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					Ethical Aspects of ICT
Implants in the Human
                              Rafael Capurro
 Distinguished Researcher in Information Ethics, School of Information Studies,
                   University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA

 Conference Neuroscience and European and North American Case Law
 Interdepartmental Research Centre ECLSC, University of Pavia, in cooperation
             with the Court of Milan, Milan, September 17, 2010
   Introduction
   EGE Opinion No 20
   Scientific and technical background
   Legal Aspects
   Ethical Aspects
   Prospects

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   2
   The European Group on Ethics in Science
    and New Technologies to the European

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    3
„The Group is a neutral, independent,
  pluralist and multidisciplinary body,
  composed of fifteen experts appointed by
  the Commission for their expertise and
  personal qualities.“

                Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10     4
„The task of the Group is to examine ethical
  questions arising from science and new
  technologies and on this basis to issue
  Opinions to the European Commission in
  connection with the preparation and
  implementation of Community legislation
  or policies.“

                 Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      5
„In order to face the ethical issues that are
  arising with the rapid advances in science
  and technology, the Members represent a
  broader range of professional
  competences in different disciples such as,
  inter alia, biology and genetics, medicine,
  pharmacology, agricultural sciences, ICT,
  law, ethics, philosophy, and theology.“

                 Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   6
„For every full Opinion to be issued by the Group,
  a roundtable is held before the Opinion is
  adopted, to which representatives of the
  Institutions of the European Union, experts of
  the fields, parties representing different
  interests, including NGOs, patients and
  consumer organisations and industrial
  stakeholders, are invited to participate in the

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10         7
Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   8
                      Opinion No 20
 Ethical aspects of ICT implants in the human
  body (16 March 2005).
Opinion produced on the direct initiative of the
Rapporteurs: Prof. Stefano Rodotà and Prof.
  Rafael Capurro

Important Notice: This PP presents pictures, videos and links that are NOT part
  of the EGE Opinion. Please, do not quote the text of the Opinion from this PP
  but do it directly from the official text.

                               Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                           9
   „At first sight ICT implants are ethically
    unproblematic if we think for instance
    about cardiac pacemakers. However,
    although ICT implants may be used to
    repair deficient bodily capabilities they can
    also me misused, particularly if these
    devices are accessible via digital

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    10
   „The idea of letting ICT devices get under
    our skin in order not just to repair but
    even to enhance human capabilities gives
    rise to science fiction visions with threat
    and/or benefit characteristics.“

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      11
   „The intimate relation between bodily and
    psychic functions is basic to our personal

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      12
   „Consequently the objective of this
    Opinion is primarily to raise awareness
    and questions concerning the ethical
    dilemmas created by a range of implants
    in this rapidly expanding field.“

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    13
              Scientific and Technical
   Current Applications and Research
       Applications: ICT Implants on the market
            Active medical devices:

                           Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   14
    Scientific and Technical Background
   Cardiovascular pacers for patients with conduction disorders or
    heart failure
   Cochlear and brainstem implants for patients with hearing
   Implantable programmable drug delivery pumps for patients
    with Multiple Sclerosis or Diabetes
   Implantable Neurostimulation Devices
        Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain management
        Sacral nerve stimulation for control of urinary incontinence
        Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for seizure control in epilepsy and mood
         control in severe depression cases
   Deap brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson‟s
    disease, for essential tremor
   Artificial chip-controlled leg

                                Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                      15
Scientific and Technical Background

   Identification and location devices:
       Read-Only: for example allowing to identify
        Alzheimer„s patients or children
       Read-Write: carrying a set of information
        (such as a person„s medical history)
       Devices with tracking capabilities: a device
        that can emit a radio signal which could be
        tracked (RFID, VeriChip)

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10        16
Scientific and Technical Background
                               The VeriChip™
                               What?
                                       RFID=Radio Frequency
                                        Identification Device
                                       Passive ID tag
                                       Contains an unique ID number
                               How does it work?
                                       Energized by a scanner (RF)
                                       Emits a radio signal
                                       Transmits ID number to a
                                        Database via phone or Internet
                               Current applications (FDA
                                approval in 2004)
                                       Medical records (blood type,
                                        potencial allergies, medical
                                       Personal information
                                       Financial information

             Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                                    17
    Scientific and Technical Background
   VeriChip™ is a subdermal, radio frequency identification (RFID)
    device, about the size of a grain of rice. This technology, developed
    by Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), one US-based company, has
    been used in animals for years and seems fairly harmless.
   Extending the use to the human population is the next step.
   The idea for employing the tags to identify humans came after the
    horror of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Centre and
    the Pentagon.
   The chip is an ID tag which is passive (not independently powered).
    When radio-frequency energy passes from a scanner, it energizes
    the chip, and which then emits a radio-frequency signal transmitting
    the chip's information to the reader, which in turn links with a

                             Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                  18
Scientific and Technical Background
Research on ICT Implants:
Medical Devices
 Biosensors

 Artificial Hippocampus

 Cortical implant for the blind

 Ocular implant or artificial retina

 Brain-computer interfaces (BCI)

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   19
Scientific and Technical Background
Surveillance or tracking devices
 Wearable ICT

 Subdermal GPS

Enhancement or commodity devices
 Prosthetic cortical implant (intelligence or sensory
 Artificial vision

 Audio tooth implant

 Artificial hippocampus (to enhance memory)

                     Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10            20
Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   21
Scientific and Technical Background

   Other potential uses
       Microsoft patent Number 6,754,472 June 22,
        2004 concerns the human body as a medium
        for transmission of data (or energy) to „other
        devices“ like PDAs, cellular phones, medical
        devices, RFID, making possible to localize
        persons. The patent does not describe any
        specific device.

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10          22
Scientific and Technical Background

    „Smart guns“: weapons that can be fired only
     if operated by their owner with a RFID-chip
     implanted in his or her hand.

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10     23
Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   24
    Categorisation of ICT Implants
   Implantable devices can be categorised as:
       medical
       non-medical
   Both as:
       passive
       active
   Reversible or non reversible
   Stand-alone or online
   ICT implants and tags

                      Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   25
     Future personal tracking devices
   Integration and miniaturization of three
     Biosensor: read a person„s vital signs by touching the
      skin (implanted into a wristwatch)
     Pager device: takes the data from the biosensor by
      using a cellular packet module
     Position location technology: using radio signal to
      stay in contact with a person„s pager device
    -> this information is sent through cellular data packets
      to a data centre (Digital Angel™)
    -> The first Digital Angel was launched in November
    -> Medical emergency purposes
    -> Identification/Location purposes
                        Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10            26
ICT Implants

  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   27
                 ICT Implants
 Digital Angel GPS and RFID products are utilized
  around the world to save lives, ensure the safety of our
  food supply, reunite loved ones and improve the quality
  of life. We are a leading developer of technologies that
  enable the rapid and accurate identification, location
  tracking, and condition monitoring of what is important
  to people. Applications of our products include
  identification and monitoring of pets and fish with our
  implantable RFID microchips, identification of livestock
  with our ear tags, GPS based search and rescue beacons
  for aircraft, ships, and boats.

                      Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10           28
               Legal Background
   General Principles:
       Universal Declaration of Human Rights
       EU Charter of Fundamental Rights of 2000
       Convention on Human Rigts and Biomedicine of the
        Council of Europe
       EU Directives
       European Constitution
       National Constitutions

                        Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10           29
             Legal Background
   Human Dignity: providing that the human body
    and its parts shall not give rise to financial gain
   Human Inviolability
   Privacy and Data Protection
   The Precautionary Principle
   Data Minimisation, Purpose Specification,
    Proportionality Principle and Relevance
   Autonomy and Limits of ICT Implants

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10           30
              Legal Background
   „ICT implants may:
       allow individuals to be located on a
        permanent and/or occasional basis;
       Allow the information contained in electronic
        devices to be changed remotely without the
        date subject„s knowledge.“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10         31
           Legal Background
   „These risks are bound to increase with
    the adoption of unified technical
    standards, which may allow data to be
    read and modified also by entities other
    than the data subject and the
    bodies/organizations lawfully managing
    the relevant plant or connection.“

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    32
            Legal Background
   „Both circumstances are clearly in conflict
    with data protection rules concerning
    collection and processing of the

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      33
              Legal Background
   „For the legal background, it should be
    noted that:
       the existence of a recognised serious but
        uncertain risk, currently applying ot the
        simplest types of ICT implant in the human
        body (…)
       The purpose specification principle mandates
        at least a distinction between medical and
        non-medical applications (…)

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10        34
          Legal Background
   „the data minimisation principle rules out the
    lawfulness of ICT implants that are only
    aimed at identifying patients, if they can be
    replaced by less invasive andequally secure
   the proportionality principle rules out the
    lawfulness of implants such as those that are
    used, for instance, exclusively to facilitate
    entrance to public premises;

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10          35
          Legal Background
   „the principle of integrity and inviolability of
    the body rules out that the data subject„s
    consent is sufficient to allow all kinds of
    implant to be deployed; and
   the dignity principle prohibits transformation
    of the body into an objet that can be
    manipulated and controlled remotely – into a
    mere source of information.“

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10           36
          Ethical Background
   „Contemporary society is confronted with
    changes that have to do with the
    anthropological essence of individuals.“

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    37
         Mind Control
           published by MindTech, Sweden

               Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    38
              MINDTECH Sweden
  Establishing a network of laymen and professionals
21.08. 2009. MINDTECH seeks to establish a network of laymen. This group
   will be dealing with the social and ethical sides to research, development
   and the implementation of emerging technologies in our society.
Turning point
   Through our work we have found what we believe to be the most important
   research area when it comes to brain technologies and surveillance
   systems. This will (hopefully) lead us to new and significant discoveries
   regarding how these technologies work and the implications it will have on
   our society
  Project leader:
   Magnus Olsson Telephone +46 709 26 3o 04
   Jungfrudansen 64, 2tr 171 51 Solna SWEDEN
  E-Mail:

                              Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                     39
                     Mind Control
  (Friday 29/2/2008)

   „Australian researchers trying to regrow
    damaged spinal cords with tiny bionic implants
    are seeing for the first time what‟s happening at
    the nanoscale.
   Meanwhile, philosophers working alongside the
    researchers say it‟s time to find out more about
    how the public feels about such bionic research,
    which in some cases is being used to enhance
    human memory, physical abilities and

                             Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                  40
                    Mind Control
 (Friday 29/2/2008)

   “Imagine a world in which you, but not
    your partner, could remember every
    conversation you‟ve ever had,” says
    Dodds. “It could have a bizarre effect on
    our social

                            Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                  41
           Ethical Background
   „There is a stepwise shift in progress –
    after being observed, via video
    surveillance and biometrics, individuals are
    being modified via various electronic
    devices, under skin chips and smart tags,
    to such an extent that they are
    increasingly turned into networked

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   42
          Ethical Background
   „Thus we might be continuously
    connected and could be configured
    differently so that from time to time we
    would transmit and receive signals
    allowing movements, habits and contacts
    to be traced and defined. This would be
    bound to modify the meaning and
    contents of an individual„s autonomy and
    to affect their dignity.“

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    43
Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   44
        First human ‚infected with a
               computer virus‘

   BBC News 26 May 2010: „First human
    ‚infected with a computer virus„“

   M.N. Gasson: „Could you become infected
    with a Computer Virus?“ (2010)

                            Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   45
             Ethical Background
   Fundamental ethical principles:
       Human Dignity
       Non-instrumentalisation
       Privacy
       Non-discrimination
       Informed Consent
       Equity
       The precautionary principle

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   46
             Ethical Background
   Value conflicts
       „There could be conflict between the personal
        freedom to use one„s economic resources to
        get an implant that will enhance one„s
        physical capabilities and what society at large
        considers desirable or ethically acceptable.“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10       47
           Ethical Background
   „Another value conflict concerns the
    potential conflict between limiting freedom
    of people dangerous to others by
    surveillance and promoting the safety of

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   48
          Ethical Background
   „Freedom of researchers may conflict with
    the obligation to safeguard the health of
    research subjects.“

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   49
          Ethical Background
   „Concern for economic competitiveness
    and other economic values (economic
    growth) may come into conflict with
    respect for human dignity.“

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   50
          Ethical Background
   „Some Important Knowledge Gaps
    Regarding ICT Implants in the Human

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   51
              Ethical Background
   „Human Dignity, Integrity and Autonomy:
       How far can such implants be a threat to human
        autonomy particularly when they are implanted in our
       How far can they have irreversible impacts in the
        human body and in the human psyche?
       How will they influence human memory?
       Does a human being cease to be such a „being“ in
        cases where some parts of his or her body –
        particularly the brain – are substituted and/or
        supplemented by ICT implants?“

                         Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10          52
             Ethical Background
   „Privacy and Surveillance:
       How far con ICT implants become a threat to
       How far can ICT implants give an individual,
        or a group, specific capabilities that could
        become a threat to society?“

                      Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10         53
             Ethical Background
   „Enhancement and Self Awareness
       What does perfectibility of human beings
       How far should the use of such implants to
        enhance human capabilities be allowed?“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      54
             Ethical Background
   „Social Aspects
       How do we relate to persons with ICT
        implants that are connected online?
       How far should ICT implants remain invisible
        to an external observer?
       How far can they be used to track human
        beings and in which cases should this be
        legally allowed?“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10        55
             Ethical Background
   „ICT Implants for which special caution is
       ICT implants that cannot be removed easily
       ICT implants that influence, determine of
        change psychic functions
       ICT implants that could be misused for social
        surveillance and manipulation
       Military applications“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10         56
   Scope: „This Opinion focuses on the
    question of ICT implants in the human
    body. It does not deal with the whole field
    of ICT devices or with „wearable“
    computing in general, although there may
    be cases in which such devices could be
    considered as quasi implants.“

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   57
   „We shall not lay hand upon thee“. This
    was the promise made in the Magna Carta
    – to respect the body in its entirety:
    Habeas Corpus.“
   „In this new world, data protection fulfils
    the task of ensuring the „habeas data“
    required by the changed circumstances“.

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   58
   „At the same time, this is a permanently
    unfinished body. It can be manipulated to
    restore functions that either were lost or
    were never known (…) again, for the sake
    of the person„s welfare and/or social
    competitiveness, as in the case of
    enhanced sports skills or intelligence

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   59
   „ICT Implants for health purposes:
       The objective is important
       The implant is necessary to achieve this
        objective, and
       There is no other less invasive and more cost-
        effective method of achieving this objective.“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      60
   „The individual and the network:
       To the extent that an individual via an ICT
        implant has become part of an ICT network,
        the operation of the whole network – not just
        the ICT implant – needs to be considered.“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10     61
   „Freedom of Research:
       The freedom of research in this field should
        be subjected not only to the informed consent
        of the persons willing to participate in new
        experiments aiming at health recovery but
        also to the awareness of the possibility of
        damaging not only bodily but also psychic
        functions of the people participating in clinical

                        Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10        62
   „Irreversible ICT implants:
       The requirements of informed consent and
        data protection (privacy and confidentiality of
        the data in particular) need to be strictly
        enforced in cases where the ICT implants are
        irreversible and cannot be removed from the
        body without severe damage of the
        individual„s life.“

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10       63
   “ICT implants for non-medical purposes
       Mental functions and personal identity: ICT
        devices should not be used to manipulate
        mental functions or change personal identity
       ICT implants and personal data: the principles
        of data protection need to be applied to this

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      64
   „Privacy and ICT implants: Provided that ICT
    devices are implanted in accordance with the
    principles outlined in this Opinion there is no
    need to declare these implants. They could
    and should remain unrecognizable to an
    external observer. The right to privacy
    includes the right to have an ICT implant.“

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10          65
   „ICT Implants and Enhancement of Physical
    and Mental capabilities
        Access to ICT implants for enhancement should be
         used only:
             To bring children or adults into the „normal“ range of the
              population, if they so wish and give their informed
              consent, or,
             To improve health prospects“

                            Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10                  66
   „The following possibilites should be
       ICT implants as a basis for cyber-racism
       ICT implants used for changing the identity,
        memory, self perception and perception of
       ICT implants used to enhance capabilities in
        order to dominate others
       ICT implants used for coercion towards others
        who do not use such devices“

                      Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      67
 „ICT Implants, Commercialisation and
  Consumer Interests
It is essential that ICT devices are not put
  on the market without adequate control.
  For instance, products that can be
  regarded as medical products should be
  controlled according to the relevant legal

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10     68
 „ICT Implants for Surveillance Purposes
ICT implants for surveillance in particular threaten
  human dignity. They could be used to locate
  people (and also to retrieve other kinds of
  information about them). This might be justified
  for security reasons (early release for prisoners)
  or for safety reasons (location of vulnerable

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10       69
„However, the EGE insists that such
  surveillance applications of ICT implants
  may only be permitted if the legislator
  considers that there is an urgent and
  justified necessity in a democratic society
  (Article 8 of the Human Rights
  Convention) and there are no less
  intrusive methods.“

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      70
„Nevertheless the EGE does not favour such uses
  and considers that surveillance applications,
  under all circumstances, must be specified in
  legislation. Surveillance procedures in individual
  cases should be approved and monitored by an
  independent court.
The same general principles should apply to the
  use of ICT implants for military purposes.“

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10           71
   „General Considerations
    Development of the Information Society
    The EGE considers that the ethical questions
     related to ICT implants in the human body are
     intimately related to the development of the
     Information Society as a whole.“

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10     72
„The EGE strongly supports the vision of a
  people-centred, inclusive and development
  oriented Information Society as proclaimed in
  the Declaration of Principles of the World
  Summit on the Information Society (Geneva

                 Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10     73
 „Public Debate and Information
A broad social and political debate is needed as
  to what kind of applications should be
  accepted and legally approved, particularly
  concerning surveillance and enhancement. A
  precautionary approach is recommended by
  the EGE.“

                 Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      74
„The Member States and their national ethics
  councils (or corresponding institutions) have a
  responsibility to create conditions for
  education and constructive, well-informed
  debates in this area.“

                 Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10       75
„Democracy and Power
Public debate and education are essential to
 ensure transparency and the Member States
 have a responsibility to ensure that the power
 of development and access to ICT implants
 are decided through democratic processes.“

                Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      76
 „Need for Regulation
It is clear that this field needs regulation.
  Currently, non-medical ICT implants in the
  human body are not explicitly covered by
  existing legislation, particularly in terms of
  privacy and data protection.“

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10         77
   „In the EGE„s view, implantable devices
    for medical purposes should be regulated
    in the same way as drugs when the
    medical goal is the same, particularly as
    such implants are only partly covered by
    Council Directive 90/385/EEC on the
    approximation of the laws of the Member
    States relating to active implantable
    medical devices.“

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10     78
„Impact Research and ICT Devices
More research on the long term social, cultural and
 healt impact of different types of ICT implants needs
 to be carried out, with a particular focus on risk
 characterisation, risk assessment, risk management
 and risk communication. The EGE considers that this
 should be kept in mind for the Seventh EU Research
 Framework Programme. This sort of precautionary
 research in a rapidly developing field is of crucial

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10              79
„Need for review
The field of ICT implants is in its infancy and
 rapid developments are taking place that raise
 societal fears as well as hopes. Consequently,
 the EGE has addressed the key ethical issues
 regarding developmentsthat are current or
 can be foreseen at the present time.“

                Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      80
„However, it is clear that the EGE will have
  to return to this subject to update our
  advice in the light of future applications of
  ICT implants. (…) Consequently, we
  consider that a review of this Opinion by
  the EGE may be necessary in about three
  to five years time.“

                  Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10    81
  Conclusion and Prospects
The EGE recommended
„More research on the long term social, cultural and
  healt impact of different types of ICT implants needs
  to be carried out, with a particular focus on risk
  characterisation, risk assessment, risk management
  and risk communication. The EGE considers that this
  should be kept in mind for the Seventh EU Research
  Framework Programme. This sort of precautionary
  research in a rapidly developing field is of crucial

                    Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10              82
      Conclusion and Prospects
Selection of EU projects that have been / are dealing with
  this matter:

   ETHICBOTS (2006-2007) (FP 6)
   ICTethics (2009-2011) (FP 7)
   EGAIS (2009-2011) (FP 7)
   ETICA (2009-2011) (FP 7)

For a complete list of Research Programmes dealing with
   ethical questions of ICT under FP7 see: CORDIS
                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10              83
     FP 6 2006-2008

Three kinds of integration were analized:
(a) Human-softbot integration, as achieved by AI research
    on information and communication technologies;
(b) Human-robot, non-invasive integration, as achieved by
    robotic research on autonomous systems inhabiting
    human environments;
(c) Physical, invasive integration, as achieved by bionic

                             Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10       84
   „Crucial ethical issues in these areas include the
    preservation of human identity, and integrity;
    applications of precautionary principles;
    economic and social discrimination; artificial
    system autonomy and accountability;
    responsibilities for (possibly unintended) warfare
    applications; nature and impact of human-
    machine cognitive and affective bonds on
    individuals and society.“

                      Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10       85
Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   86
    Conclusion and Prospects
 The ICTethics project – ICT that makes
  the difference
The basis of the work is an investigation of
  the ESLA (Ethical, Social and Legal
  Aspects) of Ambient Intelligence &
ICT for Security

                 Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   87
        Conclusion and Prospects
   Ambient Intelligence:
       Intelligent Environments: Personal Health
        Systems (PHS)
       Convergence of Physical, Mental and Virtual:
        Personal Humanoid Assistent (PHA)
       Internet of Things: Radio-Frequency
        Identification (RFID)
   ICT for Security: Biometrics

                       Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10        88
       Conclusion and Prospects
   ICT that makes the difference. The future of Ambient
    Intelligence and ICT for Security. International Conference,
    Brussels, Nov. 22-25, 2009

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Legal aspects
1. RFID. Implants and the human body
 Legal aspects of ICT implants
  Stefano Rodotà1, Diane Whitehouse2, Penny
  1 La Sapienza, Fondazione Basso, Rome (Italy)
  2 The Castlegate Consultancy, (CITY) (United
  3 Middlesex University (United Kingdom)

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10       90
 2. Privacy. Toward an electronically
 Legal concepts of human identity?
  Stefano Rodotà, La Sapienza, Fondazione Basso,
  Rome (Italy)
 On Interpreting and Constructing (Non-) Human
  Rafael Capurro International Center for
  Information Ethics, Karlsruhe (Germany)
 DNA barcoding and personal genomics
  Giuseppe Novelli, Tor Vergata University (Italy)

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10      91
      Conclusion and Prospects
   EGAIS (Ethical GovernAnce of emergIng
    technologieS) (2009-2011)

Aim of the project: to overcome the existent
  limitations of the current approaches to
  ethical governance in projects with
  technical development.

                   Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   92
     Conclusion and Prospects
 ETICA (2009-2011)
Aim of the project: to identify and addresss
  ethical issues arising from information and
  communication technologies -- such as
  ambient intelligence, human-machine
  symbiosis, and neuroelectronics -- in the
  coming 10 to 15 years.

                     Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   93
How far should we let ICT
 devices geht under our

          Rafael Capurro, ECLSC 10   94