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					                                             MAP GSM for Short Message




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                                       MAP GSM for Short Message

Agenda
    SS7 overview
    GSM Network elements
    Common MAP Messages
    Short Message flow overview
    SMSC
          GSM
          CDMA
          Message Sequence Diagrams




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    SME Protocols
          SMPP
          UCP
          CIMD
    Short message Testers

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                                MAP GSM for Short Message

SS7 overview

               MAP
                             ISUP
               TCAP

                SCCP

                     MTP 3




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                     MTP 2

                     MTP 1



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                       MAP GSM for Short Message

GSM Network Elements




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                                                   MAP GSM for Short Message

GSM Network Elements (cont ..)
  • HLR
     – Database used for permanent storage and management of
       subscriptions and service profiles.
     – Upon interrogation by the SMSC, the HLR provides the routing
       information for the indicated subscriber
  • VLR
     – Database containing temporary information about subscribers.
     – Information needed by the MSC to service visiting subscribers.




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  • MSC
     – Performs switching functions of the system and controls calls to
       and from other telephone and data systems.
     – Delivers the short message to the specific mobile subscriber
       through the proper base station.


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                                                   MAP GSM for Short Message

GSM Network Elements (cont ..)
  • BSS
     – Transmission of electromagnetic radio signals between the MSC
       and the mobile devices are performed.
     – BS consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base
       transceiver stations (BTSs), also known as cell sites or simply
       “cells.”
     – Controls one or more BTS & in charge of the proper resource
       assignment
  • Mobile Station




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     – It is wireless terminal capable of receiving and originating short
       messages.
     – The wireless network signaling is based on SS7.
     – An SMS service layer makes use of the MAP signaling capabilities
       and enables the transfer of short messages between the peer entities


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                                                                     MAP GSM for Short Message

Common MAP Messages
 Basic application layer functions:
      –   for establishing and clearing MAP dialogues between peer MAP service-users;
      –   for accessing functions supported by layers below the applications layer;
      –   for reporting abnormal situations;
      –   for handling of different MAP versions;
      –   for testing whether or not a persistent MAP dialogue is still active at each side.

 For these purposes the following common services are defined:
         MAP-OPEN service;
         MAP-CLOSE service;
         MAP-DELIMITER service;
         MAP-U-ABORT service;




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         MAP-P-ABORT service;
         MAP-NOTICE service.

 Terminology:
 M – Mandatory O – Service Provider Option (only for Indication or confirm Primitives)
 U – Service User Option (only for Request and Response Primitives)
 C – Conditional = - parameter shall take the same value as that to its left



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                                                   MAP GSM for Short Message

Common MAP Messages (cont..) – MAP Open
   • establishing a MAP dialogue between two MAP service users.
   • is a confirmed service with service primitives as shown in table


   Parameters           Request   Indication   Response     Confirmation

Application Context       M         M(=)          U             C(=)
name
Destination Address       M         M(=)
Destination Reference     U         C(=)




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Originating Address       U           O

Originating Reference     U         C(=)
Specific Information      U         C(=)          U             C(=)
Responding Address                                U             C(=)
Result                                            M             M(=)
Refuse Reason                                     C             C (= )
Provider Error                                                    O



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                                                     MAP GSM for Short Message

Common MAP Messages (cont..) – MAP Close
 • is used for releasing a previously established MAP dialogue.
 • may be invoked by either MAP service-user depending on rules
   defined within the service-user.
 • is an unconfirmed service with parameters as shown in table.


              Parameters          Request   Indication

           Release Method           M

           Specific Information     U         C(=)




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                                                MAP GSM for Short Message

Common MAP Messages (cont..) – MAP
Delimiter
 • is used to explicitly request the transfer of the MAP protocol data
   units to the peer entities.
 • is an Unconfirmed service
 • Does not contain any parameter




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                                                    MAP GSM for Short Message

Common MAP Messages (cont..) –
MAP U-Abort
  • enables the service-user to request the MAP dialogue to be
    aborted.
  • is an unconfirmed service with service-primitives as shown in
    table


             Parameters          Request   Indication

          User Reason              M         M(=)




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          Diagnostic               U         C(=)
          Information
          Specific Information     U         C(=)




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                                                  MAP GSM for Short Message

Common MAP Messages (cont..) –
MAP P-Abort
  • enables the MAP service-provider to abort a MAP dialogue.
  • is a provider-initiated service with service-primitive as
    shown in table



           Parameters      Request   Indication




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         Provider Reason                 M

         Source                          M




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                                                  MAP GSM for Short Message

Common MAP Messages (cont..) – MAP
Notice
 • is used to notify the MAP service-user about protocol problems
   related to a MAP dialogue not affecting the state of the protocol
   machines.
 • is a provider-initiated service with service-primitive as shown in
   table

             Parameters         Request   Indication




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           Problem Diagnostic                 M




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                                                    MAP GSM for Short Message

Short Message Flow Overview

                 2         VLR
   1
                                                            HLR
                                          4
                       3           SMSC
           MSC                                1   Send message from MS
                               5              2   Get Authentication from VLR




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                                              3   Send msg to SMSC
       7         MSC                          4   Get Location of dest. MSISDN
                           6
                                              5   Send to dest. MSC

                                   VLR        6   Get Authorization from VLR

                                              7   Send msg to MS
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                                                              MAP GSM for Short Message

SMSC - Short Message Service Center
  • is a combination of hardware and software responsible for the relaying
    and storing and forwarding of a short message between an SME and
    mobile device
  • When a message is submitted to the SMSC by the SME,
      – the SMSC uses its own retry policy to deliver the message.
      – If the delivery fails, it is stored till the expiry of the validity period of the
        message and retried as per the retry policy.
      – If permanent error occurs or validity expires, the message is deleted from
        the SMSC store.




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  • An SME requires a “Login” and a “password” to connect to the SMSC
    and send a message to any MS.
  • A Large Account (LA) needs to be setup at the SMSC for this purpose.
  • LAs have the capacity to send a large number of messages and also
    store incoming messages before catering to them.



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                MAP GSM for Short Message

SMSC (cont..)




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                                         MAP GSM for Short Message

SMSC (cont..)
• Routing Information Request
   – SMS Request in IS-41 (CDMA)
   – Send Routing Info For Short Msg ( GSM )
• Point-to-Point Short Message Delivery
   – Short Message Delivery point-to-point in IS-41(CDMA)
   – Forward Short Message (GSM)
• Short Message Waiting Indication




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   – SMS Notification Indicator in IS-41(CDMA)
   – Inform Service Center ( GSM )
• Service Center Alert
   – SMS Notification in IS-41 (CDMA).
   – Alert Service Center ( GSM )
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                                   MAP GSM for Short Message

SMSC - GSM
    MAP-SEND-ROUTING-INFO-FOR-SM service
    MAP-FORWARD-SHORT-MESSAGE service
    MAP-REPORT-SM-DELIVERY-STATUS service
    MAP-READY-FOR-SM service
    MAP-ALERT-SERVICE-CENTRE service
    MAP-INFORM-SERVICE-CENTRE service
    MAP-SEND-INFO-FOR-MT-SMS service
    MAP-SEND-INFO-FOR-MO-SMS service




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                                                              MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC-GSM (cont..) – MAP-SEND-ROUTING-INFO-FOR-SM service
   •    between the gateway MSC and the HLR
   •    to retrieve the routing information needed for routing the short message to the
        servicing MSC.
   •    is a confirmed service using the primitives from table.


    Parameters         Request          Indication        Response       Confirmation

 Invoke Id                M               M(=)              M(=)             M(=)

 MSISDN                   M               M(=)
 SM-RP-PRI                M               M(=)

 SC Address               M               M(=)




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 IMSI                                                         C              C(=)
 MSC number                                                   C              C(=)
 LMSI                                                         C              C(=)
 User Error                                                   C              C(=)
 Provider Error                                                                O




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                                                             MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC - GSM (cont..) – MAP-Forward Short Message service
   •    between the gateway MSC and the servicing MSC
   •    to forward mobile originated or mobile terminated short messages.
   •    is a confirmed service using the service primitives given in table


    Parameters         Request         Indication       Response        Confirmation

 Invoke Id                M              M(=)             M(=)               M(=)

 SM- RP-DA                M              M(=)
 SM-RP-OA                 M              M(=)

 SM-RP-UI                 M              M(=)




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 More Msg to Send         C               C(=)
 User Error                                                 C                C(=)
 Provider Error                                                               O




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                                                            MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC - GSM (cont..) – MAP-Report Delivery Status service
   •    between the gateway MSC and the HLR.
   •    used to set the Message Waiting Data into the HLR or to inform the HLR of
        successful SM transfer after polling.
   •    invoked by the gateway MSC.
   •    is a confirmed service using the service primitives given in table



    Parameters         Request         Indication       Response       Confirmation

 Invoke Id                M              M(=)             M(=)             M(=)




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 MSISDN                   M              M(=)
 SC address               M              M(=)

 SM delivery outcome      M              M(=)

 MSISDN Alert                                               C              C(=)
 User Error                                                 C              C(=)
 Provider Error                                                             O




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                                                                       MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC - GSM (cont..) – MAP-Ready for SM service
   •    between the MSC and VLR and between the VLR and the HLR.
   •    MSC initiates : if a subscriber indicates memory available situation.
   •    The VLR uses the service to indicate this to the HLR.
   •    The VLR initiates this service if a subscriber, whose message waiting flag is active in the
        VLR, has radio contact in the MSC.
   •    is a confirmed service using the primitives from table



    Parameters            Request            Indication          Response          Confirmation

 Invoke Id                   M                  M(=)                M(=)                M(=)




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 IMSI                         C                 C(=)
 TMSI                         C                 C(=)

 Alert Reason                M                  M(=)

 User Error                                                           C                 C(=)
 Provider Error                                                                           O




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                                                            MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC - GSM (cont..) – MAP-Alert Service Centre service
   •    between the HLR and the interworking MSC.
   •    if the HLR detects that a subscriber, whose MSISDN is in the Message Waiting
        Data file, is active or the mobile station has memory available.
   •    is a confirmed service using the primitives from table




    Parameters         Request         Indication       Response       Confirmation

 Invoke Id                M              M(=)             M(=)            M(=)
 MSISDN – alert




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                          M              M(=)
 SC address               M              M(=)

 User Error                                                C               C(=)
 Provider Error                                                             O




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                                                                 MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC - GSM (cont..) – MAP-Inform Service Centre service
  •   between the HLR and the gateway MSC
  •   to inform the Service Centre which MSISDN number is stored in the Message Waiting
      Data file. If the stored MSISDN number is not the same than the one received from the
      gateway MSC in the MAP-SEND-ROUTING-INFO-FOR-SM service primitive the stored
      MSISDN number is included in the message.
  •   Additionally the status of MCEF and MNRF flags and the inclusion of the particular
      Service Centre address in the Message Waiting Data list is informed to the gateway
      MSC when appropriate.
  •   is a non-confirmed service using the primitives from table




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                      Parameters          Request           Indication

                   Invoke Id                 M                 M(=)

                   MSISDN – alert             C                C(=)
                   MWD Status                 C                C(=)




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                                                             MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC - GSM (cont..) – MAP-Send Info for MT - SMS service
   •    between the MSC and the VLR.
   •    is invoked by the MSC receiving an mobile terminated short message to
        request subscriber related information from the VLR.
   •    is a confirmed service using the primitives from table




    Parameters         Request         Indication       Response       Confirmation

 Invoke Id                M              M(=)             M(=)             M(=)




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 SM RP DA                 M              M(=)
 MSISDN                                                     C              C(=)

 User Error                                                 C              C(=)
 Provider Error                                                                 O




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                                                                    MAP GSM for Short Message


SMSC - GSM (cont..) – MAP-Send Info for MO - SMS service
   •    between the MSC and the VLR.
   •    The service is invoked by the MSC which has to handle a mobile originated short message
        request to request the subscriber related information from the VLR.
   •    is a confirmed service using the primitives from table




    Parameters           Request           Indication          Response         Confirmation

 Invoke Id                   M                M(=)                M(=)               M(=)




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 SC Address                  M                M(=)
 MSISDN                                                             C                C(=)

 User Error                                                         C                C(=)
 Provider Error                                                                        O




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                                     MAP GSM for Short Message

SMSC – CDMA
    SMS Request (SMSPP)
    SMS Delivery Request (SMSDPP)
    SMS Delivery Successful




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                                 MAP GSM for Short Message

Message Sequence

    –   MT–SM Scenario (GSM)
    –   MT–SM Scenario (IS–41)
    –   MO–SM Scenario (GSM)
    –   MO–SM Scenario (IS–41)




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                               MAP GSM for Short Message

Message Sequence - MT–SM Scenario (GSM)




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                                 MAP GSM for Short Message

Message Sequence - MT–SM Scenario (IS - 41)




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                               MAP GSM for Short Message

Message Sequence - MO–SM Scenario (GSM)




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                                 MAP GSM for Short Message

Message Sequence - MO–SM Scenario (IS - 41)




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                                                        MAP GSM for Short Message

SME types
  • Send-only SMEs
      – A send-only SME can only submit messages to the MC. The short
        messages
      – are destined to MSs or other SMEs. Status reports of sent messages must
        be
      – requested by the SME explicitly.
  • Querying SMEs
      – A querying SME does not receive anything from the MC automatically,
        but merely queries if there is something to be retrieved.
      – Retrieval is on demand.




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  • Receiving SMEs
      – A receiving SME is always ready to receive messages if the MC has
        something to send to it

  SMEs may also be configured in a combination of the above types.



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                                                      MAP GSM for Short Message

SME Protocols
 • Are protocols for the interconnection between the SME
   and the Message centers
    – The main purpose of the interconnection is to transfer messages
        • from the SMEs to the Mobile Stations (MS)
        • from the MSs to the SMEs.
    – May also be used to transfer status reports from GSM N/W to SME
 Protocols :
 • UCP – Universal Computer Protocol




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    – Ver 3.0 / 4.0 / 4.6
 • CIMD – Computer Interface to Message Distribution
    – Ver 2
 • SMPP – Short Message Peer to Peer Protocol
    – Ver 3.3 / 3.4 / 5.0


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                                                                MAP GSM for Short Message

SME Protocols – (cont .. )
    Message type         UCP (Oper types)          CIMD                  SMPP
Login                    OT – 60               Login (01)         BND_TX / BND_RX /
                                                                  BND_TRX
Logout                   OT – 60               Logout (02)        UNBIND
Submit (SME – MS)        OT – 51               Submit msg (03)    SUBMIT_SM
Replace                  OT – 54               Submit Msg (03)    REPLACE_SM
                                               with option
Cancel                   OT –56/58             Cancel (06)        CANCEL_SM
Enquire msg status       OT – 55/57            Enquire Msg(04)    QUERY_SM




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Deliver Msg (MS – SME)   OT – 52               Deliver msg (20)   DELIVER_SM
                                               / Delivery Req
                                               (05)
Delivery report          OT – 53               Deliver status     DELIVER_SM
                                               Report (23)
Alive                    N/A                   Alive (40)         ENQUIRE_LINK
Alert                    N/A                   N/A                ALERT_NOT
Single Shot delivery     OT-51 (with option)   N/A                DATA_SM
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                                                          MAP GSM for Short Message

SME Protocol - UCP
 • Standard format: stx <header> / <data> / <checksum> etx
    – stx = 02(hex)
    – etx = 03(hex)
    – All fields are separated by „/‟
 • Header format: <Trn>/<Len>/<O or R>/<Operation type>
 • Data Format:
    – All data fields are as per the format of the Abstract data type that is
      mentioned in the UCP standard
 • Checksum:




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    – is derived by the addition of all bytes of the header, data field
      separators and data fields (i.e. all characters after the stx-character,
      up to and including the last “/” before the checksum field). The 8
      Least Significant Bits (LSB) of the result is then represented as two
      printable characters.




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                                              MAP GSM for Short Message

SME Protocol - CIMD
 • is currently supported by two different types of Message
   Centers:
    – the Short Message Service Centre (SMSC),
    – the Unstructured Supplementary Services Data Center (USSD
      Center).
 • is suitable for client applications which send and retrieve
   messages.
 • supports TCP/IP sockets, X.25 PAD and serial ports




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   (modems). However, some Message Centres only support
   parts of the connectivity.




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                                                             MAP GSM for Short Message

SME Protocol - CIMD
 • Header Format : <stx>ZZ:NNN<tab>
         • <stx> : start-of-text indicator which consists of a single byte containing the
           decimal value 2.
         • ZZ :operation code and consists of two bytes containing the ASCII characters
           of the digits 0 to 9, which range from 48 to 57.
         • NNN: the message packet number, which consists of 3 bytes containing the
           ASCII characters of the digits 0 to 9, which range from 48 to 57.
         • The ZZ and NNN fields are separated by one byte containing the ASCII code
           of a colon, which is 58. The header is terminated by one byte containing the
           ASCII code of <tab>, which is 9.
 • DATA : PPP:value of the parm<tab>




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         • The DATA fields consist of a list of parameters each terminated by the <tab>
           character.
         • Each parameter field has the following format:
 • Trailer : CC<etx>
         • where CC consists of two bytes containing the checksum of the packet, and
           <etx> is a single byte containing the end-of-text character which has the value
           3.


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                                                               MAP GSM for Short Message

SME Protocol - SMPP
                                      SMPP PDU
                    PDU Header (Mandatory)                         PDU Body (Optional)

  Command      Command id      Command status    Sequence number   PDU Body
  length


  4 octets      Length = ( Command Length Value – 4 ) octets


 • The PDU Body for each message shall be as per the SMPP
   specifications




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      – The PDU body consists of
             • Mandatory parameters
             • Optional parameters
                 – All these are in the format TLV




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                                            MAP GSM for Short Message


Short message Testers

Tools available in the Organization


Protocol                        Testing Tool
SMPP                            MMT for SMPP (Mobile Message
                                Tester)




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                                SCTT (SMPP client Test Tool)
UCP                             MMT for UCP




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                                                          MAP GSM for Short Message




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