EPILEPSY AND ANTI-SEIZURE DRUGS by fjwuxn

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									Tobias Milz
   synchronous, high frequency
    discharge of neurons from cortical or
    subcortical centres




    sudden change in behavior characterized by
    changes in sensory perception or motor activity
 result   of extreme metabolic disturbance:

   ○ sedative/hypnotic drug withdrawal


   ○ meningitis, CVA


   ○ renal failure


   ○ fever (children)
   recurrent seizures without a reversible
    metabolic cause that may include repetitive
    muscle jerking (convulsions):


     ○ genetic (autosomal dominant genes)


     ○ severe head injury


     ○ ischemic injury, tumour
○ Partial (focal):

   - Simple - motor or sensory - remain conscious
   - Complex - impairment of consciousness


○ Generalised:

   - spreads to both hemispheres
   - loss of consciousness
   - > 30 min (may be life threatening)
 Goal:

  no seizures


  ↓ drug side effects


  60-80% patients obtain good seizure control
   ACTIONS OF ANTISEIZURE DRUGS:

     Suppress discharge of neurons in seizure (suppress
      propagation of seizure activity)

     Mechanisms of action:

      ○ block voltage-gated Na+ channels from return to activated state (↓
        rapid repetitive neuronal firing)

      ○ block T-type Ca2+ channels that control oscillatory responses in
        thalamic neurons

      ○ enhance the effect of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (open Cl-
        channels)
   USE OF ANTISEIZURE DRUGS:

     Drowsiness


     Confusion


     Ataxia (loss of coordinate muscular movement)


     Diplopia (double vision)
   Speckmann Physiologie

   www.wikipedia.de/com

   www.answers.com

   www.dict.cc

								
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