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Yao Yue: Enterprise Architecture as Strategy

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					Yao Yue: Enterprise Architecture as Strategy
    ?January 17, 2010, to "Enterprise Architecture as Strategy"
as the theme of Enterprise Architecture National propaganda (Beijing Station) was
held in Beijing. Information and Information Management, Peking University
Research Center of the Secretary-General, Registrar's Office North CIO
Ban Yao Yue, entitled "Enterprise Architecture as Strategy"
speech, this speech at the scene order.
Leaders, Ladies and Gentlemen, Good afternoon! Here, I will give you to do a report,
entitled "Enterprise Architecture as Strategy." Chu Boshi also
said that this topic is the name of a book, this book a great influence in the
international arena, the enterprise architecture as a strategy, I also borrowed the name.
Today, I speak the following five questions: 1 Why do we need enterprise architecture;
2, enterprise architecture methodology; 3, the role of enterprise architecture; 4, the
strategic significance of corporate structure; 5, summed up.


First of all, the first question about why the need for enterprise architecture.
To build a house with a house structure, building cars, the structure of a vehicle,
building city city architecture, development software, a software architecture. How to
develop business? Certainly needs enterprise architecture. The development of
business not just IT, are not just business. Architecture are everywhere. I used to do a
few pictures comparing the left to build a house for example, for the structure of
knowledge in rural areas can decide what kind of house built, then build two or three
would have collapsed, the city can be covered with 100 layers of the floor, that is,
Because of the structure of knowledge. This map is said to be China's
earliest cars, luxury cars of today look like? Understanding of the architecture also
determines what we can build a car. The same is true of a city, here is the chaotic
slums, here is a patchwork of tall buildings.
Framework for an understanding of things, we can use it to determine the capacity
and level. Our understanding of enterprise architecture, will determine whether we put
this company into what. Just that the experts also said that the definition of enterprise
architecture for very, very much, Open Group enterprise architecture has no clear
meaning, because no one who does not agree with the definition. Therefore, such a
thick book TOGAF enterprise architecture is not defined.
Here I mention the main definition. Zachman said that a successful business
enterprise architecture is to determine the law of nature. MIT said it was an
organizational logic, including the company's core processes, IT
capabilities. U.S. CIO Council, it is defined as a structured mechanism. Wikipedia
definition is to design a discipline of enterprises. Many, many definitions are actually
from different angles, are not wrong.
I also gave a definition, this is my understanding according to their own under the
definition of share with you: Enterprise Architecture is to define a higher level from
the issue of enterprise development, and from the business, data, applications and
technology elements show the internal structure and business relationships so that all
stakeholders to make effective decisions in a discipline.
Enterprise Architecture is to make the development of enterprises, enterprises in order
to define the problem, the problem to a higher level definition of standing.
Microphone on the table to look like the environment here, the table on the room to
see the room environment. Can only define it from a higher level, rather than its own,
look to see business IT. How it was unfolding? Through business, data, application of
these elements of the enterprise's internal structure and relations, first of all
what kind of structure, what kind of relationship. Purpose is to enable stakeholders to
make effective decisions, it is a discipline so.
Second, I introduce enterprise architecture methodology.
I focus on to talk about the development process, Zachman87 framework put forward
in the framework of information systems, why it is defined as the father of enterprise
architecture? This is because this plan reflect the complete picture of enterprise
architecture. Here are two lines of development. Spewak94 methodology put forward
in the EAP, this is less than you mentioned. At that time many people talk about
structure, but structure into which part? Framework for how to do? Spewak the first
time how to do enterprise architecture planning will become the plan launched,
business modeling, the existing systems and technologies, data architecture,
application architecture, technical architecture and implementation plan for seven
steps.
02-03 years is an important milestone in 2002 TOGAF8.0 launched into a true
enterprise architecture. 2003 DoDAF1.0 out, FEAF in 2003 has an updated version. .
At this time, to some extent the development of IT architecture into enterprise
architecture, and more from a business point of view.
2009 is a new milestone, TOGAF9.0 out, DODAG2.0 also released. Here reflect a
common point, they began to service-oriented framework, and content enriched.
Integration into the SOA, the business relationship between architecture and IT
architecture, described by way of services increasingly clear.
This is our understanding of enterprise architecture framework of the five most
important to understand the essence of it, you can even understand what is enterprise
architecture.
Zachman this framework, this day is still widely used because it is a very logical and
abstract framework. Horizontally from a different perspective, including planners,
owners, designers, builders, subcontractors, and functional entities. Vertical row on
the data side, function, network, who, when and why to do this thing. 36 Check the
details of the logic of enterprise development, which made a show here. Zachman
enterprise architecture advocates is to refine each grid to the limit, so as to make the
enterprise architecture structure.
EAP was to enable the industry as one of the many bright eyes, enterprise architecture
can do so. Inside each block, or every part of the steps which are detailed, the output
is what the deliverables of what is what. This method is more biased towards
technical architecture.
TOGAF Chu Boshi have just said, I do not say.
FEA is a federal enterprise architecture, is the U.S. government with an enterprise
architecture. FEA can be seen as a case. Because it is used by the U.S. government. It
also contains the contents very much. There are four plans I think it is representative,
99 years out of the FEAF architecture framework, how to do it, including the eight
major components. The right is the reference model, the reference model of a time
when many people regarded it in a wrong interpretation, took a direct reference model
for system. Reference model is primarily for matching and cross-agency analysis. All
of the projects and departments, when reported to the OMB, through the reference
model is to support the view of what a business line or sub-functions and functions of
each business line has a label, can be found reuse. Services to construct a model
which used what component, which is a new label out. The reference model is used
for matching, find reuse, sharing and cooperation opportunities. Bottom left is how
the eight steps in the development of methodology, 06,07 years and a new framework
for guiding development. Here are a sub-block architecture development methodology,
a complete look at the complete structure can not do, block structure method how to
do it. This is the 2008 summary of the various best practices to promote a
methodology, called FSAM.
DoDAF is more important is that these two maps, one of eight perspective view of it,
how do the other six steps of.
I made a simple comparison, mainly from the earliest version, the latest version,
complete and practical model to compare. Zachman first edition was 87 years, the
latest version is 03. Integrity is moderate, although it is inclusive of 36 lattice
anything can look inside plug, but there is specific content is a big framework.
Therefore, its integrity is moderate, but not how to do step by step methodology, to
tell you how to do the steps. Many take longer and the Zachman methodology match,
I had Zachman which of a certain grid or lattice. I think it's practical side.
EAP is 92 years out, then not updated. I think it is the integrity of its medium, because
the inside largely is not out of the system architecture level. If it is to do a complete
enterprise, is very simple, complete methodology to make it. But when a business is
very complicated, this methodology is becoming less likely. Practical point of view,
he tells you what level into this framework, how to do it. So practical is moderate.
TOGAF is a 95-year 1.0, 99 9.0, a high integrity. The six major parts of ADM
methodology to the method of approach, each step of each cycle methodology and
techniques used to do both. Content Frame demonstrates that the things what is there
ability to structure the framework, reference model and so on. Practical in my view,
relatively high, TOGAF methodology is that these leading companies and consulting
firms were used in the work methodology. They use these in practice the methodology
summarized together. There are also a problem when you re-use it is not easy,
TOGAF9 already become such a thick book, applications need to address the specific
questions of what kind of cut.
FEA FEAF from 99 years out based on the development of its core content is one of
five reference models. , On the content of FEA updated every year, and now also
includes how to do SOA, how he has to do security, and so on. Keep this thing
updated, because it is in use. Integrity is concerned, FEA is certainly more complete,
the U.S. government are required to use enterprise architecture, and with the FEA
match, but you do not specify what kind of enterprise architecture framework. FEA
integrity is relatively high, availability is relatively high. Many countries are to learn.
DoDAF, 03 年 1.0, 2009 is version 9.0, completeness is relatively high, divided into
management guidelines, architects and developers to guide three-volume guide. 8
point of view of content, how are the associate's. Its practicality is also
higher, which is used by Department of Defense, to tell you step by step how to do it.
Although it is a defense used by the United States many companies are using. The
forces are coordinated combat capability, the enterprise is the ability to work together.
For example, enterprise supply chain, how the coordination of external
communication, is essentially the same.
The third issue, for me, about the role of enterprise architecture.
On the enterprise architecture have all had a lot of use, IT with business matching,
strategy implementation tool, save costs and avoid waste is the role of enterprise
architecture. But speaking we all felt very confused, specifically how to do it? I think
from our daily work of information to consider. Information in doing normal daily
work. Enterprise architecture can help me do anything. I used a soft PBORS north of
information into the framework of the five dimensions. This framework includes
information technology planning, construction, operation and maintenance, which is
the life cycle of three stages. On the left of the information resources management,
information resource management is a large area of the concept, all systems are built
to the development and use of information resources, as indicated in ERP, CRM,
Government Electronic government systems are all used to develop information
resources. The right is the information security management, application and security
are the two pillars of security is the security of all angles. Five dimensions from EA in
this inside look at what role to play.
Information technology planning, a look at traditional IT planning how to do so.
Comparing the first school in China is IBM IT planning in the BSP methodology.
Later, someone with IE, that is, information engineering methodology to do planning.
Now use the most is ITSP. These methodological effect? A typical result, plans not
keep up with changes done to put there, because the changes too fast, or not at that
time considered too have limitations. BSP methodology used from the business
analysis, business goals, business processes, to use what kind of data, data
classification to determine which system you want to develop, and what should be
done in a system where, more logical, but it is an ideal methodology. Make the system,
in defining the limits of the system can do so.
Information Engineering methodology also a very clear scope of the specified
requirements, we use this methodology is possible. If in fact the IT planning level
there is a big problem, it may take a long time effort to make out the theme database,
make up what may not use or not use. Because we apply the system to the data after it
has its standards, data requirements. Even if you own the development, unless you
completely own development, There are a number of elements that can be borrowed,
but even if he Kaifayewu demand is also changing, Shujusuiran is Feichanghexin,
very important, be sure to consider the strategic business Liu Cheng are constantly
changing.
ITSP This is now the major IT vendors are talking about strategic planning, core
methods are the same, from business requirements to IT Investigation, and then
according to your strategy, business vision to your IT vision of the future. This vision
with your present situation there is a gap between the analysis. The gap analysis on
planning some projects. Then get your investment plan to build operating system,
control system. This methodology is used relatively frequently, are more advantages
than the traditional methodology, fast. This methodology also has a problem, may
guide us in the short term, many people had this thing done no use, and is not in
accordance with this implementation. Why not by the Executive? Not keep up with
change is planned.
EA-based planning methodology to do so, what is its methodology? Is a strategic
enterprise architecture planning. Enterprise architecture and planning can be divided
into many levels, enterprise architecture has a layered, strategic framework, block
structure, the solution framework. For the strategic level architecture that is what?
This structure reflects our IT and business vision of the future. This vision than pure
imagination. Enterprise architecture model of how business operations support? Is
centralized, decentralized, coordinated or integrated? Here relates to what data you
want to share, which does not require sharing of data, which features may be reused,
there is a direction laid down the framework for the future will become my principles
and standards, it is a great direction, which is the strategic level .
Such an enterprise architecture strategy, planning to bring a corporate structure is the
ability and rolling plans. Unlike the original plan to do so architecture done up and
rested there. An organizational structure is generally made of the ability to audit
projects, control project. And in each project, how do you match with my strategy, is
how to support the business, strategy, architecture because I have this direction, the
larger strategic framework, a set of principles and constraints. Plan is to roll, you have
new demand, the demand for new norms to pursue such a framework. This is from a
planning point of view, the methodology to do with EA IT planning.
In the middle, from planning to construction, we have a big plan, this plan is divided
up into many levels. Construction phase, we see the traditional project management
methodology used, for example, CMM in software development were quite a lot,
software maturity, through the process of improving the quality of decision software,
PMBOK is divided into nine areas of the project, Prince2 the project is divided into
eight process. These are in use, but also a very important phenomenon, the demand
out of control, repeatedly changes. Because these project management methods but
you defined the item, you can demand a clear way to do this, but for information is
changing very fast, not so clearly defined. Today, the demand just laid down to be
changed tomorrow. This is a great situation, although there are good tools for project
management and project management methods, but the actual can not manage.
      EA-based idea management, not only have business needs but also needs a
framework, EA will be able to control project change control. Not only to meet the
needs of a business operations needs, but also a framework for demand. Example,
what data should be shared, which should be reused, even and strategies do not match.
EA at the project level, you can control every item in the project structure in the
process of control. Can give an example, more successful in the international business
which, in the corporate structure, your project through this audit found that demand
for the new structure, for example, keep up he found the other shared data, it would
have structure budget, do not take the operational budget for the project. Take the
budget structure to do this project to ensure the framework continues to do,
continuous improvement projects to not only meet your business needs, which
integrated into the structure of our strategic vision. As a result it brings to share, reuse
and cooperation. In the middle of the project process, not to say do you have a
demand for one, which has decision-making structure can be. How to find
opportunities to share, how find reuse opportunities, how find opportunities for
cooperation, only through the structure when it considered together, or you have this
ability to control it, you can turn it into a project management capacity.
In the information technology operation and maintenance phase, the key with ITIL,
ISO20000. I define them as the traditional way, is not the way EA guidance. ITIL is a
process of 10 plus a desk, ISO20000 is a 13 process, the IT service management
standard framework and methodology of some degree of application of IT to improve
service quality to a certain extent. Also brought a big problem. We spent a great price
for the standard IT processes work very, very standard. But it did not hook up with
business demand. IT process re-smooth changes in business needs to connect it with
something up? And now more and more IT services with business services, regardless,
which is why ITILV3 will come out from the service strategy, service design, service
transition, service operation, and finally to the continuous improvement of services.
ITILV3 not come out of thin air, and it is a summary of best practices for many
companies, it is an issue that's very difficult to ground the industry. Why
hard landing? Because the person engaged in IT business needs to know how? How
the strategic design services based on business strategy? He did not give him such a
view, how to provide excellent IT service? This is the traditional IT service
management. Both ITIL and ISO2000 have this problem.
Based on EA's IT operation and maintenance is the EA can provide IT
services to business view. If we have EA, EA can provide different levels of
decision-making view of him, in the end what kind of service is from the business
needs in mind. That is why the ITILV2 into V3. EA to provide support for the view,
the information Yehao tools 也好.
Information resource management from a large range of speaking, companies which
have a variety of ERP, CRM and so many applications of the system, the government
also has a variety of e-government applications. Information Resources Management
is from a large range of speaking, these applications are for the direct purpose of the
development and utilization of information resources. Currently these applications we
see the general problem is that information silos, redundant construction. Complexity
of the system, then to the last degree, some companies do have to reinvent the wheel.
EA-based information resources management, or if the management of these
applications do, then what it will bring a way? EA only can guide us to make good use
of existing applications, you can also guide us with BPM, SOA and cloud computing
and other ways to build our application. SOA next step should be combined with the
PBM, and the common needs of EA guidance. From the EA in terms of building your
future applications, which many large enterprises, enterprise architecture strategy
which these are taken into consideration.
BPM, why should there BPM? Because many systems are created islands of
information and hope to flow through the business process management strung these
systems. SOA is the hope that our way through the service can support the business
changes. If we are in the EA's guidance, then be easier. SOA floor now
more difficult, and why? SOA is enterprise architecture as a way. For a business
enterprise architecture in terms of what is needed first of all, to know that I want to
implement SOA enterprise architecture. If you say no, then enterprise architecture,
SOA is considered from a technical level, if it faced too many problems, many
companies are basically done after a lot of services do not know how to control and
become more complex.
Under the guidance of the EA, BPM, SOA, cloud computing service means access to
these applications is a major direction. It is caused by the flow of information without
boundaries. This is the Open Group's vision, no border flow of information.
No border no border is not to say, but the information can pass through the border,
because the way we structure up to their management.
Besides information security management, some enterprises have passed ISO27001,
but many of the current situation is the enterprises through certification, and
certificate and rested there. Certification is a certification, and work methods or the
methods of work, there is no floor. Certification may be hard this time we do some
work, ISO27001 why it is difficult to run up and landing real? Because these
standards reflect a common feature, including ISO20000 is like this, eyebrows beard
grabbed. It is not based on business and what kind of security, safety is always
relative, not absolute safety security. Security is a dynamic. Eyebrows and beard if it
is only this time can only be a mere formality had grabbed.
Considerations based on EA, EA can provide views of information security, EA in the
information view what made inside business, application, data, technology,
construction technology, which we can find in this important security control points
where, or is what kind of security policy or measure. Without such a view EA, wanted
to build a comprehensive information management system is difficult. By the way EA
can help to establish a pragmatic and effective security architecture.
The fourth problem is the strategic significance of enterprise architecture.
First of all enterprise architecture to support business operations. Enterprise
architecture to support the business, keep up business matching, the maximum is the
planning level. One of the highest point of the enterprise architecture to support
business operations model, you have to understand that business is what business
model. MIT Information Systems Research Center survey that many companies
around the world, basically it did from the two dimensions of classification.
Enterprises can standardize business processes and integration to the
enterprise's business operation mode as the four categories. Standardization
of business processes what it means? Means reuse. Business process integration
means that data sharing.
I find the four companies into the inside of these four dimensions. Example, Industrial
and Commercial Bank of China is a typical centralized business model. Why should
there be a large focus on? Why do successful? It's a very high degree of
business process standardization. Business integration is also very good, can not be
said in Beijing, to Shanghai to take less than the money. Standardization of business
processes very high concentration means that he must be very centralized business
model.
China Resources is a typical non-related diversified businesses, its standard is very
low. Have to do real estate, there do beer. For such companies and what kind of
enterprise architecture? In the inside there are also many do share, for example, they
can network, hardware, and many services can be shared.
Johnson is a diversified business-related, a man you do not have birth, you visit the
Johnson & Johnson baby website, he may be life-long interest you. Its high
degree of business integration, data sharing should take into account. His process
standardization is very low, different business lines are different business processes,
but the need to share customer data.
McDonald's is another classic example of the uniform type. Uniform type
of enterprise is a typical example of chain operator, its standard level is very high, but
the concentration is very low. McDonald's in Beijing, Shanghai,
McDonald's process, all the operations process standardization,
standardization of operating around the world are the same. But integration is very
low, Beijing, Shanghai customer data does not need to share with. This is the different
needs of different business model to support enterprise architecture.
Some companies would like to strengthen the control strategy is reflected in the inside.
Some even from centralized to decentralized This is a business strategy, from its
business model and strategic point of view, resources, business, features to consider.
The second is to support business innovation. How enterprise architecture to support
business innovation? Business innovation and I think a few important points, what
business innovation?
1, E-commerce: a large range of stresses is the use of information technology tools to
support business operations, including internal information, narrowly speaking is
online B2B. Successful e-commerce to do, why so many companies waste a lot of
money and not very successful? Because e-commerce, e-plus business plus business is
IT. EA is a methodology to IT and business together to consider. What your business
and what IT should be considered together, constitute one of your enterprise
architecture. Needed an integrated enterprise architecture approach to consider
2, virtual management: Many manufacturers are now popular to talk about light
company, what is a light company? Assets of the company into a light, low
value-added, labor-intensive are outsourced, so a light company. Here is a very typical
example is the Shanghai Metersbonwe, factories are not his, he is a virtual business. If
not a good enterprise architecture support you, to your production, product and
customer data, this information together, not a good architecture, you are very
difficult to do successfully, and you from the perspective of enterprise architecture .
3, Supply Chain Integration: Many companies do is supply chain integration, business
innovation, ability to work to form a collaborative, integrated supply chain, why?
Because the market changes faster and faster, it must keep up with rapid response
between the downstream. Hope that through such a way that constituted barriers to
competition. We are all in the coordinated operation of the system, others want to get
into very difficult. This supply chain integration also needs enterprise architecture. We
learn in the classroom which DoDAF, built in the United States Department of
Defense military and naval operations coordination capability. Coordinated operations
in the market is the ability of various stakeholders, how a variety of data in
coordination? This requires support for enterprise architecture.
4, build core competence: how to help a business enterprise architecture build core
competence? The most important thing is to become the enterprise architecture
enterprise architecture capability. This architecture's ability to make my
strategy can be effective rapid implementation. Many experts have just mentioned,
why the implementation of enterprise architecture as a strategic tool? Because in the
enterprise architecture inside, we can see that business development strategy and what
kind of ability. What kind of projects through capacity building investments. When
each IT investment are built around this strategy, which is a very important strategic
implementation capacity, very fast framework. Rapid response in the market reflected
the ability, because I have such a corporate structure, my stakeholders to get useful
information quickly. These things will become the core competitiveness of
enterprises.
Finally, I make a conclusion. Why do we need from the start on enterprise architecture?
Introduced enterprise architecture methodology, and then introduced the role of
enterprise architecture, the five dimensions. Referring again to enterprise architecture
strategic significance.
What is enterprise architecture? Enterprise Architecture is a system of systems. A
business there are a lot of system resources, systems, logistics systems, as well as
human and information systems. Enterprise architecture is the system of systems.
Enterprise architecture methodology is the methodology of information. We are all
from different point of view of information, only the EA methodology is a complete
methodology. Next sentence, it is the overall information architecture. It is the basis
for integrating IT with the business. We all want to keep up business IT integration
with business matching, IT business matching, how are you? This relationship does
not describe this system is not established. You'll struggle to match the real
integration.
Another is that it is building the information society based on the information flow
without boundaries. Our vision is no border flow of information, anyone, anywhere,
access to the information he needs. Enterprise architecture is to allow you to build the
basis of this ability. So as a business enterprise architecture strategy.
Thank you!
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