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5 Words that Describe a Scientist 5 Words that Describe an Engineer

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5 Words that Describe a Scientist 5 Words that Describe an Engineer Powered By Docstoc
					  Team Members:
   Louie McTall
   Paul Muskopf
    Tom Noble
    Shane Reilly
    Ben Rissing
    Paul Tucker

Former Team Members:
    Gavin Duncan
    Gavin Jackson
    Charlie Safley
                  Day 1: Science vs. Engineering and Catapult Introduction


Overview: The students will learn the difference between scientists and engineers. They will
also learn about the engineering design process and how it differs from scientific
experimentation. A basic introduction to catapults as well as catapult history will be presented to
familiarize the students with our project.

Teacher Prep Time: 20 min
    Make copies of Science vs. Engineering Worksheet (W1.1) and Catapult History
      Handout (H1.1) for all students
    Prepare the demonstration video
         o Get TV and VCR
    Prepare the catapult demonstration
         o Read Teacher Manual to understand catapult operation

Objectives:
    Students will be able to understand the engineering design process
    Students will compare and contrast this process with scientific experimentation
    Teach students basic catapult history and build student interest in catapults

Teaching Standards:
   Virginia SOLs:
    PS.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
      n) an understanding of the nature of science is developed and reinforced

   Massachusetts Science and Technology / Engineering Curriculum Framework:
    2.1: Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process, i.e., identify the
     need or problem, research the problem, develop possible solutions, select the best
     possible solution(s), construct a prototype, test and evaluate, communicate the
     solution(s), and redesign.

   ITEA’s Standards for Technological Literacy:
    Standard 7: Students will develop an understanding of the influence of technology on
      history.
    Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.

Materials:
   Science vs. Engineering Worksheet (W1)
   Catapult History Handout (H1)
   Operational ETK Catapult
   Demonstration video
Description of Class:
Science v. Engineering (25 min)

1. T. distributes both worksheet and handout to students. Students will fill in answers as the
   class progresses
2. T. asks students what they know about scientific experimentation.
     T. has students write steps on board.
3. T. discusses how scientists use scientific experimentation to explore the world around them
     Scientist will research and experiment to test a general theory or question and see if it is
        true or false.
4. T. asks students to individually write 5 words that describe a scientist.
     T. writes students words on board as they call them out.
     T. discusses words with class
5. T. asks students “Using what you know about scientific experimentation, what do you think
   the engineering design process is?” To start them off, T. will draw the first block of the
   engineering process on the board and say “Instead of starting with a question, engineers start
   with a design problem.”
     With student aid, T. completes the engineering design process on the board.
6. T. asks students to individually write 5 words that describe an engineer.
     T. writes students words on board as they call them out.
     T. discusses words with class (similarities and differences between the words used for
        the scientist and the engineer)
7. T. sums up the differences between science and engineering (reference Teacher Manual)

Catapult Introduction (25 min)

8. T. shows demonstration video
9. T. uses video to transition into a brief outline of what the catapult ETK will cover and of the
    design challenge.
10. T. shows the students the catapult they will be working with and gives a brief demonstration
    of how it works.
11. T. leads discussion on catapult history using the History Handout (H1.1)
                     W1.1: Science vs. Engineering Worksheet


 Scientific Experimentation         The Engineering Design Process




5 Words that Describe a Scientist                5 Words that Describe an Engineer

1.                                               1.

2.                                               2.

3.                                               3.

4.                                               4.

5.                                               5.
           W1.1: Science vs. Engineering Worksheet (teacher’s copy)


 Scientific Experimentation         The Engineering Design Process


        Question                           Identify
                                           Problem



         Form                            Brainstorm
       Hypothesis                          Ideas



      Experiment                           Develop
                                           Design
                                                               Revise
                                                               Design
      Collect and                           Test
     Analyze Data                          Design



        Form                               Develop
      Conclusion                         Final Report




5 Words that Describe a Scientist         5 Words that Describe an Engineer

1.                                        1.

2.                                        2.

3.                                        3.

4.                                        4.

5.                                        5.
                                  H1.1: Catapult History Handout

Catapults
Catapults were the first form of field artillery used during battles by the Greeks. They were used
as "siege" machines. The word "siege" means the surrounding and blockading of a town or
fortress by an army trying to capture it.

The word Catapult comes from the two Greek words "kata" and "pultos". "Kata" means
downward and "pultos" refers to a small circular shield carried in battle. Katapultos was then
taken to mean "shield piercer".



The Ballista
The first catapults used by the Greeks were based on the bow and arrow but of a much larger
size. The "Ballista" was the name given to the first Greek Catapult. It fired spears instead of
arrows and its bow worked very differently from a normal bow.

The Ballista worked like the small wooden propeller and rubber band air planes that children
play with today.




               Top view of a Ballista.           A Ballista being set into firing position.
The Trebuchet
It is believed that the Trebuchet originated in China around 300 BC. Its use in Western Europe
can be traced to the crusades of the 12th century. There were two types of trebuchets.



   1. The traction trebuchet used people as a
      power source. The people would haul down
      the shorter end of the beam which flipped up
      the longer end. A sling was attached to the
      longer end of the beam. As the longer end
      reached its apex, the sling opened releasing
      a large stone or other object. The traction
      trebuchet was good for throwing
      incendiaries and heads.



                                                       Traction Trebuchet about to be fired.




   2. The Counterweight
      Trebuchet replaced the
      people power with a weight
      on the short end. The
      longer end was pulled
      down, lifting the weighted
      end. Upon release, the
      weight pull down the
      shorter end down and the
      longer end swung up. A
      stone was released from the
      sling at the apex of the
      swing.

                                                     Counterweight Trebuchet prepared to fire.
                                        Day 2: Energy


Overview: Students will gain an appreciation of energy principles, including kinetic and
potential energy. They will also examine the basic equations governing energy. The teacher will
lead a discussion of the Law of Conservation of Energy and the SI unit system. Students will
complete an activity on the subjects of spring constants and potential energy.

Teacher Prep Time: 20 min
    Make copies of Energy Worksheet (W2.1) and Spring Constant Worksheet (W2.2) for all
      students
    Obtain supplies for Spring Constant Experiment
          o A spring scale for each group
          o A ruler for each group
          o Rubber bands of different thickness and sizes for each group

Objectives:
    Students will be able to understand the both kinetic and potential forms of energy
    Students will become familiar with the equations governing kinetic and potential energy
    Students will learn about the Law of Conservation of Energy
    Students will be able to identify SI units pertaining to the ETK
    Students will learn how potential and kinetic energy relates to springs and rubber bands.

Teaching Standards:
   Virginia SOLs:
    PS.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
      b) length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured
          and reported using the International System of Units;
      c) conversions are made among metric units applying appropriate prefixes;
      d) triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rules, graduated cylinders,
          and spring scales are used to gather data;
    PS.5 The student will investigate and understand changes in matter and the relationship
      of these changes to the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy. Key concepts include
      a) physical changes.
    PS.6 The student will investigate and understand states and forms of energy and how
      energy is transferred and transformed. Key concepts include
      a) potential and kinetic energy;
      b) mechanical, chemical, and electrical energy; and
      c) heat, light, and sound.
    PS.10 The student will investigate and understand scientific principles and technological
      applications of work, force, and motion. Key concepts include
      c) work, force, mechanical advantage, efficiency, and power
    Math 8.14 The student will
      a) describe and represent relations and functions, using tables, graphs, and rules
    Math 8.17 The student will create and solve problems, using proportions, formulas, and
      functions.
    Math 8.18 The student will use the following algebraic terms appropriately: domain,
      range, independent variable, and dependent variable.
Materials:
   Every student receives Energy and Spring Constant Worksheets
   Each group needs:
           o Rubber bands A, B, C, and D
           o Ruler
           o Spring Scale

Description of Class:
Introduction to Energy (25 min)
Note: Students will use the information in 1, 2, 3, and 4 to complete Energy Worksheet (W2.1)

1. T. passes out energy worksheet. Students fill in answers as teacher covers concepts.
2. Forms of Energy:
     T. states that all forms of energy can be put into one of two main categories. T. writes
        the two categories on board: Potential & Kinetic.
     T. has students brainstorm examples of Potential and Kinetic energy.
3. T. discusses Law of conservation of energy:
     T. states that energy can NOT be created or destroyed, it can only change forms.
       о     Example: T. lifts a book up into the air and says that it now has potential energy. If
             T. drops the book the potential energy will be converted into kinetic energy as the
             book falls. When the book hits the floor, the kinetic energy of the book moving will
             be converted into sound and heat. T. drops the book.
4. Equations that Govern Energy:
     T. states that the Potential Energy related to the height of an object is known as
        gravitational potential energy.
     T. writes the equation for gravitational potential energy on the board and describes each
        term.
       о     PEgravity = Mass x gravity x height
       о     To demonstrate T. gets book from before and drops on floor from a height of
             approximately 6 inches. Then T. drops book on floor from a height of several feet
             above. T. explains that the book will go faster and make more noise at impact as the
             height it is dropped from increases. This is because its potential energy increases as
             height increases.
     T. talks about springs and how they are one way to store potential energy.
     T. writes states that Hookes Law allows us to calculate the amount of potential energy
        contained in a spring, writes the equation on the board, and describes each term.
       о     Hookes Law: K = spring constant
       о     PEspring = ½ K x (Length2 – Length1)2
       о     To demonstrate T. shoots a rubber band at the board, but only pulls the rubber band
             back an inch or two. T. then shoots a rubber band at the board, pulling the rubber
             band back as far as possible. T. explains that the rubber band goes faster and farther
             as the length you pull it back increases. This is because its potential energy
             increases as length increases.
     T. states that an object in motion has kinetic energy.
     T. writes the equation for kinetic energy of motion on the board and describes each term.
       о     KEmotion = ½ mass x velocity2
       о     T. explains the transformation of energy in the two previous cases (book and rubber
             band). When the book is dropped, the PE becomes KE as it falls. Because of the
            Law of Conservation of Energy, no new energy is created. PE is converted to KE!
            When the rubber band is shot at the board, the PE becomes KE in the same manner.

5. Spring Constant Activity (25 min)

6. T. divides students into groups.

7. T. passes out spring constant worksheet and materials to each group.

8. T. reminds students and writes on board the conversion between centimeters and meters.

9. T. goes around and makes sure that each group of students completes the activity.
    See picture below for a more detailed view of the experiment setup



                                                               It is easier to hold the spring
                                                                stationary if a bolt is passed
                                                                through one end of the spring.

                                                               Measure displacement from the
                                                                spring scale/spring connection.

                                                               Make sure to position the spring
                                                                scale so that you read Newtons.




10. If class period ends before students can complete Activity 2, T. assigns it for homework.
                             W2.1: Energy Worksheet
                                (Teacher’s copy)

There are two main categories of energy, potential and kinetic. Write at least 3
examples of each:

Potential (Stored Energy)                     Kinetic (Objects in Motion)

1. Holding Object in Air                      1. Moving Car

2. Stretched Rubber band/Spring               2. Baseball after being hit

3. Roller Coaster at top of hill              3. Roller Coast at bottom of hill


As the teacher goes over the following material, fill in the empty spaces:

The Law of          Conservation of Energy says that energy cannot be created or
destroyed.

There are several types of energy (you listed six above). We will talk about two
specific types of potential energy and one specific type of kinetic energy.

Potential Energy related to the height of an object is called Gravitational Potential
Energy.
The equation used to calculate the amount of this energy follows:

                        PEgravity = Mass x Gravity x Height

Springs are one device used to store potential energy.
The equation used to calculate the amount of this energy follows:

                       PEspring = ½ K x (Length2 – Length1)2

                       In this equation K = Spring Constant

Moving objects have Kinetic Energy of Motion.
The equation used to calculate the amount of this energy follows:

                           KEmotion = ½ Mass x Velocity2
                             W2.1: Energy Worksheet

There are two main categories of energy, potential and kinetic. Write at least 3
examples of each:

      Potential                                      Kinetic

      1.                                             1.

      2.                                             2.

      3.                                             3.


As the teacher goes over the following material, fill in the empty spaces:

The Law of          Conservation of Energy says that energy cannot be created or
destroyed.

There are several types of energy (you listed six above). We will talk about two
specific types of potential energy and one specific type of kinetic energy.

Potential Energy related to the height of an object is called Gravitational Potential
Energy.
The equation used to calculate the amount of this energy follows:

                        PEgravity = Mass x Gravity x Height

Springs are one device used to store potential energy.
The equation used to calculate the amount of this energy follows:

                       PEspring = ½ K x (Length2 – Length1)2

                       In this equation K = Spring Constant

Moving objects have Kinetic Energy of Motion.
The equation used to calculate the amount of this energy follows:

                          KEmotion = ½ Mass x Velocity2
                             W2.2: Spring Constant Worksheet

Activity 1: We will determine the spring constants (K) of different springs.

Procedure:
   1) Attach one end of the spring to the spring scale and the                  Pull this
      other end around a bolt. Position the ruler so that 0 is at               direction
      the spring scale – spring connection.

   2) Stretch the spring a little bit to get rid of slack.




                                                                                              RULER
   3) Write down length (Length 1) and reading on the scale
      (Force 1) in the chart below.                                             Spring
                                                                                 scale
   4) Stretch spring 5 more centimeters and record length
      (Length 2) and spring scale reading (Force 2)
      (Remember 100 centimeters = 1 meter).

   5) Repeat procedure for each of the different springs (B, C,
      and D).                                                          Spring

   6) Calculate spring constant (K) using the rearranged
      equation from the energy worksheet:

                       K =       (Force 2 – Force 1)___                  Hold this end
                                (Length 2 - Length 1)

   Spring       Length 1 (m)     Force 1 (N)      Length 2 (m)    Force 2 (N)       K (N/m)
     A
     B
     C
     D

Activity 2: We will determine how much potential energy is stored in each spring if we stretch
            it 15 cm? 30 cm?

Hints: Don’t forget about the units! 1 joule = 1 N m
       Use the appropriate K value from the chart you just completed
       PEspring = ½ K x (Length 2 – Length 1)2

    Spring       K (N/m)          PE at (Length 2 – Length 1) =     PE at (Length 2 – Length 1) =
                 (from above)     15 cm (0.15 m)                    30 cm (0.3 m)
      A
      B
      C
      D
                    Day 3: Simple Machine (Levers) & Projectile Motion

Overview: Students will gain knowledge of simple machines, specifically levers and how they
apply to catapults. Students will gain an interactive, conceptual knowledge of projectile motion.

Teacher Prep Time: 20 min
    T. must set up three catapults for the lever demonstration. The fulcrum of each catapult
      arm will be at a different point, one in the middle, one on the extreme right, and one on
      the extreme left. Each lever has a weight on the right end (see diagrams below).
    T. make enough copies of Simple Machine Handout and Lever Worksheet for the entire
      class

Objectives:
    Students will recognize the 6 types of simple machines.
    Students will understand the 3 classes of levers.
    Students will understand the relationship f1d1 = f2 d2
    Students will see real life applications of projectile motion.
    Students will gain experience with equations and substitution.

Teaching Standards:
   Virginia SOLs:
    PS.10 The student will investigate and understand scientific principles and technological
      applications of work, force, and motion. Key concepts include
      a) speed, velocity, and acceleration;
      c) work, force, mechanical advantage, efficiency, and power; and
      d) applications (simple machines, compound machines, powered vehicles, rockets, and
          restraining devices).
    Math 8.17 The student will create and solve problems, using proportions, formulas, and
      functions.
    Math 8.18 The student will use the following algebraic terms appropriately: domain,
      range, independent variable, and dependent variable.


Materials:
   Simple Machine Worksheet (W3.1) for each student
   Levers Worksheet (W3.2) for each student
   Styrofoam (5” diameter) ball
   3 Catapults and 3 equal weights
   1 fully prepared Catapult

Description of Class:
Simple machines and Levers (25 min)

1. T. asks students what they think simple machines are
2. T. explains that simple machines are tools used to make work easier.
3. T. describes the 6 types: inclined plane, wedge, screw, lever, wheel and axle, pulley.
   Students fill in worksheet (W3.1) as teacher goes over material.
4. T. talks about how simple machines are all around us. T. asks students to point out simple
   machines just within the classroom. Then T. asks students to identify simple machines they
   use at home every day.
5. T. moves discussion specifically to levers
     T. goes over the important terms “Load, pivot, and effort” describing each
     T. says there are three classes of levers: Class I, Class II, Class III
     The classes are based upon where the pivot point is relative to the load and effort

                          Load          20 lbs                                   Effort


                                                                   Fulcrum
        See Teacher’s Copy of W3.1 for explanation of lever classes
        о    Note: “Nutcracker” in the worksheet is not the soldier-type cracker, but the one
             pictured below




6. T. then says we will be using levers with the catapults
7. T. does lever demonstration using catapult pieces and weights.
    T. selects student to help with demonstration
    T. and student go to catapult with fulcrum at point A and weight on one end. Student
        pushes on side of lever opposite the weight, raising the weight.


                                           A B C
       Student then moves catapult with fulcrum at point B and repeats the process.


                                           A B C
       Student moves to catapult with fulcrum at point C and repeats process.



                                           A B C

       Student then reports to class which point was easiest and hardest to lift the weight. (it
        should be Point A)
8. T. then explains why it is easier to raise weight at one point than another using the f1 d1 = f2d2
   relationship.
     T. works out example problem from Lever worksheet on the board using the equation
        and draws a diagram to help students understand.

Projectile Motion (25 min)

9. T. begins with some review questions:
     What is velocity?
        о     How fast something is moving and in what direction
     What is acceleration?
        о     How quickly an object’s velocity is changing
        о     Good example would be to talk about riding in a car
                   At a stop you have zero velocity and acceleration
                   You start moving (accelerating) and your velocity increases until you hit the
                    speed limit, acceleration goes to zero because velocity is staying the same.
                   Same principle with slowing down and stopping.
10. T. introduces gravity as a type of acceleration
11. T. does Gravity demonstration
     T. Drops Styrofoam ball, asks students why the ball fell
        о     Fell because of gravity
     T. describes how gravity affects all objects equally
        о     Drops two objects, one light, one heavy, simultaneously
        о     Two objects hit ground at same time, proving the point
12. T. introduces horizontal and vertical components of velocity
     T. stands still in front of the blackboard tossing ball up and down.
     T. discusses vertical velocity with students
        о     By throwing the ball you are giving it a velocity upward
        о     Because gravity is a type of acceleration, it caused the ball to come back down.
        о     Draw up and down motion of ball on board




        T. walks across front of backboard with ball in hand.
        о    T. discusses with students how walking with the ball gives it horizontal velocity
        о    Draw horizontal motion of ball on board.


        T. then asks “What happens if I combine the two by walking while throwing the ball
         up?”
        о     The board should have two arrows on it, as such:




       T. then walks and tosses the ball at the same time.
    о    Ball moves in an arc, draw arc on board:




    T. then asks, “What happens if I walk faster or slower?”
    о     The ball will take a different path
    о     Draw faster or slower arcs on the board over the original arc:
    о     Tomorrow we’re going to talk about adjusting these two variables (horizontal and
          vertical velocity) to make the best catapult.
                W3.1: Simple Machines Worksheet (Teacher Copy)

Fill in the blanks as the teacher goes through the information. Identify the Simple Machine by
writing its name below the picture

Simple machines are use to make work easier                               There are six basic
types of simple machines, they are…




Inclined Plane                               Lever                                 Wedge




       Pulley                            Wheel and Axle                             Screw


Simple machines can be found in the world all around us. List some of the simple
machines you found in the classroom…
   Light switch (lever), Bottom of sink (Inclined plane), Handicap ramp (Inclined Plane),
   Stapler (Lever), Staple (wedge), Push pin (wedge), Cap to soda bottle (screw), Knobs on
   sinks (screw), Rolling Chair (wheel and axle), Scissors (lever)



There are also simple machines that we use every day at home, list some of those
below…
   Compound bow (Pulley), Broom (lever), Car wheels (wheel and axle), Bikes (wheel and
   axle, lever), Stairs (inclined plane), Salad tongs (lever), Corkscrew (screw), Knife
   (wedge)
The simple machine we will use with the catapults is the Lever
There are      three      classifications of levers. The classes are based upon where
the pivot is relative to the load and effort. In the picture below, label the load,
pivot, and effort.

          Effort
                                                      Fulcrum



                                           

                                                             Load



Write short description of each class below…
First Class:     The pivot is between the effort and load




Second Class:
                 The load is between the pivot and effort




Third Class:
                 The effort is between the pivot and load
                          W3.1: Simple Machines Worksheet

Fill in the blanks as the teacher goes through the information. Identify the Simple Machine by
writing its name below the picture

Simple machines are use to                                                There are six basic
types of simple machines, they are…




Simple machines can be found in the world all around us. List some of the simple
machines you found in the classroom…




There are also simple machines that we use every day at home, list some of those
below…
The simple machine we will use with the catapults is the
There are               classifications of levers. The classes are based upon where
the pivot is relative to the load and effort. In the picture below, label the load,
pivot, and effort.




                                          




Write short description of each class below…
First Class:




Second Class:




Third Class:
                          W3.2: Levers Worksheet

Object                                                     Class

Scissors


Wheelbarrow


Seesaw


Tongs


Fishing rod


Nutcracker


                               Use f1d1 = f2d2

                                                      f2
               f1
                                d1               d2
                       _______________________________




        Ex.   f1 = 3         f2 = ?        d1 = 4          d2 = 1


                                  f1d1 = f2d2

                             (3) x (4) = (f2) x (1)

                                 12 / 1 = (f2)

                                     12 = f2
1.   f1 = 1    f2 = 3     d1 = 2     d2 =___




2.   f1 = 2    f2 = 2     d1 = ___   d2 = 3




3.   f1 = 4    f2 =___    d1 = 3     d2 = 2.5




4.   f1 =___   f2 = 3.5   d1 = 1.5   d2 = 2
              W3.2: Levers Worksheet (Teacher Copy)

Object                                                         Class

Scissors                                                         1

Wheelbarrow                                                      2

Seesaw                                                           1

Tongs                                                            3

Fishing rod                                                      3

Nutcracker                                                       2

                              Use f1d1 = f2d2

                                                          f2
                 f1
                                   d1                d2
                  _______________________________




        Ex.     f1 = 3         f2 = ?         d1 = 4           d2 = 1


                                 f1d1 = f2d2
                            (3) x (4) = (f2) x (1)
                                12 / 1 = (f2)
                                   12 = f2

        1.      f1 = 1          f2 = 3        d1 = 2           d2 = 0.67

        2.      f1 = 2          f2 = 2        d1 = 3           d2 = 3

        3.      f1 = 4          f2 = 4.8      d1 = 3           d2 = 2.5

        4.      f1 = 4.67       f2 = 3.5      d1 = 1.5         d2 = 2
               Day 4: Introduction to Competition and Design Parameters

Overview: Students will be introduced to the design competition, will conduct an
experiment, and will begin design of their team’s catapult.

Teacher Prep Time: 20 min

Objectives:
    Students will investigate how angels affect horizontal and vertical velocity
    Students will conduct scientific experiment using catapults
    Students will begin to exercise the engineering design process.

Materials:
   Catapult for each team
   Rubber bands, springs, and nuts/bolts
   Reusable ammunition for each group (for multiple launches)
   Experiment worksheet (W 5.1)
   Design Competition Worksheet (W 5.2)
   Measuring tape for each “Launch Station”

Description of Class:
Experiment (15 min)

1. T. distributes experiment worksheet (W 5.1)
2. T. begins experiment
    In the experiment, the catapult will be launched with the same ammunition and
        rubber band, but from 5 different release angles
    Firing distance will be measured at each angle using a measuring tape. Height is
        estimated.
    Students will put distance and height into chart on worksheet and plot the
        resulting points on the given graph.
    Suggest T. involves students as much as possible.
    The experiment is not exact. T. should run through the experiment beforehand
        and practice stretching the spring an equal distance on each launch.

Design Competition Introduction (35 min)

3. T. hands out design competition worksheet (W 5.2), rubber bands, springs, nuts/bolts
   and a catapult to each group
4. T. explains rules of design process
     T. establishes rule that you cannot launch anything if you are not at the teacher’s
        launch station wearing safety goggles
     T. goes over what design variables you can and cannot change
     T. sets up “Launch Station”
       о    Each team must design for a minimum of 10 minutes before they can go to
            the launch station
       о    The launch station is only open to one team at a time and each team only
            gets one shot when they are there
       о    After firing, the team returns to their table and improves/changes their
            design.
                                   W4.1: Experiment Worksheet

In this experiment you will launch the catapult from five different angles. After each shot
is fired, measure and record the horizontal and vertical distance traveled.



               Angle          Horizontal Distance               Vertical Height
                      15
                      30
                      45
                      60
                      75
Now Graph the data you’ve collected:


                                       Angle vs. Distance

                     20
   Distance (feet)




                     15

                     10

                     5

                     0
                          0   15       30         45          60         75           90
                                            Angle (degrees)




                                        Angle vs. Height

                     10

                      8
   Height (feet)




                      6

                      4

                      2

                      0
                          0   15       30         45          60         75           90
                                            Angle (degrees)
                                 W4.1: Experiment Worksheet (teacher’s copy)

In this experiment you will launch the catapult from five different angles. After each shot
is fired, measure and record the horizontal and vertical distance traveled.
(The values here are approximations, but the graphs should have the same general shape)

                                Angle
 (and position of stop bar in relation to pivot,
  see pictures on next page for more detail)                 Horizontal         Vertical
                          15 (down 1 over 2)                        6               7
                          30 (down 2 over 2)                        10              6
                          45 (down 4 over 3)                        15              5
                          60 (down 3 over 1)                        10              4
                          75 (down 2 over 0)                        6               3
Now Graph the data you’ve collected:


                                             Angle vs. Distance

                     20
   Distance (feet)




                     15

                     10

                     5

                     0
                          0       15         30         45              60     75       90
                                                  Angle (degrees)



                                              Angle vs. Height

                     10

                      8
   Height (feet)




                      6

                      4

                      2

                      0
                          0       15         30         45              60     75       90
                                                  Angle (degrees)
Pictures of locations of pivot and stop for experiment:
The down __ over ___ directions are for the location of the stop bar in relation to the pivot.

15 degrees:                                        30 degrees:
Down 1, Over 2                                     Down 2, Over 2




45 degrees:                                        60 degrees:
Down 4, Over 3                                     Down 3, Over 1




75 degrees:
Down 2, Over 0
                        W 5.2: Design Competition Worksheet

Use this worksheet to keep a record of your design process as you modify and improve your
catapult. Each time you test your catapult, quickly label the catapult’s layout and make some
notes regarding its performance. If you run out of room on this sheet ask your teacher for
another.

Example:                                           Design 1:




        Design worked just ok                            ______________________
        Ball traveled 15 feet                            ______________________
Design 2:                                          Design 3:




  __________________________                          __________________________
  __________________________                          __________________________
Design 4:                      Design 5:




  __________________________     __________________________
  __________________________     __________________________



Design 6:                      Design 7:




  __________________________     __________________________
  __________________________     __________________________
                          Day 5: Competition and Wrap-up


Overview: Students will complete their design and compete against one another. T.
leads wrap-up conversation at end

Teacher Prep Time: 20 min

Objectives:
    Students will put their engineering design into practical application
    Students will have fun and learn

Teaching Standards:

Materials:
    Catapult for each team
    Rubber bands, springs, and nuts/bolts
    Reusable ammunition for each group (for multiple launches)
    Measuring tape for each “Launch Station”
    Cardboard “Town”
    The student’s W5.2 which contains their design history
   
Description of Class:
Finalize Design (10 min)

1. Students finalize their design based upon parameters as discussed in day 4
2. Students decide on team name

Competition (35 min)

3. T. draws team names out of hat to decide who goes first, second, third, etc…
4. Each team rotates through trying for accuracy first (Hitting fortress wall)
5. After completion of accuracy competition, teams get 5 min to adjust catapults for
   distance competition
6. Each team rotates through distance competition
7. T. scores final results and announces winner


Wrap Up (5 min)

8. T. collects supplies and left over ammunition from students
9. T. asks students what they’ve learned from the week
10. What was the most fun part? What was the worst part? What do they still not
    understand?
       Teacher Manual / Supplement to Experiments and Examples

Simple Machines:

1. Inclined Plane – A sloped surface used to move objects up a certain distance. Allows
   one to use less force over a longer distance instead of a large force over a shorter
   distance.

2. Lever – A long board or rod that pivots about a point known as the fulcrum. On one
   side of the fulcrum is the load while the effort, or force, is placed at the opposing end.
   By adjusting the fulcrum relative to the load and effort, it is possible to minimize the
   force needed to lift the load.

3. Wedge – Two inclined planes joined together, back to back. A wedge is used to split
   objects, such as wood.

4. Pulley – A grooved wheel, typically with a rope around it. By pulling down on the
   rope at one end, a person can lift an object at the other end. If a series of pulleys is
   used, the force required to lift a load may be significantly reduced.

5. Wheel and Axle – A wheel and axle consists of a cylindrical rod through the center of
   the wheel. When the axle is turned, the wheel turns a greater distance, which is how
   you get your mechanical advantage. Also, turning the axle requires less force over a
   longer distance than turning the wheel alone.

6. Screw – An inclined plane wrapped around a shaft or cylinder. The screw gives
   mechanical advantage by raising or lowering objects as it is turned. The force
   required to turn the screw is less than that of lifting the object directly (think of a car
   jack).

(Information based upon: http://edheads.org/activities/simple-machines/sm-glossary.htm)

Levers:
Force-Distance Relationship

f1d1 = f2d2

f1 = force #1  Doesn’t matter which side is #1 or which side is #2, as long as f1 and d1
                 are on the same side.
d1 = distance #1

   f2 and d2 are just like f1 and d1, but on the other side
   The relationship essentially states that for a given weight (f1) at a specified distance
    from the fulcrum (d1), you can apply a corresponding force (f2) at a certain distance
    (d2) such that the lever is balanced.

				
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