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					Housing Finance and Law - Summary of the Compact Seminar 2007




                        habitat unit


                        Compact Course on Housing Finance and Law 1. - 9. June 2007
                        in cooperation with the University of the Witwatersrand (Johannes-
                        burg) and Urban Management Studies, TU Berlin
Compact Seminar on Housing Finance and
Law 1. – 9. June 2007


The South African students travelled to Berlin in June 2007.   Postgraduate students in housing and development studies
Together they discussed innovations and alternatives in        from the University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg)
housing finance and policies. Taking Berlin as a case study,   and of the International Master Course in Urban
a range of experts were invited to present their approaches    Management at the Berlin University of Technology together
and projects.                                                  with architecture students from the Habitat Unit at Berlin
                                                               University of Technology took part in a compact seminar on
Marie Huchzemeyer                                              housing finance and law.
Johannesburg, South Africa)
marie.huchzermeyer@wits.ac.za                                  With this publication we would like to present a summary of
                                                               this compact course and thank all of those who contributed
Habitat Unit                                                   to the success of the project.
Astrid Ley
Architecture Faculty VI                                        We would especially like to thank all the presenters who
Berlin University of Technology                                have dedicated their time and shared their insights.
Strasse des 17. Juni 135                                       Furthermore, we would like to thank those we have met
                                                               on our project excursions for their time and enthusiasm
10623 Berlin
                                                               in showing us around, introducing us to their projects and
                                                               sharing their experience. Last but not least we would like to
www.habitat-unit.de                                            thank the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for
                                                               their financial contribution which made this project possible.
Berlin, July 2007
                                                                       Thanks to all of you!


Content
p. 4      Map of Berlin - visited places

p. 5      course program

p. 7      Day 1 - 3th of June

p. 8      Lecture Uwe Becker: Housing in Berlin

p. 9      Bus Roundtrip Berlin

p. 11     Day 2 - 4th of June

p. 12     Lecture Andreas Rennekamp (KfW): KfW Housing Finance Programmes

p. 14     Lecture Werner Landwehr (GLS): Housing Finance for Low Income Households

p. 15     Excursion to Generationswohnen Karlshorst

p. 19     Day 3 - 5th of June

p. 20     Lecture Ralf Conradi (LBS): Private Housing Finance in Germany and the role of the Landesbausparkassen

p. 21     Case Study 1

p. 24     Lecture Dr. Andrej Holm (HU): Housing Privatisation in London, Berlin and Amsterdam

p. 29     Excursion to Wohnbaugenossenschaft Fidicinstraße (Kreuzberg) und Mietshausprojekt m13a (Wedding)



                                                                                                                   
p. 32 Case Study 2

p.35   Day 4 - 6th of June

p.36   Lecture Stefan Hirche (KfW): Securitizing credits to support adequate housing in South Africa

p.38   Excursion to Prenzlauer Berg (Housing Innovation Projects Kastanie 85, K77, Marie)

p.41   Day 5 - 7th of June

p.42   Presentations of Housing in South Africa

p.45   Guided tour Samariterviertel

p.49   Guided tour Neukölln

p.57   Day 6 - 8th of June

p.58   Lecture Prof. Peter Herrle: “Urban conservation and housing”

p.59   Excursion to Marzahn

p.61   Dictionary

p.65   Glossary

p. 67 Contact List

p. 70 Participants
 
Berlin - visited places




                          
habitat unit

Final Program (part one: 01/06/2007 – 05/06/2007)

             fr 01.06.07                 sat 02.06.07                 sun 03.06.07                         mon 04.06.07                             tue 05.06.07

 morning     11.40 am                    Meeting: Museumsinsel,       Room A 064/67                        Room A 064/67                            Room TEL 1011
             Arrival at Tegel (Iberia)   Alte Nationalgalerie
                                                                      9.00 – 10.00 am                      09.00 – 10.00 am                         9.00 – 10.30 am
                                                                      Welcome and Introduction             Andreas Rennekamp, KfW (Kreditanstalt    Ralf Conradi, LBS:
                                         11.00 – 2.00 pm                                                   für Wiederaufbau): KfW Housing Finance   Private Housing Finance in
                                         Guided architecture and      10.00 – 11.00 am                     Programmes                               Germany and the role of the
                                         planning tour Berlin         Uwe Becker: Housing in Berlin                                                 Landesbausparkassen
                                         (Pamela Giacaman)                                                 10.00 – 11.00 am
                                                                      11.00 – 2.00 pm                      Werner Landwehr, GLS                     11.00 – 12.00 am
                                                                      Guided tour on „Housing Situations   Gemeinschaftsbank:                       Dr. Andrej Holm, Humboldt Universität:
                                                                      in Berlin“                           Housing Finance for Low Income           Housing Privatisation in London,
                                                                      (Uwe Becker)                         Households                               Berlin and Amsterdam


 afternoon   4.00 pm                                                                                       1.30 – 2.30 pm:                          3.00 pm
             Berlin City Model                                                                             Excursion Generationswohnen Karlshorst   Excursion Wohnungsbaugenossensch
             and Convertible                                                                               (Peter Weber)                            aft Fidicinstraße 18
             City Exhibition,                                                                                                                       (Martin Hermes)
             Senatsverwaltung für                                                                          4.00 pm
             Stadtentwicklung, Am                                                                          Reception at South African Embassy       5.00 pm
             Köllnischen Park 3                                                                                                                     Guided tour Wedding/
                                                                                                                                                    Mieterhausprojekt m13a (Ursula
                                                                                                                                                    Trüper)
 evening                                 7.30 pm                                                                                                    7.00 pm
                                         UDK Concert: “Sternstunden                                                                                 Braai at Mieterhausprojekt m13a
                                         slawischer Musik”,
                                         Konzertsaal Bundesallee





habitat unit

Final Program (part two: 06/06/2007 – 09/06/2007)

             wed 06.06.07                                                thur 07.06.07                                   fri 08.06.07                            sat 09.06.07

 morning     Room A064/67                                                Room TK 017                                     Room H 2033

                                                                         9.00 am – 1.00 pm                               10.00 am – 11.30 am
                                                                         Prof. Marie Huchzermeyer, University of         Prof. Peter Herrle, TU Berlin: “Urban
                                                                         the Witwatersrand: “The emergence of            conservation and housing”
                                                                         slum elimination legislation in South Africa:
                                                                         Grounds for concern?”

             10.30 – 12.00 am                                            Presentations by Wits students                  12.00 am – 1.00 pm
             Stefan Hirche, KfW Development Bank:                                                                        Workshop/Discussion: Lessons Learnt
             Securitizing credits to support adequate housing in South
             Africa – the development role of KfW


 afternoon   Meeting: Café Morgenrot, Kastanienallee 85                  3.00 – 5.00 pm                                  3.30 - 5.00 pm
                                                                         Excursion: characteristic different housing     Excursion to (Cornelia Cremer,
             4.00 – 7.00 pm                                              areas in Berlin (different walking tours)       UrbanPlan)
             Excursion: Housing Innovation in Prenzlauer Berg
             (Dr. Michael La Fond, id22)                                 1. Friedrichshain (Carissa Champlin),
                                                                         2. Neukölln (Anna Roeder, Marc Heinzel)

 evening                                                                                                                 Open Air Jazz Festival Kreuzberg        7.35 pm Departure




                                                                                                                                                                                     
3th June
by Carissa Champlin





                                                             successful in Europe and inevitably become low-income
                                                             housing


Lecture                                                      - Post-modernism- a return to the dense inner-city design
“Mass Housing in Berlin” Uwe Becker                          Re-use of breweries with apartments, restaurants, shopping

                                                             Conclusion:
                                                              →	 rediscovering the innercity, waterfronts, industrial
                                                                   areas
Building Periods:                                             →	 Important to balance private and public spaces
 → Foundation- 1880s                                          →	 Community spaces are important for social learning
 → Reform Architecture- 1900-1910                             →	 Personal experiences are important, look at local
 → Modern- 1920-1930                                               characteristics when building
 → Traditionalism/ Nazi-Era – 1930-1945
 → Reconstruction- social housing- Post WWII
 → Postmodern- 1980s

Elements of Urban Architecture in Berlin:
- Early building very dense (5m2 courtyards large enough
  only for fire trucks to enter)

- Garden City Movement- 1920s-1930s

- After WWII, less dense design, allowing for more traffic
flow

- Huge settlements of 10,000 or more never seem to be

                                                                                                                        
Bus tour led by Uwe Becker
    1.   Hansaviertel

    →	   1950s - showcase of post-war housing development and first reconstruction phase, INTERBAU 57 (International
         Building Exhibition in West Berlin), urban landscape



    2.   Carl-Legien-Stadt (Prenzlauer Berg) – Bruno Taut & Franz Hilliger

    →	   1920s/1930s: Reformation housing, Socially responsible inner city mass housing construction of modernity



    3.   Stralauer Halbinsel (Friedrichshain)

    →	   1990s: inner city investor architecture in attractive waterfront location close from the 1990s



    4.   Hufeisensiedlung – (Neukölln) Bruno Taut & Martin Wagner

    →	   1920s/1930s: Icon of Berlin settlement modernity with worldwide recognition and model character for social
         housing


5.   Chamissoplatz (Kreuzberg)

→	   1870s: restored Wilhelminian Style xhousing, first West-Berlin reconstruction model after the war, protests by
     residents against deluxe reconstruction, status quo model



6.   Flughafen Tempelhof (Kreuzberg)

→	   1930s: Icon of Nazi era and memorial, mother of all airports, continuous debate about reuse of the areal after
     dismissal of air traffic to Tempelhof



7.   Brauereigelände am Kreuzberg (Kreuzberg)

→	   conversion project business and residential use, view from Kreuzberg memorial, worldwide first monument
     made of cast-iron, urban design explanations




                                                                                                                      0
4th June
by Adriana Dantas, Ghazaleh Jasbi and Raquel Amaral





                                                              provide support for developing countries and raise funds in
                                                              the international capital market. KFW is an advisor to the
                                                              government and performs tasks and services on behalf of
                                                              German government.
Lecture,
Andreas Rennekamp, vice president housing  The promotional programs of KFW include housing
modernization- KfW Housing Finance Program construction and modernization, energy conservation,
                                           renovation and modernization of residential building,
                                                              use of renewal energies and creation of owner-occupied
                                                              housing. They also have some promotional programs
                                                              for environmental protection such as the promotion of
                                                              investments by commercial enterprises to protect water, air
In the morning the participants of the housing finance
                                                              and the soil. In educational field KfW supports academic
seminar attended a presentation about KFW (Kreditanstalt
                                                              studies and advance vocational training. Finally they finance
für Wiederaufbau) bank housing finance program
                                                              municipal infrastructure projects.
by Andreas.Rennekamp, vice president of housing
modernization. This is a summary of the presentation.
                                                              The housing finance programs of KFW are following as
                                                              below:
KFW was founded in 1984 as a promotional bank of the
Federal Republic of Germany. KFW’s shareholders are the
                                                               →    Co2 building rehabilitation, loan and grant
Federal Republic of Germany with 80% and the German
                                                               →    Housing modernization Eco-plus standard
federal states with 20%. The headquarter of KFW bank is
                                                               →    Ecological construction
located in Frankfurt am Main. And it has around 50 offices
                                                               →    Home ownership
and representatives worldwide. The target groups of KFW
                                                               →    Solar power generation
are enterprises, private individuals and municipalities in
Germany.
                                                              Anyone who is investing in owner-occupied or rental
KFW missions are very expansive. Their main task is giving
                                                              housing, such as private individuals or owner associations,
impetus to the economy, politics and society. They also
                                                              housing enterprises and cooperatives, municipalities,
finance the investment in Germany. In addition to this they

                                                                                                                       
contracting entities can apply for a grant or loan. This      energy conservation standard of new buildings. Two types
application has to be handed in prior to the start of the     of promotion are available: Reduced-interest loans which
project as KFW will not finance a projects that has already   is up to EUR 50,000 per housing unit with a 5 – 12.5%
started.                                                      repayment grant or grants of 10-17.5% up to EUR 5,000
                                                              – 8.750 per housing unit. .
As mentioned before one of the housing finance programs
of KFW is ecological construction. The objectives of          In a second variant of energetic rehabilitation financing
ecological construction can be a long term financing of       is available for measures from five different packages of
construction of KFW energy-saving houses 40 and 60            measures. All measures of the selected package must be
as well as passive houses. Also it can be a long term         implemented in full for the entire building. There are also
financing of the installation of heating systems on the       two types of promotions available: Reduced –interest loans,
basis of renewable energies in new buildings. The KFW         up to EUR 50,000 per housing unit and grants with 5%
energy saving house 40 can be defined as: Annual primary      grant, up to EUR 2500 per housing unit.
energy requirement must not be more than 40 kWh per m2
of useful building area and transmission heat loss must       Housing modernization standard measures includes
be at least 45% below the limit specified in the energy       modernizing and upgrading. It also improves the outdoor
conservation ordinance. For the KFW energy saving house       facilities of multi family buildings such as green areas and,
60 the annual primary energy requirement must not be          playgrounds. The program in eastern Germany is also
more than 60 kWh per m2 of useful building area and           active by deconstructing of unoccupied rental buildings.
transmission heat loss must be at least 30% below the limit   Thermal insulation of outer shell of buildings and renewal
specified in the energy conservation ordinance. Annual        of heating system on the basis of renewable energies will
primary energy requirement for passive house must not be      be done by housing modernization ECO-PLUS measures
more than 40 kWh per m2 of useful building area and the       program.
annual requirement must not be more than 15kwh per m2 of      The promotional housing loans provided by KFW has
floor space.                                                  many advantages. It reduces the financing costs through
Energetic rehabilitation of residential buildings can         favorable interest rates. Long maturities and fixed interest
be financed through loans or grants by Co2 building           periods are possible. In some cases repayment grants are
rehabilitation programs. The aim is to achieve almost the     also possible. There is also possibility of changing the bank


of the ultimate borrower.                                     economy is profit-oriented, but the society wants a more
                                                              social approach. To achieve that, the bank must consider
                                                              the market of living price: cost of capital (investor),
                                                              management-costs and overheads (entrepreneur), and also
                                                              the consumption-dependent cost (resident).
Lecture                                                       According to this, the costs of living space would be
Werner Landwehr, GLS Gemeinschaftsbank                        formed 50% by capital (investor), 40% by management
                                                              (entrepreneur) and 10% by consumption (resident).
Housing Finance for Low Income Households
                                                              The consequences of this policy would be some rental
                                                              restrictions and living space management (to avoid people,
                                                              with more conditions, taking part of the project); qualification
                                                              in house-management; affordable offers only for low-
Werner Landwehr of GLS Gemeinschaftsbank, gave
                                                              income; investments-subsides; and the definition of a way
a presentation on “Housing Finance for Low Income
                                                              of using energy, living space, saving and others.
Households”. This is a summary of the presentation.
The GLS Bank is a co-operative bank that has the same
                                                              This finance system may be successful since it requires
restrictions of the other banks. Besides the bank financing
                                                              the inhabitants to learn how to manage their houses; it
in ecological agriculture and renewable energies (fields
                                                              incentives common-property (co-operatives, associations)
that the bank tries to finance), it also developed “Housing
                                                              – what helps people to know each other; people must
Finance for Low Income Households”.
                                                              participate in joint project-planning, realization and
                                                              financing.
As a first step the bank requires the household to prove
certain the conditions. The bank analyses the size and the
                                                              The equity capital became a little bit lower (20%), without
quality of the house which the family actual has, the costs
                                                              profit and personal work is done as equity capital, bundling
that they have with the house and also the organization of
                                                              of small and individual guarantees, with integration of
the community.
                                                              promotion loans and financial integration of networks
                                                              (question of guarantee).
The lecture also showed that nowadays the housing

                                                                                                                          
The work in the building construction is also seen as a
question of professional qualification that leads to the
qualification and cooperation in management. There is a
promotion of new rentals, of a sensible mixed inhabitants
                                                                Excursion
structure and a support of others in the same situation. This
may contribute to the success of the housing projects.          Generationenwohnen Karlshorst
                                                                (Peter Weber)
The bank is concerned about self-qualification and job
creation (since people become more responsible for where
they live), responsibility for the quarter and integrative
actions.
                                                                In the afternoon, the participants of the Housing Finance
Even they have many factors that may contribute in
                                                                Seminar visited the model housing project called
the success of the project, they must consider from the
                                                                Generationswohnen Karlshorst. It is about a heritage
beginning the possible risks involved in the project.
                                                                building that is being upgraded to shelter old and
                                                                handicapped low-income people, lead by a cooperative.
                                                                This project is one of 15 projects that the cooperative has
                                                                done up to now. All its projects are developed to attend the
                                                                poor community.

                                                                The first project of the cooperative is localized in the
                                                                “district” of Prenzlauer Berg and was built in 1990. The
                                                                tenants themselves have created the cooperative at that
                                                                time.
                                                                In 1993, the first building with the same principles but out of
                                                                the same “umbrella” was constructed. People involved have
                                                                started to think about which way would be better to help


the poor community: should all the projects be part of the
same network or not? They realized that it would be better      As some tenants have skills and others knowledge of social
if everyone worked together to achieve this goal. Many          integration, the cooperative has pays 5 tenants to work in
projects have appeared in the course of time.                   administrative part of the project and another 5 tenants to
                                                                work in the construction. Yet, these tenant-builders help to
The cooperative has 350 members who must pay € 500              train other builders.
to buy their share. They also have to dedicate 10-15h of
work for the cooperative within 2 years. Who wants to work      To rent an apartment in this building, some requirements
less, must pay €3.50 per hour not worked. The board of          were established. As said before, the project privileges old
management is elected for 2 years.                              people and handicapped low-income people, who have to
                                                                prove their income status. One third of the tenants are old
Since the building is a heritage (former base of Soviet Union   people.
and later a school), the cooperative had some benefits but
also some demands: the purchase of the building and the         Other requirements are thatthe tenants have to renovate the
plot were cheap; they have counted with financial support;      inside of the building after a certain time and help the other
the façades had to be preserved.                                tenants accomplishing this task. Another one is accepting
The total cost of the Generationswohnen Karlshorst              the fact that the project will designate space for an
Project to renew the building has been € 3,000,000, with €      orphanage for 10 children. There will be a extra entrance
1,000,000 financed through the municipality, € 1,000,000        for the orphanage and staff taking care of these children 24
through GLS Bank and € 500,000 through KfW.                     hours a day.




                                                                                                                          
The upgrading was planned to turn the building into a low
energy house; the windows, insulation and heating system
were designed to consume less energy as possible. There
are no more apartments free in this building. Almost all
the units have 140 m2 for a 5-person family. The rental
is 3.5 €/m², which is half the price of rentals in the same
neighborhood. There are 2 units with 110 m2, built in an
extra floor, which are not for low income households. But
these families are also members of the co-operative. The
rental cost of these extra units is different, 6 €/ m².

The tenants have visited some similar institutions to have
an idea of how the project worked. There is a common
space for all the inhabitants, and all of them will plan this
space together. There is a former sport hall, which they
do not know yet how they will use it. They are still looking
for finance support and new ideas; maybe it will become a
market for eco-products.





5th June
by Mahmoudreza Khalili , Goitom Gebreegziabher and Kirsty McLean





                                                               own house.

                                                               He then explained about the laws applicable to housing
                                                               finance business in Germany. The Banking Act which is a
Lecture                                                        general rule for all financial institutions works to LBS also.
Ralf Conradi, LBS                                              However there are also housing finance related regulations.
                                                               It works under legal form applicable to other business
Private Housing Finance in Germany and the                     establishments. It is governed by audits and supervisions
role of the Landesbausparkassen                                permissible to business operation.

by Giotom Gebreegziabher                                       He also explained that the bank has certain criteria for
                                                               eligibility to get consumers credit provisions. For instance,
                                                               single households with annual income of 25,600 Euro and
On this date Mr. Ralf Conradi has explained the condition of   married couples with an annual income of up to 51,200
private housing finance in Germany in a particular reference   Euro are eligible to take loans.
to the role of the Landesbausparkassen (LBS). He first
explained the organizational structure of the company. The     He finally concluded by giving a general principle for a
company is owned by regional saving associations (State        typical housing finance scheme in Germany. Accordingly
Banks). In 2006 the bank’s outstanding loan was about 25       60% of the money comes from bank loans or mortgage
Million Euro. The bank gives 1.5% interest for savings and     loans, 10% on cash, 18% from the Bauspar loan and 12%
4% interest on loans.                                          from the Bauspar own fund.

He also explained the housing characteristics in Germany.
One of them is low owner occupation rate as compared
to other European countries. More than 57% of the
households are living in rented houses. Therefore the bank
is working towards increasing housing ownership in the
country by providing loans to buy and/ or construct one’s

                                                                                                                           0
                                                                result, buying housing is relatively unaffordable in Germany
                                                                and the bauspar system provides an affordable and
                                                                effective means for families to be able to purchase their
                                                                homes (Conradi, 2007: 9).
Case Study 1
German Finance Case Study - Housing                             The Problem Addressed By (and Target
Approach: Bausparkasse System                                   Population of) the Bausparkasse System

                                                                Without the bausparkasse system, people would have
by Kirsty McLean
                                                                to save for approximately 10 years in order to afford
                                                                to purchase property (Ibid.: 15). For this reason, the
Brief Socio-Political Background of Germany                     Bausparkasse system, which involves a system of collective
                                                                savings and loans that operate outside of the market, was
and Berlin                                                      introduced. Participants generally save 40 to 50 percent
                                                                of the loan amount. When purchasing property, this loan
The bauspar system has its origins in 17th century United       is supplemented with a mortgage loan from a mortgage
Kingdom. The mutual self-help savings system used               bank, secured against the property. In Germany, mortgage
there was later developed extensively and popularised in        banks may only lend up to 60 per cent of the value of the
Germany after the First World War, as a result of existing      property, and must lend on the security of a first mortgage
poor housing conditions. After the Second World War, the        (: 8-10). For this reason, the typical household would use
German government promoted the use of the bauspar more          an individual bauspar account to save 40 per cent of the
widely, in order to help counter the housing shortage of over   purchase price, and then obtain a commercial mortgage
six million units (United Nations, 2005: 21).                   loan for the remaining 60 per cent of the purchase price
Today, housing prices in Germany are extremely high as a        (Conradi, 2007: 16).
result of expensive land costs and high construction costs.     Approximately 25 million Germans participate in the
This is reflected in comparatively low levels of ownership      bausparkasse system, that is, about one third of the adult
by European standards, of approximately 43 per cent. As a       population of Germany, and more than 50 per cent of


the housing stock in West Germany was funded in part               basis points of the bauspar sum is then borrowed as a loan.
using the bausparkasse system (Ibid: 7).                           Repayment of the loan is terminated after approximately 10
                                                                   years and there are no early repayment fees (Ibid.: 4).
                                                                   Bausparkasse are regulated by the German Banking Act and
Description of the Bausparkasse System                             Bausparkassen Act. This legislation restricts the legal form
                                                                   which the bausparkasse can take to a public company. The
Germany has 11 regional bausparkasse which are owned               legislation stipulates strict auditing requirements and
by a regional savings banks association, or ‘Landesbanken’         permissible operations; general business principles; and the
(state banks), and 15 private bausparkassen. The private           standard terms and conditions for bauspar contracts. It also
bausparkassen are mostly owned as subsidiaries of                  stipulates that bauspar funds may only be used for specific
insurance companies or commercial banks. The public                purposes and that bauspar loans may only be secured by
bausparkassen have 39 per cent of the market share, and            mortgages. Exceptionally, bauspar loans may be granted
the private bausparkassen, 61 per cent (Ibid.: 4).                 without security, such as for use in a renovation. In addition,
As noted above, the bausparkasse system operates though            the legislation stipulates the maximum volumes up to which
the contributions of many people who put money into the            bauspar funds may be invested outside the system or used
system in order to finance the purchase of housing stock,          for the granting of anticipatory and intermediate loans; and
in much the same way as a large, sophisticated stokvel.            consumer credit provisions ensure that adequate information
Customers conclude a contract for a specific sum of money          is provided to consumers regarding their loans (Ibid.: 18).
(the bauspar sum). They then save money regularly, and
receive interest on those savings (1.5 per cent on average
                                                                   Successes or Shortcomings of the
per annum). After a specific amount has been saved, the
customer is entitled to a loan for the remainder of the bauspar    Bausparkasse System
sum, at a related interest rate on loans of 4 per cent (Ibid.:
4).                                                                The bausparkasse system appears to have been highly
The general rule is that the customer should try to save 40        successful, in providing access to credit for low- and middle-
basis points of the bauspar sum (calculated at a total of 100      income groups (United Nations, 2005: 63). Moreover, despite
units). The rate of saving is up to the individual customer, but   the fact that the state does not intervene in determining which
on average it usually takes about 7-8 years to complete. 60        households are granted loans, there is no market

                                                                                                                              
failure for downmarket reach. The main reason for this is           a low or at least limited inflation rate. For example, in Eastern
that bausparkasse are public banks, and their mandate is            Europe, authorities tried to set up bausparkassen, but had to
to provide a service to all of the public, where it is affordable   wait for inflation rates to come down to a manageable level
for them. Private banks try to maximise profits, while public       before they could operate on an affordable basis (Ibid.: 63).
banks are simply self-sustaining (Conradi, 2007: np).               Furthermore, South Africa’s housing prices in the functioning
Some of the shortcomings of the bausparkasse system are             housing market continue to increase dramatically, which
that the beneficiary household has to wait a considerable           makes saving an unattractive option. Moreover, given the
period of time before they are able to access a loan. While         large demand for middle income housing, there is simply little
this may not prove too challenging in a country like Germany        or no market for the development of low-cost housing stock
with a thriving rental housing market and stable house prices,      for sale within the market. Finally, in order to be successful,
it may prove more problematic in a country like South Africa.       the bausparkasse system requires a body of people with an
Other shortcomings, which mainly focus on the inapplicability       ability to save (Ibid.: 63)—something which probably does
of the bausparkasse system to South Africa, are discussed           not exist at adequate levels within low-income groups in
immediately below.                                                  South Africa.


Relevance (or Not) For South Africa                                 References

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has
                                                                    Conradi, R ‘Private Housing Finance in Germany: The Role of
prepared a helpful report outlining three major housing
                                                                    the Landesbausparkassen (LBS)’ (power point presentation
finance systems and their relevance for countries in transition
                                                                    and notes from a lecture presented on 5 June 2007).
(United Nations, 2005). One of the systems considered is
                                                                    Hendler, P. and M. Pillay (2002) ‘Housing Finance Trends:
the bausparkasse system, which is used in Germany, as
                                                                    The United States of America, India, Europe, Thailand and
well as Austria, the Czech Republic, Solvakia, Hungary and
                                                                    South Africap (Paper presented at a Housing Conference in
Croatia. It is also expected to be introduced into India and
                                                                    Cape Town).
China (Ibid.: 28).
                                                                    United Nations (2005) ‘Housing Finance Systems for
Despite the extensive use of the bausparkasse system
                                                                    Countries in Transition: Principles and Examples’ (Report
elsewhere, there are reservations regarding its applicability to
                                                                    prepared by the Economic Comission for Europe).
South Africa. First, the bausparkasse system is dependent on


                                                                   of ownership in various forms.


                                                                   The first wave of housing privatisation in Europe started in
Lecture                                                            the UK in the 1980s and was a consequence of the neo-
                                                                   liberal agenda of the British (national and urban) policy.
Dr. Andrej Holm; Humboldt University of Berlin                     The “right-to-buy” privatisation in the UK was and is widely
- Housing Privatisation in London, Berlin and                      discussed in political as well as in academic contexts.
Amsterdam
                                                                   The privatisation in Berlin and Amsterdam are occurring
Reported and summarized by Mahmoudreza Khalili                     predominantly in the last decade and the forms of
                                                                   privatisation differ from the experience in UK and the
                                                                   Eastern European countries.
The process of privatisation in these cities differ in terms of
political aims and actors as well as in terms of social/urban
effects. In reaction to local conditions of privatisation we can
                                                                   London
notice three different facets of resistance: a public political
neighbourhood mobilisation in London, a legal strategy
to obstruct economic utilisation of privatised housing             The housing policy in the UK has a long and deep tradition
stock in Berlin and a kind of institutional refusing of local      of public housing. Since the housing act from 1980 the
administrations and housing associations in Amsterdam.             council housing system were established. Council housing
                                                                   /council homes are in communal ownership and were
                                                                   responsible for housing provision to a wide range of
In particular, the privatisation of the social housing stock has
                                                                   households for a long time.
changed both the housing market and urban governance
                                                                   The council housing dominated the sector of rent housing
constellations. Privatisation itself has taken different forms,
                                                                   before the privatisation started in the 1980s. The numbers
and discussions of privatisation policies have referred to the
                                                                   on the table show that the British housing system has
movement of rents towards market levels, contracting out of
                                                                   changed in the last 25 years.
various services to private sector agencies, and the transfer

                                                                                                                             
                                                              An urban problem related to the privatisation were the
       1980       |      1990       |            2005         increasing house prices – the new act try to reduce
                                                              the number of sales, by prolongation of resale times.
       Council Housing (public owned)                         Households, who resale her privatised home until a period
       28%        |      19%        |            11%          of three years had to pay a part of profit to the council
       Housing    Associations    (Social        Registered   administration.
       Landlords)
       1%         |      2%         |            8%           The following table gives an overview of the privatisation
       Owner-occupied                                         dynamics in London.
       57%        |      68%        |            71%
       Private rented sector                                                    Housing units    Range       Privatization
                                                                                                                  p.a
       14%          |     11%            |       10%           1980-1985          67.300       23%            13.500 p.a
                                                               1986-1990          41.500       14%             8.300 p.a
Source: Presentation Andrej Holm                               1991-1995          39.600       14%             7.900 p.a
                                                               1996-2000          59.400       21%            11.900 p.a
The process started with the Right-to-Buy Housing Act in       2001-2005          79.200       28%            15.800 p.a
1980. The Housing Act’s target was the opening of council      Total             287.000      100%            11.500 p.a
housing sector for buyers. Every tenant of a council home     Source: Presentation Andrej Hom
received the right to buy her homes. Different stimuli were
offered to enforce the privatisation.                         Berlin

The Housing construction and Control Act and the Housing      The social housing sector in Germany can be differentiated
and Planning Act in 1984 and 1985 directed to existing        in two groups:
housing stock able to privatise as well as the group of       the public housing stock and the rent-controlled social
households, who can act as buyer.                             housing stock.


“Public housing” could be understood as a housing stock in      stock of every public housing company and every housing
public ownership. In the last five years more than 500.000      cooperative in the former GDR had to be sold, before the
public housing units have been privatized in Germany. The       company/cooperative would be relieved of inherited debt.
concept of “Social housing” had to be understood as a
temporary social effect of public funding programs. ‘Social
housing’ in Germany does not comprise a clearly defined         Privatization practice
stock of housing but rather a temporary characteristic of
housing stock.
                                                                The process of housing privatisation started with the political
                                                                changes and the reunification in early 1990s. Three steps of
In 1990 the share of public housing (with more than 400.000     privatisation in Berlin are as following:
housing units) on the total housing stock amounted by             → (1990-1995): the first step was mainly appointed by
nearly 30% - but as a result of privatisation politics in the          the 15 per cent privatisation according to the national
last years this rate increased to around 15% until today.              act (Altschuldenhilfegesetz). Altogether this affected
                                                                       the sale of around 30.000 housing units, mostly in
                                                                       East Berlin (in average 5.000 p.a.).
Two kinds of privatisation in Berlin:
                                                                  → (1996-2000): second step resulted from the political
 → a stock transfer (when public housing associations
                                                                       intention to mobilising and activating the assets of
      sales a part of its stock)
                                                                       public housing for Berlin’s public budget.
 → The privatisation of public housing corporations itself,
                                                                       Around 46.000 housing units mostly from public
      which occurs when local government sells out its
                                                                       housing companies in West-Berlin were privatised in
      share of the association to private owners.
                                                                       this time (9.200 p.a. in average).
                                                                  → (Since 2001): the third step could be described as
                                                                       a sale out of public housing. More than 135.000
Privatization directives                                               housing units were privatised in the last five years
                                                                       (27.000 p.a. in average).
The privatisation in the first Half of the 1990s was mainly
appointed by a national act (Altschuldenhilfegesetz), which
made it a condition that at least 15 per cent of the existing

                                                                                                                           
Altogether more than 200.000 public housing units were            [compartmentalization], which means that each group in
privatised since reunification – this is an average of 13.000     society was founding their own housing association. Yet,
privatised housing units per year. The financial investors        in some ways these private organizations are comparable
differ from the classical business of housing corporations        to the organizations managing public housing in other
with an interest on long term rental income. The core             countries such as Germany.
business of these new investors is real estate deals: the         The housing associations as branch offices of government
buying and selling of housing units. Cerberus, the purchaser      with the following roles in which:
of 65.000 dwellings from the public housing corporation             → central government determined rents, and set very
GSW is an impressive example for this new housing                        detailed building requirements through subsidies and
economy. But the strategies of the investors were first of               loans; and
all targeted at the internal structures of the companies. In        → Local government determined the choice of architect,
the first two years after privatization the business strategies          the manner in which contracts were tendered, and
focused on opening up new credit lines by the revaluation                also handled supervision during construction.
of the housing stock and on the introduction of new ways of
management.
                                                                  The main policy called “white paper” in the Netherlands in
                                                                  the 1990s aimed following goals:
Amsterdam                                                          →    deregulation of the housing market
                                                                   →    more resident control and more choice for housing
Social housing in the Netherlands is not public housing.                consumers, and
Social housing in the Netherlands is built, owned, and             →    the promotion of homeownership and the selling of
managed by private organizations. It means that in                      parts of the social housing stock
Amsterdam the majority of the housing stock is in the hands
of housing associations. Such organizations were, and still
are today, non-profit organizations which have to invest their
gains into housing. As common in the Netherlands, these
organizations developed along the model of “verzuiling”


Privatization covenants
                                                                 →    The privatisation policy in London based more or
                                                                      less on an ideological aim to reduce the power and
In 1998, 22% of the tenants (66,500 households) indicated
                                                                      political influence of council administrations.
that they were interested in buying their home at market
                                                                 →    The privatisation in Berlin was mainly enforced with
prices. The Ministry of Housing’s new policy had forced
                                                                      the argument to reduce the public budget losses.
the housing associations and the municipality to draw up a
                                                                      Therefore the majority of legal directives to privatise
sales policy. In Amsterdam, the arrangement regarding the
                                                                      were decided on local political level.
sales of social rented housing was made in two separate
                                                                 →    The privatisation in Amsterdam dominantly followed
agreements. The first, “Social Housing Sales Covenant I”
                                                                      a general motivation to increase the range of
(1997), signed by the “Amsterdam Federation of Housing
                                                                      homeownership and to reorganise the housing sector.
Associations”, the municipality, the district authorities and
the “Amsterdam tenants’ Association” established that a
maximum of 15,575 dwellings would be allowed to be sold         Also, the ways of implementations of housing privatisation
in the 1998-2001 period. The second, “Housing Policy            differs in the three cities. In London we had to observe
Agreement 2001-2002”, includes a policy goal to raise           individual decisions to use the “Right to Buy” from sitting
the level of owner-occupied homes in Amsterdam to 35%           tenants.
(about 130,000 dwellings) by 2010. Sales quotas would           The Berlin Privatisation policies do not incorporate the
be established for each city district. The same parties later   tenants into the privatisation process and the majority
agreed in the “Social Housing Sales Covenant II” that an        of privatised housing was en-bloc sell outs to financial
additional 13,000 homes could be sold in the following          investors.
period (2002-2008).                                             For Amsterdam we have to observe a mixture of these
                                                                strategies. The privatisation occurs with tenants as well with
Ways of Privatisation                                           empty flats. In contrast to Berlin no privatisation was able
                                                                against the tenant’s desire.
The Privatisation could be analysed in terms of different
political motivations, different strategies of implementation
and last but not least by different social effects.


                                                                                                                           
                                                         60’s – neighbourhood was one of the centres of the
                                                         squatters
                                                           → 200 houses were squatters
                                                           → They wanted to keep the old buildings
Excursion                                                  → The government wanted to destroy everything
The Renovation of old housing units in
                                                         70’s – the area was declared as an area to be upgraded
Kreuzberg and Wedding:                                    → They wanted to keep the people in the area to
                                                                preserve the buildings
by Mahmoudreza Khalili
                                                          → The families received money to renew the buildings,
                                                                but they couldn’t raise the rents
Wohnungsbaugenossenschaft Fidicinistr. 18
                                                         In 1982, it was the first renovation
The whole area was occupied in the war, because of the   You should have proven that you were low income or that
airport.                                                 you already lived in the area.
                                                         Coordination agency in the neighbourhood (private) but with
20’s – 30’s – nothing was done in the area               government’s money,
                                                         they always gave better possibilities to the inhabitants
                                                         while their homes were being renovated – to decrease the
                                                         number of moving

                                                         2001 – They sold 10 buildings because they were not
                                                         profitable

                                                         The Municipality made a contest to the enterprises that
                                                         were interested in buying them, but they had to keep people
                                                         there. The main example is: co-operative with 12 people of
                                                         Fidicinstr. 18


Co-operative

To buy the building 3.500 Euro/ m2 and 900.00 euro/m2 to
renovate
                                                                                    Wedding - Mieterhausprojekt m13a
They received 1,000,000 Euro from the municipality
They were the last building to receive this money
                                                                                    by Giotom Gebreegziabher
The requirements to receive the money – to keep the rents
low
                                                                                    The next excursion was done in the neighbourhood
                                                                                    called Wedding. It is characterised by high proportion of
They have the oldest kindergarten from Berlin (1918)
                                                                                    immigrant population. Unemployment and poverty are
After 15 years, people could pay for home (then, they
                                                                                    also widespread. This tour was guided by the three full-
decide if they want to buy it or to keep paying the rent)
                                                                                    time employees (one man and two women) of the District
– Berlin IBB Bank.
                                                                                    Management Office.

                                                                                    According to the informants, the wedding neighbourhood
                                                                                    has about 15,000 inhabitants. Many of them are Turkish
                                                                                    and Arab. Although many of them are living there for 2-3
                                                                                    generation, they are not fully integrated to the German
                                                                                    community. In cognizant to this fact the Berlin senate yearly
                                                                                    earmarked 300,000- 900,000 Euros.




                                                   “Kreuzberg Chamissoplatz”, Alf Bremer, Gabriele Klahr, Christian Porst, Michael Stein, ProPolis Verlag




                                                                                                                                                            0
 The European Union and the German Federal Government
also are main funding counterparts of the district
rehabilitation program.

Federal Government also are main funding counterparts of
the district rehabilitation program.

Currently the District Management is working to strengthen
the performance of Medium and Small Scale Enterprises
which are important to the daily livelihood of many
inhabitants. As the area has also high proportion of school
age population other social works like education, health and
safety issues are top priorities of the project.





                                                                Population of) Private Cooperatives

                                                                Many of the buildings in the area were occupied by
Case Study 2                                                    squatters, and by the 1970s there were 200 squatted
                                                                buildings. In order to normalise the situation, the
Housing Finance Approach:                                       government entered into contracts to legalise the squatters’
Private Cooperatives                                            tenancy. The squatters wanted to preserve the buildings,
                                                                and not redevelop them, so the neighbourhood was
                                                                declared a ‘renewal area’. This meant that money was
by Kirsty McLean                                                given by government to renovate the area, on the condition
                                                                that the rents are kept low. Buildings were restored and
                                                                the residents remained in occupation. This avoided
Brief Socio-Political Background to Berlin and                  gentrification (Hermes, 2007: np).
Tempelhof
                                                                Description of Private Cooperatives
During the Second World War, 80 per cent of Berlin’s
housing stock was destroyed. The area surrounding the           As a result of reunification, much of the housing stock was
Flughafen Tempelhof, however, was saved because the             privatised in order to generate money for the city, as its debt
allies avoided bombing area as they needed a large airport      stood at 50 billion Euro. In fact, in the past five years, over
after the war. Consequently, a large amount of historical       half a million public housing units have been privatised in
architecture in Tempelhof was saved. Despite this, the area     Germany. In Berlin itself, from a total public housing stock
was already suffering from decline after the First World War,   of 400 000 units (30 per cent of the total housing stock),
and from the 1960s onwards the buildings were in very           approximately half has been privatised (: 5-6).
bad condition because there had been no development or          The main reason to privatise is in order to access capital to
renovation since the 1920s (Hermes, 2007: np).                  improve the poor condition of many buildings, given the high
                                                                cost of renovation. Privatisation can take two forms: first,
The Problem Addressed By (and Target                            it can mean the sale of stock to private investors, who then


                                                                                                                           
tenants’ housing associations (Ibid.: 9). This section will       a cooperative or sell off the units as individual ownership.
focus on one specific private cooperative visited during the      The remaining capital cost, if the latter option is chosen,
tour of Berlin, in Tempelhof.                                     would be 20 per cent of the value of the stock (Ibid.: np).
In Tempelhof, city authorities wanted to privatise ten
buildings. Tenants were given the option to create a
                                                                  Successes or Shortcomings
cooperative or to form a private company to take ownership
of the building and manage it on behalf of the tenants. The
                                                                  The project has been highly successful as an
tenants of the building visited decided to form a cooperative.
                                                                  environmentally-friendly building, so much so that it
Renovations began is 1982 and were completed in 2001.
                                                                  received a KfW award (Ibid.: np). The building has also
Originally, not all the tenants wanted to join the cooperative,
                                                                  acted as a stabilising factor for the community, which
but eventually everyone living in the building agreed to be a
                                                                  consists of many Turkish families which are not integrated
member of the cooperative. Prior to the renovation, heating
                                                                  into the broader Berlin social fabric. By providing safe
was basic and tenants could only heat one room. After the
                                                                  tenure and affordable rental accommodation, such buildings
renovation, all apartments were equipped with bathrooms
                                                                  help Turkish families to feel part of the city (Hermes, 2007:
and central heating (Hermes, 2007: np).
                                                                  np).
All members of the cooperative had to make an initial
capital contribution of Euro 250 per m2. In addition, the
cooperative was given one million Euro to renovate the            Relevance (or Not) For South Africa
building, on the condition that the rentals are kept low, so
that existing tenants are not forced out. The remainder of        Private cooperatives could be used in South Africa,
the renovation was financed through a commercial loan             but not, in my view, for the very poor. At a minimum,
which will be paid off over 15 years. Contributions to the        households would need to be able to pay the equivalent
repayment of the loan take the form of monthly rentals            of a commercially-priced rental every month, as part of
by the tenants. If a household decides to leave the building,     their contribution to paying off the loan to purchase the
they get paid out their contribution (Hermes, 2007: np).          building. The estimated income group would therefore be
After 15 years, when the loan is fully paid off by the            those households earning above R 2 500 per month, with a
cooperative, the tenants can choose to change the                 steady income source.
institutional structure of the building and either remain as      A private cooperative would be appropriate in areas such


as Yeoville in Johannesburg, which consists of medium- to
high-density flats. For instance, a group of existing tenants
or occupiers could approach a landowner (or the state
where the landowner has abandoned the property) and offer
                                                                Ralf Conradi, LBS
to purchase the property. The purchase would be financed
through a commercial loan in the name of a company, or          Private Housing Finance in Germany and the
trust, formed by the tenants. The purchase price could be
                                                                role of the Landesbausparkassen
subsidised through access to the national housing subsidy
for qualifying households—although in practice, individuals
                                                                by Giotom Gebreegziabher
have found it difficult to obtain the individual subsidy. The
mortgage repayments would be funded through monthly
‘rental’ paid by the tenants. If a private cooperative was
                                                                On this date Mr. Ralf Conradi has explained the condition of
formed in South Africa in this way, it would be similar to a
                                                                private housing finance in Germany in a particular reference
shareblock scheme where tenants buy shares in a company
                                                                to the role of the Landesbausparkassen (LBS). He first
which owns the building in proportion to their ownership of
                                                                explained the organizational structure of the company. The
the building.
                                                                company is owned by regional saving associations (State
                                                                Banks). In 2006 the bank’s outstanding loan was about 25
References                                                      Million Euro. The bank gives 1.5% interest for savings and
                                                                4% interest on loans.
M Hermes, 2007 ‘Excursion to
Wohnungsbaugenoosenschaft’ (notes from a lecture                He also explained the housing characteristics in Germany.
presented on 5 June 2007).                                      One of them is low owner occupation rate as compared
Holm, A. (2007) Housing Privatisation in London, Berlin         to other European countries. More than 57% of the
and Amsterdam: Process, Effects, Resistance (unpublished        households are living in rented houses. Therefore the bank
paper).                                                         is working towards increasing housing ownership in the
                                                                country by providing loans to buy and/ or construct one’s
                                                                own house.


                                                                                                                         
6th June
by Anna Roeder and Marc Heinzel





                                                          →        Facts: total assets at the end of 2006: EUR 360
                                                          billion.
                                                          Bond issue volume in 2006: more than EUR 51 billion
Lecture
                                                          →       Employees: 3600 on average in 2006.
Stefan Hirche, KfW Development Bank
Securitizing credits to support adequate                  →       Rating: triple-A/AAA/Aaa

housing in South Africa – the development
role of the KfW                                           The KfW Bank’s activities are splitted into 4 segments.

by Marc Heinzel


The KfW Bank, an overview:

→       History: the KfW-bank was founded after the       →       promotion of housing, environment and climate,
second world war in 1948. the target was to finance the
reconstruction of the german economy. The seed capital            protection, education, infrastructure, social issues.
came from the ERP, the Eurpean Recovery Program.          →       promotion of SMEs, business founders, start-ups
Nowadays the shareholders are the Federal Republic of
Germany (80%) and the German Federal States..             →       international project and export finance
                                                          →       promotion of developing and transition countries.
→       Location: the headquarter is in Frankfurt/Main.
Approx. 50 offices and representations worldwide.




                                                                                                                      
                                                                   organised by Standard Bank and KfW Entwicklungsbank
                                                                   operating as Blue Granite International.
                                                                   The total volume was EUR 250 million. In taking this step,
Mr. Hirche told us a lot about the engagement of the KfW           KfW Entwicklungsbank emphasised the importance that it
bank in Sub-Saharan Africa (the segment promotion of               places on sustainable support for private housing in South
developing and transition countries).                              Africa. (Hirche)
The mission is to contribute to economic growth through            - taken from the booklet ‘Financing development - new
capital market development. The promotion and                      prospect for Africa, may 2007’
improvement of the financial infrastructure plays a very
important role in this process.                                    important links:
                                                                   www.kfw.de

An example in South Africa to support adequate housing:
Blue Granite International

First loan securitisation
The shortage of suitable housing for the population at large
is currently one of South Africa’s most pressing problems.
Thanks to long-term loans, more and more South Africans
can afford to buy their own home.
In order to increase the available liquidity, it makes sense
to securitise these loans in the international capital market.
This will ultimately make private housing affordable for
people with low incomes, too.
In a securitisation transaction, the loan portfolio is sold to a
special purpose vehicle, which in turn issues international
capital market bonds to investors.
The first securitisation of South African housing loans was



                                                                  degenerated houses have been renovated.
                                                                  After the introduction we went to see another project in
                                                                  Kastanienallee.
excursion                                                         “K77”
Housing Innovation in Prenzlauerberg
                                                                  The K77 (Kastanienallee 77) is a concept of self-
Guide: Dr. Michael La Fond                                        adminitration.and collaborative living in those remaining old
                                                                  houses of Kastanienallee, which haven’t been renovated
by Anna Roeder
                                                                  yet. It is construed for aproximately 21 people, contains
                                                                  a community kitchen, collaborative organized household.
                                                                  Decisions are reached in consensus.
At 4.00 pm the whole group meets in Café Morgenrot,
                                                                  The rooms change randomly every two years to create
Kastanienallee 85. Dr. Michael La Fond as part of the “d22:
                                                                  equal conditions.
Institute for creative sustainability” held an introductive
                                                                  In the ground floor is a Café, a cimena and some craft
speech talking about the past development of the district
                                                                  facilities. Constructive aims are interventions in a very
“Prenzlauer Berg” itself and several innovative housing
                                                                  ecological sense.
projects which have taken place. The reasons for those
alternative housing projects, which also exist in other parts
                                                                  The walk through the dictrict continued and we passed
of the city, are the wish that families move back into the city
                                                                  several other living projects with certainly different
centre. It is a method to create a home, a nest, for certain
                                                                  background.
needs and affordable prices.
                                                                  http://www.wohnprojekte-berlin.info
“Kastanie 85”
                                                                  http://www.wohnportal-berlin.de
Already before the Fall of the Wall several houses of
Kastanienallee 85/86 where occupied. Until 1993 the first
rental agreements have been signed. With the support of
the senate program “living political self-administration” the

                                                                                                                             
 “MARIE”

 The “MARIE” Marienburgerstrasse 40 is a self-organized
 building community right next to Marie Park. It is made by
 and for families which want to build there nests.
 The group began to organize itself in 2005, along with the
 architects Arnold&Gladisch and the developer Andreas
 Stahl.
 The Project contains besides the 23 apartments a
 community roof terrace and a garden along with a
 meeting room. They used energy-saving design and eco-
 technologies. The apartment and the commercial space
 cost about 1,850 Euro and are already sold.

 www.marienburger-strasse.de





0
7th June
presented by Ezetu Ebiumene, Carissa Champlin, Anna Roeder and Marc Heinzel





                                                                  i)     Mobility
                                                                  ii)    Safety / Security
                                                                  iii)   Education, Health and Recreation
                                                                  iv)    Housing.
Presentations on Housing in South Africa
A Report of the Seminar on Housing, Finance                      Every province was entitled to at least one project. Total
                                                                 project value was put at €15 million
and Law                                                          with a construction time frame of 5 years. Unlike the others,
                                                                 the one at Alexandra was valued at 3 billion South African
presented by Ezetu Ebiumene
                                                                 Rand, which is equivalent to €300 million with a construction
                                                                 time schedule of over 10 years.
The activities on Thursday started with presentations by the
                                                                 The third presentation by Joyce and Modise focused on
South African students about various aspects of the housing
                                                                 the housing finance system in South Africa. They started
finance and law situation in South Africa.
                                                                 with a brief description of an Apartheid city and how it has
                                                                 contributed to the poor housing situation in the country.
The first presentation by Joshua and Victor gave a brief on
                                                                 Thereafter, they spoke briefly on the South African housing
the South African historical background specifically looking
                                                                 market which is divided into a first generation and a second
at the province of Limpopo with a particular reference to
                                                                 generation housing market.
housing. The presentation considered the period between
                                                                 They talked about the national housing deficit created by
1994 and 2007 since the Limpopo province was created
                                                                 the Apartheid regime and the roles played by the banks
after the democratic transition that followed the end of the
                                                                 to improve the situation. As a result, certain innovations
Apartheid era in 1994.
                                                                 to mitigate the problem emerged at both institutional
                                                                 and community levels. The presentation also highlighted
This was followed by a presentation by Lance on
                                                                 various governments’ efforts of mass / low cost housing
presidential lead projects referring to his direct involvement
                                                                 schemes at different times to reduce the housing deficit.
in one of such projects (Alexandra) in South Africa.
                                                                 The presentation also highlighted the mode of financing
According to him the main focus of the project was
                                                                 these projects through, government subsidies. All the

                                                                                                                          
above mentioned successes of government were however,           Africa which is stimulating government towards further
facilitated by the 1992 housing policy. The presentation also   eradicating slums. In conclusion, she however expressed
featured, the partnership existing between local people and     doubt in the possibility of achieving the set goal by the year
municipalities through CBOs and NGOs to prioritize their        2014, giving the following reasons;
development needs.
                                                                 i).   That, in spite of government efforts, the living
The next presentation was on the right to housing in                   conditions of slum dwellers are deteriorating, leading
South Africa by Champ, Tshepo and Kirsty. According to                 to a greater uncertainty in the minds of slum dwellers.
the presenters the 1992 housing policy of South Africa           ii). The emergence of more cases of unlawful evictions.
went through a long process of negotiations and evolution        iii). Increased overcrowding, lack of privacy, spread of
to eventually emerge as the national Housing Code in                   communicable diseases etc.
2000. They also spoke on the introduction of the PIE
Act (Prevention of Illegal Eviction From and Unlawful
Occupation of Land Act) of 1998 by the government to
protect unlawful occupiers of land and houses from forceful
and illegal eviction.

The final presentation came from Prof. Marie Huchzermeyer
of the University of Witwatersrand on the “Emergence
of Slum Elimination Legislation in South Africa”. She
described the government plan to amend the PIE Act and
the introduction of the KZN slum elimination bill which
reflect government’s commitment towards the elimination of
slums by the year 2014 – a misinterpretation of the MDGs
(Millennium Development Goals).

It was important to note that, the hosting rights are further
threatened due to the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup in South


CONCLUSION
It was learnt, that in spite of government efforts at improving
the slums, the conditions remain unchanged thereby,
increasing the uncertainty in the minds of slum dwellers.
Therefore, government should employ more bottom-
up planning and implementation strategies to evolve
more inclusive cities in South Africa. In other words, the
government and the people must see themselves as
genuine partners in governance. Increased enlightenment
and economic empowerment are also necessary tools to
give impetus to the participation of the people in matters of
governance.



Finally, the day ended with two guided excursions to sites of
renovated historical landmarks e.g. parks, buildings and real
estate firm renovation projects as well as operations.




                                                                  
First Tour
                                                               Since 1993, the Quarter which lies 3,5km directly east of
                                                               Alexander Plaza on the eastern edge of Berlin’s inner
Guided Tour                                                    city has been designated as a renovation area. Its dense
                                                               building structures and high population leaves little room for
The Samaritar Quarter Renovation Project                       green and open spaces. Therefore, one of the goals of the
                                                               renovation has been to enhance the existing open spaces,
by Carissa Champlin                                            to build playgrounds and sports areas as well as to make
                                                               courtyards greener.

                                                               Today, due to the high costs of renovation, there is only
                                                               one original property owner still possessing property
                                                               in the Quarter. Modernization was a key aspect of the
                                                               renovation project in which electricity and gas appliances
                                                               were replaced, windows were double-sealed, balconies
                                                               were added back where missing or in dangerous condition
                                                               and units without WCs were furnished new bathrooms. As
                                                               more and more people are attracted to the exciting urban
                                                               atmosphere of East Berlin and as more and more areas are
                                                               being renovated, Friedrichshain is following in the footsteps
                                                               of Prenzlauerberg and becoming ever-increasingly more
                                                               expensive to live in. Special efforts are being made to keep
The Samaritarviertel was constructed within a short period     rent prices low and affordable for those currently living in
of time from 1900-1910 beginning from in the West with         the district (although I have to say that my rent is quite
its newest buildings in the eastern part of the quarter. The   overpriced itself).
houses were built for the workers of the slaughter houses
which lie just north of the quarter.



                                                              2) Rigaerstraße 83 –Squatter occupied house

                                                              After the fall of the wall, there were many disputes over
                                                              property ownership to be worked out. In the case of
                                                              Rigaer 83, two owners (one being a Jewish family) claimed
                                                              ownership of the house. During this time, the house
                                                              became occupied by squatters who were not paying rent
1) Frankfurter Tor (195-60)1                                  as no owner had been announced. The city progressed so
1,8km –Germany’s longest landmark                             far even to prepare the house for demolition by explosion
Designed by Hermann Henselmann, chief architect of Berlin     when the inhabitants unified and boycotted the effort.
Karl-Marx Alley (form. Stalin Alley) was designed to be the   The squatters then banded with a larger association and
prototype of Soviet architecture and city planning with its   successfully purchased the house as they were successful
broad boulevards and prefabricated facades for housing        in their refusal to evacuate the house. The house is now
units. It was the first major housing initiative of the new   owned by the association and all renters must also pay
government.                                                   membership dues of about 600€ which is refunded when
                                                              they move out, much like a rental deposit.




                                                                                                                     
3)Schreinerstraße facades
Renovation financing in East Berlin boomed in the mid-
1990’s. A governmental support program offered 80%
financing of renovation expenses while the remaining
20% of the expenses were to be paid in ‘self-help’ such
as owners painting their homes which is one reason for
the unique and colourful facades of the district. However,
in the case of Schreinerstrasse (a street under historic
preservation), regulations were put in place limiting the
outer appearance of the buildings to a pre-selected palate
of color options which has resulted in the homogenous
appearance of the street. Otherwise, few rules and             5) Bänschstraße Promenade & Samaritar
restrictions were put on the building owners in terms of
the outer appearance of the houses. This has become a
                                                               Church
characteristic part of former East Berlin.
                                                               formerly a paved parking area was restored as a long and
                                                               narrow green area extending to the west and to the east of
                                                               Samaritar Church (1892-1894)2

4)Messelhof (Alfons Messel 1896-98)
                                                               6) Slaughterhouses
On the corner of Schreiner- and Proskauerstraße is the first
house built in the area which actually does not belong to      The vacant slaughterhouses on Eldenaerstraße have been
                                                               a project of what is called in German ‘zwischennützung’
Samaritar Quarter but was a fine example of quality design.    meaning intermediate or new use for old buildings. This
                                                               is common to find in Berlin, a shrinking city which has
                                                               been undergoing the process of de-industrialization.
                                                               The slaughterhouses have recently been renovated and
                                                               transformed into a grocery store, clothing shop, motorcycle


meaning intermediate or new use for old buildings. This       8) Pettenkoferstraße- Urban Upgrading and
is common to find in Berlin, a shrinking city which has
been undergoing the process of de-industrialization.          Modernization examples
The slaughterhouses have recently been renovated and
transformed into a grocery store, clothing shop, motorcycle   Somewhat controversial housing renovation project where
repair shop, etc. A particularly creative use of the houses   the investor wants to redesign the floorplans of the house’s
can be found in a neighboring park where the metal frame      units making larger, high-rent apartments. There are worries
of the slaughterhouse was left in tact enhancing the          that this will affect the housing market in the quarter in
ambiance of the park.                                         a negative way. Also to note are the measures to make
                                                              the roads in this residential area quieter by laying asphalt
                                                              instead of stones and to view one of the last remaining, fully
7) Voigtstraße 22                                             non-renovated houses in the Samaritarviertel.

view into a recently-remodelled East Berlin apartment         (Footnotes)
 square area: 68 m²                                           1
                                                                www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de
 rent: 520€                                                   2
                                                                www.samaritarviertel.de
 utilities & other: 74€




                                                                                                                        
Second Tour                                                       History

                                                                  The history of Northern Neukölln is the history of
Guided Tour                                                       Rixdorf:
                                                                  14th century      _mentioned for the first time as
A Walk through Neukölln in June                                   „Richardsdorp“ (Dorp - today: Dorf - means village).
                                                                  In those days there existed several independet villages
by Marc Heinzel and Anna Roeder                                   in the south of Berlin which today are districts
                                                                  of the city, such as Rudow, Buchow, Britz and Rixdorf
                                                                  - todays Northern Neukölln. They were very green,
A didactic walk through the northern part of Neukölln,            with a castle in Britz (which still exists), several
a district in the South-Center of Berlin.                         churches and handcraft factories.
Every station has its own topic:                                  15th century      _ the orden of fraternity of Hospitallers
                                                                  sold their properties to the cities Berlin and Cölln
→       nature in the city +     a village in a city center       which were still divided, one situated on the northern,
→       social housing area of the 60s                            one on the southern side of the river Spree.
→       culinary excursion +     reform architecture 1920s        18th century      _ The Bohemian created their green village,
→       streetlife of Arabs and Turkish in Berlin                 the center was surrounded by 12 small agricultural
                                                                  farms, places like Richardsplatz, God‘s Acre
This walk is about the history of Berlin and the development      and the Church were forming their enviroment.
of a very divers city shown by one example, the district of       19th century      _ more branches start to move from
Neukölln. It is about architecture, social conditions, cultural   Berlin to Rixdorf: textile business of the Bohemian
influence and problem management.                                 Rixdorf, forges and joineries of the German part,
Neukölln shows the process of immigration and „integration“       already before industrialisation one of the biggest
of different nations in a big city, its automatisms,              residential areas of underclass. a new type of housing and
its networks, its problems.                                       colonies emerged („Mietshauskasernen“-
                                                                  rental baracks), lots of building activity
                                                                  since 1890. Social residential areas and new


infrastructures were built.                                     rate of integration of the „foreigners“, which are not
20th century      _ age of industrialisation, process of        even foreigners anymore in the scene of bureaucracy.
proletariatisation, Neukölln becomes 14th district of Greater   But they still don‘t identify themselves with that place totally.
Berlin.                                                         Certain groups and communities do not communicate.
                                                                But this is what the district is all about, its diversity,
Neukölln Today                                                  patchwork, variety. Only that so far there are no strong links
                                                                inbetween them.
Today Neukölln is the biggest economic district of Berlin, in   To improve the situation there are lots of social and
a very dense area of Shops and commercial business.             cultural initiatives such as the District Management
There are 22.000 Businessmen and 5.000 Businesses.              (‚Quartiersmanagment‘- QM). Those try to link all the
                                                                potential of the district and try to help the people finding
The district is structured by three main axes, which            work, getting a good education, improve the conditions of
exist ever since: Hermannstraße, Karl-Marx-Straße,              many women.
Sonnenallee (take a closer look on the map!).
Half of Northern Neukölln are foreigners of 1st to 2nd and
sometimes 3rd generation, alltogether 60.000 foreigners.        GUIDES: Anna von Roeder, Marc Heinzel
                                                                June, 6th 2007THE NEUKÖLLN TOUR
In the more southern regions of Neukölln there is rather
still a suburbian atmosphere: long housing blocs, green
spaces, single or duplex familiy houses.
There is a lot of activity going on in the area of Northern
Neukölln. in the neighbour district Kreuzberg
there are a lot of young and old „activists“ ,who make their
own little business with fashion, food, design,
art. There are a lot of cultural festivities and programs
like „48 hours Neukölln“, designed to improve the bad
image of Neukölln. Because there ARE social problems,
there is a hig rate of crime and drug business, a low

                                                                                                                             0
plan of Neukölln and tour
             7                                  Tour of Neukölln Berlin



                                                Start - U-Bahnhof Neukölln


                                                1. Körnerpark


                                                2. Richardplatz
                            6
                                                3. Rollbergviertel


                                    5           4. Saalbau Neukölln


                                        4       5. Rathaus Neukölln


                     3                          6. Ideal-Passage


                                                7. Tek-Stil

                                            2
                                                End - Landwehrkanal




                                1

                                                Marc Heinzel       Anna Roeder   Berlin, 6. June 2007



Körnerpark                                                      Richardplatz

1910 the owner of the gravel pit Franz Körner gave the          Here one can find the oldest building substance of whole
ground to the city as a present with the condition to name      Neukölln. It is a cultural center of Neukölln. Already in the
the foture park after him. The Park has been built 1912-16      old days it was the center of the Bohemian people.
architect: Gutzeit, gardener: Kullenpark.                       It is a mixture of old trade businesses such as the carrier,
Size: 3,6 hectare, 5-7m deep, high walls of arcades, walls of   the forge and a lot of restaurants and cafés. There isn‘t a lot
cascades, Orangerie, Art galery                                 of traffic, the atmosphere reminds of a medieval village.
The tendency to a Neo Baroque style derives from the
garden art of the turn of the century.
The park was supposed to give the surounding area a
pretty imprint and animate to a favoured dictrict. It had and
still has a decorative purpose.




                                                                                                                           
God‘s Acre                                                     „Confrérie des Chevaliers du Goûte Boudin“

In 1751 it was built for the Bohemian refugees as a
cementary. Surface: 5600 m²




                                                               Rollberg Siedlung

                                                               This social housing blocks are a sign for the ideology
                                                               of the sixties, when old urban structure has been totally
                                                               demolished to make space to new social housing projects.
                                                               The strucure of peripheral buildings negates the historical
                                                               urban plan.
                                                               Built: eastern part: 1966-74, western part: 1976-82
                                                               Historically this area is the first continuous worker suburb,
                                                               beeing mainly built in the 1880s. But the standard was
Blutwurst manufactory:                                         very bad. With the new social housing blocks the intention
                                                               was to improve the oldfashioned social housing type. As
The traditional black sausage with a secret mixture of herbs   an example: on the same surface there have been 5200
has been made here for over hundred years. The owner,          apartments before, now there are 2300 with the adequate
Markus Benser, has been given a knighthood for the „knight     mordern standart. 90% of the flats didn‘t even had a bath.
of the blood sausage“ from the famous French brotherhoos



The area is a social combustion point. There is a high
fluctuation, people do not want to stay for longer, the        Ideal-Passage - reform housing
high percentage of foreigners creates also problems.
The green spaces are not creating a social enviroment of       1907 foundation of the ‚Baugenossenschaft‘ „Ideal“, whose
communication. The inner courtyards are closed.                members were left-winged social democrats. There were
Today the owner of the blocks, Stadt und Land - a state        lots of initatives towards social hygiene, precautionary
housing association -, tries to improve the conditions with    medicine and living reform.
certain activity concepts such as bonus programs for           Their slogan was: The best place to become healthy is a
students, security in the area and offers of social activity   healty home.“
and clubs for children and adolescents. Also by urban          Therefore the building cooperatives played a pioneer role
interventions they try to improve the situation.               in the housing reform. They tried to offer a place to live, not
Architects: Oefelein, Freund und Schmock                       only a house. Mostly 1-2 room apartments, with/without
                                                               bath, shops in ground floor. Very important are


                                                                                                                           
                                                                 The idea was to have different renting levels to create a
                                                                 certain mixture of habitants. There was a rather high sense
                                                                 of community, also members of the building cooperative
                                                                 were living in these apartments and identified themselves
                                                                 with it.

                                                                 Sonnenallee

                                                                                                       A dive into the world
                                                                                                       of Arabia, mainly
                                                                                                       affected by turkish
                                                                                                       immigrants, with all
the 4 courtyards, which give life to the block. Good living                                            its richness of food,
conditions: big windows for air and light inside, warm water,                                          clothes and activities.
central heating, toilet inside the apartment, tubs in the roof                                         There are colorful
for those without own bath room.                                                                       signs in arabic letters
The facade is strucured by oriels, loggias and balconies.                                              showing the great
Differenciated roofs create a picturesque atmosphere.                                                  impact of a foreign
                                                                                                       culture in Berlin.






8th June
by Venkata Ramana Gudipudi and Vangara Anil Kumar





                                                              1. Professor Herrle included 5 main ways in approaching an
                                                              action area plan:
                                                                → Clearance and re-development: this leads to the loss
Lecture                                                              of coherence in the society in terms of social and
Prof. Dr. Peter Herrle                                               economic aspects. Example: action area plan in New
                                                                     York.
‘urban conservation and housing’                                → Restoring the past: this demands a lot of finance
                                                                     in order to implement the project. Example:
                                                                     conservation of historical core in Jaipur, India.
                                                                → Commercialization of old city: this also leads to social
                                                                     coherence within the core area of the city. Example:
The last day of the workshop on ‘housing law and
                                                                     commercialization of core area of Venice.
finance’ commenced with a presentation on ‘from urban
                                                                → Upgrading infrastructure and housing: this can lead
conservation to upgrading’ by Professor Peter Herrle.
                                                                     to social segregation and gentrification. Example:
Professor Herrle in the presentation discussed very briefly
                                                                     upgrading infrastructure in Damascus, Syria.
the process of urban conservation and upgrading taking into
                                                                → Social city approach: this process needs a lot of
account many case studies.
                                                                     government support and it is time consuming.
The seminar was started by giving a short difference
                                                                     Example: social city approach in Marzahn, Berlin.
between an urban conservation project and an upgrading
project. The seminar gave a brief overview of the
major differences between both cases. The overview
                                                              2. The process of land management for slum upgrading in
of professor’s Herrle’s presentation includes problems,
                                                              Mumbai:
approaches, participation process, case studies. The
                                                              Professor Herrle described the process of slum upgrading in
presentation includes two main highlights:
                                                              Mumbai. While explaining so he introduced the concept of
                                                              Transfer of Rights (TRA) which is included under the slum
                                                              rehabilitation act in India. The right says that ‘if any builder
1. The different approaches to tackle urban upgrading
                                                              builds an apartment in any slum he has to accommodate
2. The process of land management in Mumbai.

                                                                                                                          
the slum dwellers in his apartment for free. By doing so he
will be free from floor space index’. It means that if a builder   Cornelia Cremer stated: “The project was initiated after the
builds and provides housing for urban poor he can build as         re-unification of Berlin. After the destruction of ‘The Berlin
many floors as he wants in any other place within Mumbai.          wall’ there was a huge shift of people who were residents of
This topic attracted many people’s attention as it was a very      Hellersdorf to the other parts of the city. This left a number
new and innovative process in urban land management.               of houses in Hellersdorf vacant.
One of the South African student asked if this process             The municipality of Berlin took the initiative to go with the
effective any where in the world’ professor Herrle answered        project where some of the vacant apartments are destroyed
that this process can be used only at the places where the         in order to main the continuity and the social life of the
private market is very active and in cities where land values      people in Marzahn.”
are high. He also added that this process will work out in
Mumbai as the land values are really high and there exist a
number of private builders.                                        The project: After the re-unification there were a number of
                                                                   inhabitants in Hellersdorf who moved to other parts of the
                                                                   city. This process of in-city migration left behind a number
                                                                   of apartments unoccupied. The municipality of Berlin took
Excursion to Marzahn:                                              the initiative by involving ‘urban plan’ a private company to
                                                                   come up with a land use plan for the area of Marzahn. The
                                                                   project is done on public private partnership between ‘urban
The workshop started again at 3.30, in Marzahn. The
                                                                   plan’ and ‘The Municipality of Berlin’.
students were highly glad to meet Mrs. Cornelia Cremer
                                                                   The process:
the chief executive for urban plan in Marzahn. She gave a
                                                                   The main points that were kept in mind while preparing
brief overview of the project ‘Urban plan’ in Marzahn. She
                                                                   a land use plan for the project are continuity and social
mentioned the major factors that initiated the project. The
                                                                   integrity. ‘Urban plan’ has come up with an idea of
students watched a short film which is documented by
                                                                   demolishing some of the apartments which are left
‘urban plan’ which includes the process of execution of the
                                                                   unoccupied for a few decades and rehabilitated the people
project and the views of different people who are living in
                                                                   living in those apartments. The people who are rehabilitated
Marzahn for the last few decades.
                                                                   were given compensation. There were many people who


were against the project during the time of its execution.
80% of the inhabitants in Marzahn are satisfied with this
project.




                                                             0
                                                                                               Dictionary



TERMS BERLIN HOUSING


Gründerzeit                     wilhelminian style / period era / end 19th century

Moderne                         modern movement / international style

Reformarchitektur               reform architectur
Bauausstellung                  building exposition / construction fair

Wiederaufbau                    reconstruction / revitalisation

Wohnungsbaugenossenschaft       building cooporation/cooporative housing agency (zu deutsch)

Wohnungsbaugesellschaft         residential building cooperative

Wohnungsbauverein               residential building union

Baugrundstück entwickelt        site, building plot, developed, undeveloped

Baugrundstücke zusammengelegt   sites pooled together

Parzelle                        parcel (of Land)

Sozialbauwohnung                social housing flat / affordable housing unit

Sozialer Wohnungsbau            social housing / affordable housing

Siedlung                        housing estate / settlement


Dictionary

Wohnung für das Existenzminimum   minimal dwelling / bed-sit unit

Wohnungsnot                       housing shortage

Spekulant                         developer / speculator / carpetbagger

Bauabschnitt                      construction phase / stage

Einzelhaus                        detached house

Doppelhaus                        semi-detached house

Reihenhaus                        row/ line house

Mietshaus                         apartment building / flats / apartment complex

Mieter                            lodger, tenant, live in lodgings

Miete                             rent

Bodenpreise                       real estate values / costs

Wohnblock                         partment complex / block of flats / apartment slab

Blockbebauung                     block footprint

Blockrandbebauung                 perimeter block footprint

Zeilenbau                         linear block

Doppelzeile                       parallel block

Halbes Zimmer                     guest bedroom

                                                                                       
                                                                             Dictionary

Bebauungsplan         development plan, lay- out plan, legally binding land use plan

Bauordnung            building law, regulations

Bauantrag             building application

Standort              location / site

Aufgelockerte Stadt   „aerated“ city pattern / low density city

Lichte Höhe           headroom

Straßenbreite         width of the street, wide road

Traufe                drip

Giebel                gable

First                 ridge

Gewinn                profit

Bauordnung            building law , regulation

Erbpacht              long-lease

Hauszinssteuer        house interest taxes

Laubengang            acces balcony

Treppenhaus           stairway




Dictionary
Staatlich gefördert   state-aided

Rationalisierung      rationalisation

Wohnfläche            living area, useful area

Bewohner              inhabitant, inmate

Trümmerfrauen         rubble women




                                                 
                                                                                                                     Glossar


Glossar: Housing Berlin

Bausparkasse (home loan banks)
“Bausparkassen” are special credit institutions which focus on housing finance. In Germany prominent examples are: LBS,
Wüstenrot.
Eigenheimzulage
It was a grant from the Government that supported people who wanted to build their own house or apartment. The
government hoped for an increased creation of self-used condominium. After passing a new law about condominium- the
grant was deleted in January 2006.
Mieterorganisationen (Tenant association)
They act and fight for tenant rights. They inform their members about their possibilities in duties and help answering
questions about renting and affairs between the lessor and the tenant.
Mietspiegel (Rent level)
The “Mietspiegel” was established to give a conspectus of how high the rentals are in a specific area. It is supposed to
prevent the tenants from grossly overpriced rental prices. It makes the rental market more transparent for the costumer.
Wohnungsamt (Housing office)
Housing offices are supposed to help people who have problems with their housing
They arrange social housing and prevent them from being homeless.
Even more they control the rentals and afford Public housing allowance.
Wohnungsbaugenossenschaft
Is a cooperative society with the aim providing cheap housing for its members. In Germany over 2.000 of those societies
exist. They administer over two million apartments and possess over three million members.
In Berlin over 10% of the whole housing stock is administered by “Wohnungsbaugenossenschaften”


Glossar


Wohnungsbauprämie (housebuilding bonus)
It is a permanent feature of the government housing support system. Eyerybody who is an individual with unlimited tax
liability over the age of 16 is entitled for this financial bonus if he/she pays home loan dues and does not excess the
income tax limit.
Wohnberechtigungsschein (housing qualification certificate)
Is an official certificate that enables a person to apply for an apartment which is supported by a social housing program
from the Government.
Wohngeld (Public housing allowance)
If the income is not sufficient, a person can apply for this grant to pay the rent or to pay the costs for an own apartment.
“Wohnungspolitische Selbsthilfe”
It is a political support program which was established in 1981 in Berlin where the Senate gives grants to reconstruction
projects where the dwellers help to reconstruct the old buildings they are living in. The program derives its origin from the
squatter scene.
Vermieterverband (lessor association)
It is a union that people can join if they own houses or apartments to represent their interests towards the Federal
Government, the county and the city.
They consult and support their members in housing affairs.
Vermögenswirksame Leistungen
These payments are set in the collective labour agreements or an agreement of the employment contract throughout the
employer. They are remitted monthly from the employer on the employees investment account. They are legal components
of a contract. They belong to the assessable income of non-self-employment work.




                                                                                                                               
                                                                                           contact list
                                            UrbanPlan GmbH
                                            Eisenacher Str. 56,10823 Berlin
                                            phone: +49 30 787 95 70
Contact list:                               eMail: c.cremer@urbanplan.de
                                            Internet: www.urbanplan.de

Uwe Becker                                  Pamela Giacaman
Architect                                   PhD Student Habitat Unit
eMail: uwebeckerberlin@gmx.de               eMail: pame_berlin@yahoo.es

Jürgen Breiter                              C. Grobler
Mieterhausprojekt m13a                      Embassy of the Republic of South Africa
Projectinitiator / Urban Curator            Public Relations
Malplaquetstraße 13a                        Tiergartenstr. 18,10785 Berlin
13347 Berlin                                phone: + 49 (0) 220 73 128
phone:+49 (030) 398 27 394                  eMail: GroblerC@foreign.gov.za
eMail: jbreiter@wedding-windows.de
Internet: www.wedding-windows.de            Uwe Heinhaus
                                            Baugruppe Marienburger Str. 40
Dr. Ralf Conradi                            Architect
                                            heinhaus architekten
Head of Department                          Chodowieckistr. 17-17 a
Bundesgeschäftsstelle Landesbausparkassen   10405 Berlin
Friedrichstraße 83,10117 Berlin             phone: +49 (0)30 417 255 85
phone: +49 (0)30-20225-5396                 eMail: kontakt@heinhaus-architekten.de
eMail: Ralf.Conradi@dsgv.de                 Internet: http://www.heinhaus-architekten.de

Cornelia Cremer
Quartiersmanagement Marzahn



contact list
Martin Hermes                                   University of the Witwatersrand
Wohnungsbaugenossenschaft Fidicinstraße 18      phone: +27117177688
phone: 0179-1420872                             eMail: marie.huchzermeyer@wits.ac.za
eMail: fidicin18@yahoo.de
                                                Dr. Michael LaFond
Professor Peter Herrle                          id22:Institut für kreative Nachhaltigkeit
Head of Habitat Unit                            experimentcity/ ufafabrik berlin
Berlin University of Technology                 Viktoriastrasse 10-18, 12105 Berlin
a53@tu-berlin.de                                phone: + 49 / (0)30 / 755 03 - 189
                                                eMail: info@experimentcity.net
Stefan W. Hirche                                Internet: www.experimentcity.net
Senior Project Manager
KfW Entwicklungsbank
L II b Sub-Sahara Africa                        Werner Landwehr
Palmengartenstr. 5-9, 60325 Frankfurt a. Main   GLS Gemeinschaftsbank
phone: +49 69 7431-4743                         eMail: werner.landwehr@gls.de
eMail: stefan.hirche@kfw.de
Internet: www.kfw.de                            Malcolm Langford
                                                Human Rights Lawyer
Dr. Andrej Holm                                 Visiting Fellow, Norwegian Centre for Human Rights,
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin                  University of Oslo
Stadt- und Regionalsoziologie                   eMail: malcolm.langford@googlemail.com
Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin
phone: +49/30-2093-4331                         Astrid Ley
mobil +49/179-7755897                           Habitat Unit A53
eMail: a.holm@sowi.hu-berlin.de
                                                Dept. VI Planning-Building-Environment
                                                Berlin University of Technology
Prof. Dr. Marie Huchzermeyer
                                                Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin
School of Architecture and Planning
                                                phone: ++49 (0)30.314 21833

                                                                                                      
                                                 contact list
mobile: ++49 (0)179-7997096
www.habitat-unit.de
www.urban-management.de

Andreas Rennekamp
Head of Division
KfW Bankengruppe
K IV a Wohnungsbau, CO2-Minderung, Erneuerbare
Energien
Charlottenstraße 33/33a, 10117 Berlin
phone: +49 30 20264-5797
eMail: andreas.rennekamp@kfw.de
Internet: www.kfw.de

Ursula Trüper
Mieterhausprojekt m13a
Malplaquetstraße 13/13a, Berlin-Wedding
Phone: 030-46 23 144
eMail: ursula.trueper@gmx.de

Peter Weber
SelbstBau e.G.
Rykestraße 13, 10405 Berlin
phone: +49-30-4419961
eMail: peter.weber@selbstbau-genossenschaft.de
Internet: www.selbstbau-genossenschaft.de




contact list



Participants

                                                    Urban Management (University of Technology, Berlin)
South Africa
(University of the Witwaterand,Johannesburg)
                                                    Rachid Aboulfadl
                                                    rachid_aboulfadl@yahoo.ca
Joyce Dimaktso Mpofu (Johannesburg, South Africa)
                                                    Carissa J Champlin (Oklahoma, USA):
accents@mweb.co.za
                                                    carissa_champlin@yahoo.com
Laurence Andrew Fenn (Johannesburg, South Africa)
                                                    Adriana Barbosa Dantas (Fortaleza, Ceará – Brazil):
lancef@joburg.org.za
                                                    adrianabdantas@yahoo.com.br
Marie Huchzermeyer (Johannesburg, South Africa)
                                                    Raquel Dantas do Amaral (Fortaleza, Ceará – Brazil):
marie.huchzermeyer@wits.ac.za
                                                    rraqueldantas@yahoo.com
Thepo Machaba (Johannesburg, South Africa)
                                                    Ebiumene Itontei Ezetu (Port Harcourt, Nigeria): ezefra@
machaba1@klebmail.co.za
                                                    yahoo.com
Kirsty McLean (Johannesburg, South Africa)
                                                    Venkata Ramana Gudipudi (Vishakhapatnam, India):
kirsty@achira.co.za
                                                    ramana.gudipudi@gmail.com
David Mmakgabo Champ Sepuru
                                                    Ghazaleh Sadat Hossein Jasbi (Teheran, Iran):
(Lebowakqomo, South Africa):
                                                    ghazalehcivil2001@yahoo.com
champsep@mweb.co.za
                                                    Mahmoudreza Khalili (Tehran, Iran):
Joshua Moloi (Johannesburg, South Africa)
                                                    khalili_mahmood@yahoo.com
joshuam@midvaal.gov.za
                                                    Giotom Egziabher Legesse (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia):
Modise Mphalo (Mafatsane, South Africa)
                                                    goitmed2002@yahoo.com
modisem@emfuleni.gov.za
                                                    Mr. Olagoke, Olamide Temitope (Lagos, Nigeria)
Victor Thikotshi (Johannesburg, South Africa)
                                                    Anil Kumar Vangara (Khammam, A.P. India):
Victor.Thikothshi@wits.ac.za
                                                    anilkumar.vangara@gmail.com

                                                                                                          0
                                                  participants


Architecture (University of Technology, Berlin)

Marc Heinzel, Berlin (Germany)
malediva@hotmail.com
Astrid Ley, Berlin (Germany)
astrid.ley@tu-berlin.de
Anna von Roeder, Berlin (Germany)
anna.f@gmx.de







				
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Description: Housing Finance and Law Summary of the Compact Seminar energy saving house