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China needs to middle managers


									China needs to middle managers
Analysis: Wang riveting
China has formulated an ambitious development plans, plans to 2020, R &
D expenditure as a percentage of its gross domestic product (GDP) increased from
1.3% in 2005 to 2.5%, exceeding the OECD (OECD) countries Currently the average
level of 2.3%. If China's GDP has maintained an average growth rate of
7%, this calculation, in 2020 R & D spending in China will reach 1.25
trillion yuan (about 1,560 billion U.S. dollars).
However, should significant increase in R & D expenditure into a real
technological innovation and intellectual property, the only first-class laboratory and
research staff is not enough, also need proper guidance to the investment process
management expertise. China is the lack of world-class MBA training programs. But
over the past 20 years, China has made in this great progress.
In the early nineties of last century, when Deng Xiaoping decided to set up a socialist
market economic system, there are nine public universities are allowed to open MBA
However, these universities in the training of qualified foreign-invested enterprises
talents of middle managers have encountered difficulties. In addition to
teacher-centered curriculum taught in Chinese, these MBA training program also has
a part-time and profit-defects. With China's access to foreign direct
investment from 4.4 billion in 1991 to the 1992 explosion 11 billion U.S. dollars and
27.5 billion U.S. dollars in 1993, training in China's MBA graduates with
international standards becomes very urgent.
But only for expanding enrollment and the business schools at public universities to
upgrade is not enough to meet the explosive demand in this area. China's
industrial sector need to set up as joint ventures, cooperative enterprises, as schools
need to train with foreign educational institutions to cooperate in MBA graduates.
MBA education will be introduced under a pilot project in China, the China Europe
International Business School (CEIBS) was established in 1994, which is a joint
venture by the founder of the Shanghai Municipal Government and the European
Union's         educational     institutions.    As     a    "Special
Education", the China Europe International Business School has been
given the best way to design courses according to the foreign, from Asia, Europe and
the United States agencies to recruit world-class professors and students enrolled
through their own entrance examinations and award its own diploma, full autonomy.
Since then, nearly 12 years, the China Europe International Business School not only
became full-time MBA programs in China, the largest open training institutions, has
also become the world's largest EMBA training institutions. In the
"Financial Times" (Financial Times) introduced the
world's MBA and EMBA rankings training institutions, the China Europe
International Business School's two training programs were ranked 21 and
13 for the.
Beijing's         Tsinghua      University     (Tsinghua     University)    and
Shanghai's Fudan University (Fudan University) and Massachusetts
Institute of Technology's Sloan School (MIT's Sloan School of
Management) co-operation, in 1996 launched their own international MBA (IMBA)
program . Training courses designed by the cooperation between the United States,
following the salon, School of Management MBA program model. Each year, the
Sloan School will train teachers in China and will send some professors to China for
the Chinese teachers to do teaching demonstration, these professors also shared with
the Chinese colleagues teaching task. Guangzhou Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yat-sen
University) of the Lingnan University in 1999, also with Sharon's School
of Management to establish a similar partnership. All of these foreign cooperative
MBA training programs through a national unified entrance examination recruitment
of students, and other public universities, they are awarded diplomas to the students is
provided by the State Council Academic Degree Committee.
In 1998, Peking University (Peking University) Center for Economic Research and by
the American Institute of 26 School of Home Economics, a consortium set up a joint
venture Beijing International MBA (BiMBA) project. BiMBA of faculty from the
Center for Economic Research of Beijing University in China and the United States
full-time teachers, a visiting professor at the Business School, co-composition. All
courses are taught in English, graduates from the consortium led by the Fordham
University MBA degree certificates, in addition to the China Europe International
Business School, China Sino-foreign joint MBA training programs all have to follow
the degree certificate issued by a foreign university practice .
At present, China was approved by the joint venture educational authorities have
dozens of MBA training programs, joint ventures and to help teachers implement the
curriculum sharing. However, these training programs with foreign second-rate,
third-or fourth-flow compared with MBA training program in general is still
insufficient. In fact, in the "Financial Times" the Top 30 global
MBA training institutes set up joint venture in China, none of strong training
programs because the Chinese Government adheres to foreign universities in China
can only form of joint ventures school. As the fear of China and the pursuit of profit
that are not full-time partner institutions undermined the reputation of leading U.S.
and European business schools have distanced themselves from the Chinese market.
As of the beginning of this century, all of China's top public business
schools have established their own international MBA training programs. These
training programs set up beginning nearly all part-time. But the organizers soon
realized that, in order to play the director of its English courses, at least do some
full-time teaching. Implementation of full-time teaching can make these business
schools to increase the diversity of their students more easily enroll students from
abroad and student exchange with foreign business schools.
Full-time teaching can make students more time to digest the course content,
participate in corporate CEOs by the speaker of any forum to share experiences with
students to foster team spirit and enhance the friendship with the students. Recently,
one pair of 705 multinational companies in China conducted a survey, these are
part-time MBA students in China can not do. The well-known recruitment agencies
by the Hudson survey shows 42% of the respondents of their weekly working time of
employees more than 50 hours. MBA's staff read these enterprises will be
required to work overtime as most of them to choose part-time MBA course the main
reason, in a highly competitive job market, they are afraid of losing their jobs. As
profit-oriented training programs usually can not eliminate those students with poor
performance, not teaching full-time students often can not guarantee good results, so
these training programs are more likely to create low-quality graduates.
In order to meet the needs of the full-time training program, and stressed the
importance of practical work experience, the State Economic and Trade Commission
and the State Council Academic Degrees Committee for the MBA education in 1997,
founded a new academic structure. Under the new academic courses and programs
consistent with the existing MBA program, but with the traditional test project in the
spring, fall enrollment practices, the new curriculum requires students to school in the
spring, while the entrance exam to the previous year's Autumn in advance.
Since the time of enrollment, the new academic structure is generally called the
"Spring MBA", and the original educational system was called
"Autumn MBA". This binary system there are some small
differences. MBA part-time teaching project in the spring, which requires students to
have 5 years experience and 4 years of university education background, and autumn
is not only non-MBA program, but also full-time full-time, and students need only
three years of work experience, depending on their level of education. MBA tuition
fees for the project in spring than in autumn MBA program by 10% to 20%. Each
public universities in the MBA curriculum training institutions offer two options for
students, spring semester enrollment Fall enrollment is equivalent to 57% to 94%.
In 2002, the Ministry of Education approved 30 national public university School of
Business EMBA programs set up to allow them to charge each participant 200,000
yuan (25,000 U.S. dollars) tuition fees, this figure is several times the MBA tuition
fees. Due to high charges, the Ministry provides 30% of the EMBA curriculum need
for the EMBA teaching in overseas teachers in teaching, 50% of the EMBA
curriculum teachers need to teach by a doctorate, 80% of the EMBA course by a
business need experience in the teaching.
In the long run, EMBA program will help these public universities to introduce
business school to improve teaching standards and use of such courses available
profits to subsidize the MBA program. Indeed, a well-known business schools, there
is a subsidy to enjoy the MBA program funding is necessary, regardless of subsidies
from the channels. However, the short term, the project launched EMBA MBA
program lured away from the best teaching force. EMBA from the launch, the
low-quality MBA program graduates (both from the public universities are also
training institutions from the joint venture) started a lot of flooding the market,
corporate recruiters and the media have been criticized. In 2003, the Ministry of
Education approved 27 new MBA program, now, the Chinese University's
business school run total to 88, "MBA bubble," then burst.
From a number of quantitative indicators can also see the danger signs: in the MBA
entrance exam candidates to participate in the fall, senior undergraduate students
increasing proportion of the average age of test persons decreased year by year.
However, the supply exceeds demand only appears in low-end MBA education
market. Lack of high-level professors, high-end market has been in short supply.
To alleviate the shortage situation, some determined among the ranks of world-class
business school in China made great efforts, but also the external forces are able and
willing to help. Harvard Business School introduced the case method and
learner-centered participatory learning method (PCMPCL), the MBA teaching
practice in providing guidance and support. 2005 and 2006, from 13 business schools
in China teaching staff participated in the Harvard Business School's
PCMPCL training.
Given the number of domestic high-level MBA program enrollment is limited, many
Chinese young people choose to study abroad, especially in English-speaking
countries MBA degree. It is estimated that in 2005, studying at their own expense
106,500 overseas Chinese students, about one-third time MBA or related courses. Can
be said that China will most full-time international MBA education outsourced.
It is the largest circulation daily newspaper in China, "Reference
News" reported, Keele University (Keele University) enrolled each year in
China, 100 MBA students. On behalf of the London School of Union University and
head of London Higher Kevin? McCarthy (Kevin McCarthy) said that studying in UK
universities now 40,000 Chinese students, more than 40% of people read the
management, business, economic and financial professional.
In personnel returning from abroad, access to business people who share a higher
degree. This year in April, the University of Bath (Bath University) in Shanghai
Hilton Hotel, study applicants and students held a reception, in which 80% of the
graduates attended the school from the School of Business.
However, for those who hope that their careers in the Chinese business people, career,
Haiwailiuxue Beijing not be totally replaced in China was a world-class MBA Xue
Wei, the Bu Jin as foreign in the MBA Kecheng Bukenengqiang focus on the Chinese
Youguan content, but also, very few business schools abroad, marketing and
employment services can be extended to the Chinese market. It is for this reason, the
second in a foreign country, finished third-Business School MBA students found that
they return home to compete with the best domestic full-time international MBA
graduates of training programs, which makes them very frustrating. Several U.S. and
Canadian business schools Zeng plans to launch against China's MBA
program, but in the end the exception of one all the other schools outside the school to
abandon the plan, because they can not find enough of 专业 capabilities that meets
the requirements teachers will find can provide Chinese partners such talent.
If independent schools and universities in China Joint Education MBA autumn and
spring MBA and other MBA programs are included in the statistics, each year about
25,000 Chinese enrolled MBA students, the equivalent of Western Europe's
total enrollment. However, China has been the number of MBA degrees and
MBA's average level of education far behind Western European countries,
let alone the United States. MBA students in China is only 5% of full-time, while in
the United States, this figure more than half.
Various studies have shown that, China's outstanding manager still faces
the problem of huge gaps, particularly with Kua cultural background of the Ren
Caigeng is scarce, Er Zhelei talent is multinational companies operating in China and
China's emerging business enterprises badly Quan Qiuhua necessary. Most
of the China International MBA program graduates an average starting salary in the
range of double-digit growth, the fact is the best example in this regard.
If the Chinese want to transform the growth mode to maintain economic growth by
expanding trade and investment also reflects Xiangshou accession to the
WTO's Yi Chu, Peiyangtailiang talent, and so successful, Chinese needs to
be done, including expanding the management Lei education market, is more
important is to improve the quality of such education.
China to enhance capacity-building world-class management talent has a lot of things
can be done, including the establishment of more "special
education" so that schools follow the example of foreign first-class
universities in China and the Sharon Cooperative Education Business School model.
Also on the cooperation projects to foreign partners greater control over, or even to
allow world-class business school in China, set up an independent business school, as
the European School of Management (INSEAD) the establishment of the Singapore
branch. If the Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of China's
coastal areas with a partnership, the latter also with the University of inland areas of
China to cooperate.
China's        rapid     economic        growth     requires      a    lot    of
"Maxima" type of high-quality professional managers, but
China needs for its semi-planned reform of business education, and to increase
investment, to develop more and better resources.
(Editor's note: This article is riveting Wang China Europe International
Business School Associate Dean.) (Wall Street Journal Chinese Network)

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