoof: hooves strong degree of limb is the part of the constitution, is the
pig hoof growth and development of the four limbs and the degree of coordination
throughout the body. Limb defects or limb hoof hoof disease of swine industry would
cause great economic loss, limb hoof diseases not only affect the reproduction of
public, sows, will also affect the growth rate of commercial pig and product grades.
. 2 3. 3 Leg Bottom: As the legs and buttocks are the most lean body middle part, so
legs when hip ratio important in assessing the significance of the carcass. Hip ratio on
the legs appropriate choice to improve the pig meat production has a positive
meaning.
. 2 3. 4 coat, head shape, ear shape: pig coat color, head shape and ear shape is an
important indicator species characteristics, all have a strong genetic component,
although it has little to do with economic traits, but have been by the attention.
3 Determination of the performance of pig
3.1 Determination of the basis of records
3.1. 1 Effect of different relative record: record of performance measurement can be
derived from the descendants, siblings, and themselves. Descendants of records based
on selection is the most accurate, because the selection is to get better for future
generations, but generations of progeny test interval would be extended, and the
limited capacity of the determination and, therefore, affect the character of the annual
amount of genetic improvement. Many traits of pig meat are in the high heritability
trait, according to results of choice or their own compatriots can obtain the desired
results.
3. More than 1.2 kinds of combination of family record: and use of information than a
single family, multiple family members also use the records will improve the accuracy
of estimated breeding values. BLUP breeding value estimation is precisely because it
can make full use of family information, can eliminate the environment and matching
the bias of the different groups to consider the genetic differences between different
generations, and thus can improve the accuracy of selection.
3.1. 3 a comprehensive record of multiple traits: in a porcine model BLUP breeding
value estimation, can contain multiple characters, this is the multi-trait BLUP method,
but should not contain too many traits, generally 2 to 3 traits suitable.
3.2 Determination of the early methods can be divided roughly pig measured
approach measurement and determination of market-based determination of two kinds
of stations, with the continuous development of computer network technology, has
created a new determination method that online determination (on -net test). The field
is completely determined in the farms, and determination of points determined sucked
pigs tested in one relatively consistent environment (measured points) carried out. As
the field of feeding and determination of conditions, the field measurement results
between the different fields can not be directly compared. Although the determination
of points determined to overcome the shortcomings of the field measured, but easily
lead to the spread of the disease and spread, making excellent performance of pigs
measured results can not return to the field of use. Determination of this field
combined with computer network technology, can play the advantages of the field
measurement, but also make full use of computer network technology, making the
determination of pig can be done in this venue. Specifically, along the lines of: will
the field measurement of performance records in a timely manner spread through
computer networks, central database, if the field has been established between pigs
some genetic link, with the corresponding estimated breeding value of the software
can be quickly on the field measurement of pig breeding values were estimated, and
make comparisons between different fields. As the online determination of convenient,
high accuracy and will not spread and spread of disease, to carry out pig for the unity
of the joint genetic evaluation for breeding is of great significance.
4 At present, China and Analysis of Pig Breeding
And China as the world's largest producer of pork and the first imbalance
is the quality of our pigs has been no major, substantive progress, the reason is very
complex, in addition to China's long cultural history of the formation of a
unique consumer market and long-term plan economic and other factors, the main can
be summarized as the following:
4.1 lack of long-term vision and effective organization breeding has long been
China's pig breeding mostly in the form of research projects conducted in
the absence of direct contact with the market economic entity, without the appropriate
economic returns. Only directly involved in pig production enterprises, professional
breeders and even be possible to structure a reasonable breeding system, internal
functional groups to coordinate the interests of operators, establishment of an
effective breeding system.
4.2 lack of systematic and sustained breeding pig breeding plan long-term and
arduous are well known, in the absence of long-term interests of the vision and
structure of the perfect case of breeding system is difficult to implement effective
long-term breeding program.
4.3 lacks a solid foundation of breeding pig breeding performance depends on the
determination of long-term persistence, need to accumulate a large number of
effective breeding data record, which is constraining our decisive factors in pig
breeding. For a long time because the production of small-scale peasant pig model,
scale of operations is limited, hard to conduct a breeding value of commodity
production, lack of effective breeding measures, basic breeding data recording system
is not perfect, primary breeding farms insufficient technical strength, low level high.
4.4 core group of small-scale breeding has long been the main form of domestic pig
breeding research projects carried out by the majority of short-term (eg five-year plan)
within a certain number of generations of breeding for the purpose of the technical
indicators, small groups of closed After generations of breeding to become a popular
way, can maintain a small breeding population size is difficult to obtain commercially
valuable breeding progress.
4.5 Breeding of insufficient capital investment in pig breeding has long been
China's serious shortage of investment, and actually invested in pig
breeding improvement in funds have invested much less than the introduction. Other
hand, the pig breeding usually conducted research projects, pigs of an enterprise is not
fully aroused, it is difficult for active investment in breeding, which is the
corresponding lack of an effective breeding system results.
Technical level of applications from point of view, our determination from pigs,
artificial insemination and other techniques, to the BLUP, REML and other statistical
methods, and DNA marker-assisted selection, molecular breeding techniques have
been mastered, but all the technology in local range, single floor, not the formation of
regional and even national application. Has not led to the formation of a strong pig
determination service system, there is no internal self-estimation of genetic
parameters, economic weighting coefficients. On the surface, the technology has been
applied in the pig industry on the actual for each technology are also the technology
fell far short of the desired effects, the potential of technology into productive forces
is still very large. That the domestic breeding industry to grasp the modern breeding
theory of the gap with advanced countries is not large, the lack of a long-standing
basic work of breeding and genetic evaluation system, the developed countries in this
respect there is a huge gap.
5 modern pig farm development strategy
Danish long-term unremitting efforts to improve the fine varieties, and always have a
world-class pig, which is a leading Danish pig power of the most fundamental
experience of Canada 20 years ago and similar to the current situation in China is also
a Introducing Big countries, However, after 15 years or so, has fostered a good pig
with its own characteristics, turn into pig exporter. Modern pigs have long kept the
company on existing resources and the continuous breeding pigs, pig out to foster the
production of performance to the domestic first-class, international leading level,
leading the Chinese pig industry.
5.1 continue to keep the right lean, average daily gain, feed conversion rate of the
breeding process of lean pig production, daily gain, feed conversion has been a
subject of great concern to production targets, modern breeding Companies should
always keep these traits in breeding, collect the analysis of the current pig production
targets, including different species, different blood, different combinations of pig data,
as lean meat and high heritability of daily gain We must at present be kept in good
determination of pig breeding, so that these important economic traits rising, always
walk in the forefront of the industry.
5.2 increase the reproductive performance of breeding pigs in China is big country, if
one can be productive a pig sows, will bring huge economic benefits, but the
heritability of reproductive performance of sows is only about 0.1, very low, breeding,
very slow. With modern molecular biological techniques, affect the reproductive
performance marked a major gene, such as ESR (estrogen receptor), FSHR (follicle
stimulating hormone receptor), IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2), prolactin receptor
(PRLR) pigs halothane gene (RYR1), etc., collected the number of piglets of
primiparous sows, number born alive, total litter size and total number born alive,
total litter weight weaned at 21 days, collecting the blood extraction sow DNA,
analysis of different genotypes of sows, and the genetic effects between genotypes,
analysis of different genotypes and litter size of sows with other production traits,
marker genotypes of high yield of sows to form high-yield parent pigs, to improve
reproductive performance of sows, piglets using the technology can predict the future
newly hatched gifted with reproductive performance, shorten the breeding period,
increase economic efficiency.
Litter size to selection on the same time, can also sow maternal behavior on the
election is conducted, the modern introduction of pigs in the daily gain, lean meat,
feed conversion have a great advantage, in intensive production conditions As the role
of man-made can be under good control of the maternal sow. However, pig farmers
buy, due to lack of maternity beds and some other facilities when the pig was found to
introduce significant degradation of maternal behavior, mainly in the less milk, not
breast-feeding pigs, will not bring pigs, piglets screams unresponsive, often resulting
in a large number of piglets non-disease death, as we continuously improve the pig
level, the degradation of maternal behavior of sows. Due to the maternal behavior of
sows for breeding, you can ensure that our pigs and adaptable, more significant
competitive advantage.
5.3 strengthen the body length, leg foot, leg length on the buttocks of the breeding pig
carcass length and volume of production has a certain impact on meat, pig high
heritability of body length, and so the length to selection, will achieve good results.
With the improvement of reproductive and growth performance of pigs for increased
frequency of limb hoof disease, limb defects or limb hoof hoof pig disease will cause
great economic losses, such as Taiwan Duroc pigs are too lean and focus on growth
rate of breeding pigs ignored their limb hoof of breeding, it nurtured the hoof disease
of pigs for limb very high proportion, scale pig farms use more limit the way stall
feeding, breeding pigs reduced activities easy to limb hoof diseases, reducing the use
of pigs life. Legs and buttocks are the most physical part of the middle class and lean
meat, legs hip ratio is important when assessing the significance of the carcass.
Therefore, in modern pig breeding farms to be on the body length, foot and leg limb
hip ratio appropriate choices, and encouraged greater production of meat, shape better,
more solid pig limb foot to adapt to large-scale production mode needs. Pigs can also
coat color, head shape, ear shape for breeding, to meet people's needs, so
that the pigs cultivated strong body, strong limbs shoes, beautiful shape, the structure
symmetry. For example, PIC to adapt to Chinese market more preferred features of
the white pig, specially bred white Duroc pigs.
5.4 to enhance disease resistance breeding pigs with pig feed conversion, growth rate
increased, the performance of modern pigs significantly decreased resistance to
disease, swine variety of our country, and more complex, urgent need to Breeding
pigs for disease resistance. Resistance of pigs caused by genes, such as our local pig
breeds resistance was stronger than imported varieties, significantly higher than the
resistance of wild boar pig, Duroc, Large White than the resistance have and Landrace
pigs resistant properties currently on the choice of research is a focus and emphasis.
But the pig's disease resistance is very complex, many factors, but there are
genetic reasons, we are immune from the overall aspects of pig breeding, to improve
resistance to disease. Already been introduced overseas bred varieties of disease
resistant Escherichia coli, has been applied to the production and obtained the good
economic benefits. Disease resistance breeding pigs that we should pay close attention
to study abroad in the production of dynamic and implemented so that our resistance
breeding work has advanced international and domestic leadership.
5.5 increase the meat quality traits in breeding with the improvement of living
standard, people have become increasingly demanding of the meat, modern breeding
companies should pay attention to the meat of the breeding, nurturing needs of the
consumers of pork, quick swine industry occupied the commanding heights, leading
the pig industry. In addition to the environmental impact of meat being, but also by
genetic factors. Currently in production applications, the method is the use of
molecular markers removed halothane gene, reduce stress due to mortality and the
incidence of PSE to improve the quality of pork. Breeding on the meat quality traits in
addition to removing halothane gene, were also in color, marbling, PH, intramuscular
fat (flavor taste for pork) for selection, you can use our unique knowledge and pork
quality view, using a large number of our existing meat quality testing equipment, in
our field in the pig meat quality traits in breeding, the development of relevant meat
quality traits chosen industry standard, leading the future development of the industry.
With the rise of China's pig industry, the demand for fine breeds increased
year by year, but also put forward higher requirements. Therefore, the need to focus
financial, material and human, in the original basis, the application of modern
breeding technologies (including biotechnology, computer technology, information
technology and systems engineering technology, etc.) for pig genetic change
education, speed up the breeding progress, more selective efficiency in order to
continuously meet the needs of our pig industry.

				
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