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Refinement of the phenomenon and experience

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					Refinement of the phenomenon and experience
1, The Butterfly Effect
      70s of last century, the United States a 名叫洛伦兹 meteorologist in the Air
system theory, said that the Amazon rain forest a butterfly wing vibration occasionally,
perhaps two weeks would cause a tornado in Texas . The butterfly effect is that very
small changes in initial conditions continue to enlarge after its future status will result
in very significant difference. Some small things can be confusing, and some small
things such as amplified by the system, then an organization, a country is very
important, it can not confused.
2, frog phenomenon
       Directly into a frog into hot water pot, because of its adverse reactions are very
sensitive environment, will quickly jump out of pot outside. If you put a frog into a
pot of cold water and slowly heated, the frog will not immediately jump out of pot,
the water temperature gradually increased the ultimate outcome is to be boiled frog is
dead, because the water temperature so high that the frog can not stand, it has been
too late, or is unable to jump out the pot outside. Frog told us that some mutation
events, they often cause people to alert, and prone to cause deadly is the feel-good
cases, the actual situation deteriorating, there is no clear detection.
3, crocodiles rule
       The intent is to assume that a crocodile bite your feet, if you hand to try to
break away from your feet, while crocodile will bite your feet and hands. The more
you struggle, it was the more bite. In the event that crocodile bite your feet, your only
solution is to sacrifice one foot. For example, the stock market, the crocodile rule is:
when you find yourself trading a departure from the direction of the market, must
immediately stop, without any delay, shall not have any luck.
4, Catfish Effect
       ?Previously, sardines low survival rate during transportation. After it was found
that, if put in the sardines in a catfish, the situation is somewhat improved, the
survival rate will be greatly enhanced. This is Why? Catfish in the original to a
strange environment, the will "brash", everywhere, travel,
which for a lot of quiet, the sardine run, no doubt played a mixed role; and sardines
found in such a " dissent ", naturally, very nervous, speed
swimming. This problem will be solved oxygen sardines, and sardines, will not die.
5, herding
       ?Sheep where to go, where to go behind the sheep to follow. Herding is the first
equity investment in a term mainly refers to the investors in the transaction existed in
the process learning and imitation phenomenon, "suit" blindly
follow others, resulting in a certain period of time in the same stock trading .
6, hedgehog rules
       ?2 sleepy hedgehog, as cold and crowded in. Because their body can have a
long a thorn, so they left some distance, but could not stand cold, then conspire
together. After a series of two hedgehog finally found a suitable distance: not only the
warmth of each other have the person who was not subject to binding. Hedgehog law
mainly refers to interpersonal communication in the "psychological
distance effect."
7, watches Law
       Watch the law is a man with one watch, you can know it is a few minutes, and
when he has two Shique can not be determined. 2 table and can not tell a person a
more accurate time, so they will watch people lose confidence in accurate time. Watch
Law in business administration gives us a very intuitive inspiration, is the same
individual or an organization can not simultaneously with two different methods, can
not set two different goals simultaneously, and even each individual can not be two
people to At the same time command, or will the business or personal loss.
8, broken window theory
       A house if the windows broke, no one to repair Shortly afterward, other
windows will be broken somehow; a wall, if there had not been washed a number of
graffiti, and soon, the walls covered with a mess on, unsightly thing; a very clean
place, people are taking out the trash sorry, but if there is garbage on the ground there,
the people will not hesitate to throw, did not feel ashamed.
9, 28 Law (Bale and more law)
       ?Late 19th early 20th century Italian economist Bale more than that in any
group of things, the most important and only a small part, about 20%, the remaining
80% even though the majority, but it is secondary. About 80% of social wealth is
concentrated in the hands of 20%, while 80% of people with only 20% of the social
wealth. This statistical imbalance in the social, economic and life everywhere, this is
the 28 rule. 28 law tells us not to the average analysis, processing and look at the
problem, business and management to grasp the crucial few; to identify those who can
provide a 80% profit, but only 20% of the total key customers to enhance services to
achieve a multiplier effect; business leaders to work seriously classification analysis,
are the principal energy to solve the main problem, focus on major projects.
10, barrel theory
         If the composition of a wooden barrel length of missing, then the barrel of
containing water that is not determined by the longest piece of wood, but it depends
on the shortest piece of wood.
11, Matthew
 "Bible? Matthew" in a famous saying: "Whoever
has will be given to him and told him to spare; not, even he has will be taken from
him." Sociologists derive from the "horse too effect
"concept, to describe the areas of social life in common polarization.
12, bird cage logic
           A beautiful bird cage hanging in the room where the most prominent, had a
few days, the owner will make one of the following two options: to throw away cage,
or buy a bird cage on the back. This is the logic cage. The process is simple, imagine
you are the owner of the room, as long as people entered the room, see the cage, you
can not help but ask you: "bird? Is not dead?" When you answer:
"I never or raise birds. "People will ask:" So, do you
need a bird cage? "Finally you have to choose one of two options in the
second, because this ratio is much easier to endless interpretation. Cage logical reason
is simple: most of the time people are thought to inertia. So visible in the life and
work culture of thinking how important it is.
13, broken window effect
       ?The study of psychology has a phenomenon called the "broken
window effect", that is, a house if the windows broke, no one to repair
Shortly afterward, other windows will be broken inexplicable; a wall, if some graffiti
is not washed, and soon, the wall and covered with a mess, unsightly things. A very
clean place, people will shy disposal of waste, but when there is garbage on the
ground there, the people will not hesitate to throw, did not feel ashamed. This is really
a very strange phenomenon. Psychologists study is the "tipping
point", how to how dirty the ground, people will think anyway, so dirty,
dirty little longer does not matter, what will be bad and to what extent, people will
give up on themselves and let it rot in the end. No bad thing, if not blocked off at the
beginning, into a trend, change it Gaibu Diao, as if the river bank, a small gap is not
timely repair, dams can collapse, causing the loss of millions of times. Crime is
actually the result of disorder, the New York City in the 80's when the real
presence rob, not kill every day, walking in the street in broad daylight to be afraid of.
Not to mention the subway, car dirty, foul words plastered everywhere, sitting in the
subway, and everyone feels insecure. Although I have not been looted, but the
professors have been in broad daylight, knocked one lose their eye sight, from the end
of his research career, so I talk about Tiger color for many years, not alone to New
York. New York city and the city recently raised a lot of reputation, so I am quite
surprised that a city has been sinking, can escape from the dead, moving upward. So
when I went out to meet, and met a criminologist, one immediately to him for advice,
the original New York City is the last book with a sense of the broken window effect
of the theory, first to improve the criminal environment in which it is not easy crime,
then Once upon a Budao slowly return to order. Although this approach was criticized
as being slow, the "ship to be sunk still wash the deck," but
New York City subway cars or from the maintenance of a clean start, and do not buy
tickets white people who ride with handcuffs chained row into a standing on the
platform, open to the public to announce the government's determination to
rectify was found very effective. Police found that people do not really compare the
situation of crime in a clean, also found that grasping Riders rewarding, because each
of those seven Riders have one is wanted, there is a 20 in the carrying of weapons, so
the police are willing to seriously grab Riders, Riders making criminals afraid, afraid
to go out with weapons to avoid more harm than good, runs the risk. This New York
City, from the smallest, the easiest place to proceed to break the criminal link of
(chain), so this vicious cycle can continue.
14, the duty to spread effect
         ?At 3:20 p.m. on the March 13, 1964, outside an apartment in New York
before a man named Juno young women than the white bar at the end of the way
home from work between the assassination. When she cried in despair:
"Some people want to kill it! Help! Help!" Heard shouting
nearby residents lit the lamp, opened the window, the attackers ran away. When
everything is calm, the killer returned to commit crimes. When she yelled, the nearby
residents then the light switch, the attackers then fled. That has nothing to do when
she returned to her home upstairs, the killer once again appeared before her, to kill her
on the stairs. In the process, even though she shouted for help, her neighbors in the
window at least 38 to watch, but no one to rescue her, or no one call the police. This
incident caused a stir in New York society, but also attracted the attention of social
workers in psychology and thinking. It is considered a large number of bystander
phenomenon known as the responsibility of neglecting the dispersion effects. The
responsibility of spreading and the formation of the reasons, psychologists have done
a lot of experiments and surveys, found that: this phenomenon can not just say that
everyone's callous, or moral decay of the performance increased. For
different occasions, people really are different acts of assistance. When a person in an
emergency situation, if only he can provide help, he would clearly aware of their
responsibilities, provide assistance to the victims. If he is refusing to produce feelings
of guilt, feelings of guilt, it need to pay a high psychological cost. If there are many
people are here, Bangzhu seeking help for Zeren on by everyone to share, create
liability dispersed, each share of responsibility Henshao, bystanders and even the one
prepared with his 自己 sense of responsibility for Ye Bu Dao, Congerchansheng an
"I do not save, save by someone else" mentality, resulting in
"collective indifference" of the situation. How to break this
situation, this is a research psychologist is an important issue.
?
15, Parkinson's Law
Well-known British historian Nuosigude Parkinson through long-term research, write
a book called "Parkinson's Law" book. In his book,
agency staff explained the reasons for and consequences of inflation: an incompetent
official, there may be three ways, first for his resignation, the seat vacate competent
person; the second is for a competent person to assist their work; third appointment of
two levels lower than they were when the assistant. This first way is absolutely Zou
Bude, because that would lose many of the rights; The second way can not go,
because that would be capable of their opponents; seems that only a third way the
most suitable. Thus, two mediocre assistant shared his work, his own orders from high
above, they will not pose a threat to their rights. Two assistants as incompetent, they
are calling the shots, then found himself two more incompetent assistant. And so on,
to form a body bloated, overstaffed, and mutual wrangling, inefficient leadership
system.

16, Halo Effect
The famous Russian literary giant Pushkin Zengyin halo effect suffered a great deal.
He feverishly in love with is called "Moscow the first beauty"
of Natan Li, and married her. Natan Li looks amazing, but different puhi Jin-Zhi Road
substandard. When Pushkin's poem written for each to read it to her when.
She always covered their ears and said: "Do not listen! Do not
listen!" On the contrary, she always Pushkin play with her, attended some
luxurious party, dance, Pushkin created for this leave, which makes debt, and finally
her duel to death, so that a literary superstar prematurely fallen. Appears in Pushkin, a
beautiful woman is also inevitably have great wisdom and noble character, however,
is not the case, a phenomenon known as the halo effect.
The so-called halo effect, that is, interpersonal communication, people who show the
characteristics of a particular area, cover the other features, resulting in interpersonal
cognitive obstacles. In daily life, "halo effect" often quietly
influence our perception and evaluation of others. For instance, some elderly to young
people's individual shortcomings, or dress, habits find it unacceptable to
think that they must unpromising; some young friends, one thing about due
admiration, will see him everywhere lovely, really called "a cover 100 Jun
ugly." Halo effect is a sweeping subjective psychological speculation, the
error is: First, it is easy to grasp the individual characteristics and habits in order to
promote individual and general, as Mangrenmoxiang as a point on behalf of the face;
second It is no inherent relationship to some personality or physical characteristics
associated with, the assertion that such features are bound to have other characteristics;
third, it said, certainly good on all that bad on all the negative, this is a absolute
domination by the tendency of subjective bias. In short, the halo effect is the
interpersonal relationships in a great psychological impact on people with cognitive
impairment, we have contacts to try to avoid and overcome the side effects of halo
effect.

17, Hawthorne effect (Hawthorne effect)
An experimenter effect in psychology. 20-30 years of the 20th century, U.S.
researchers in the Chicago Western Electric Company Hawthorne factory's
working conditions, social factors and relations of production efficiency experiment
found experimenter effect, called Hawthorne effect. The first phase of the experiment
in November 1924 from the beginning of the working conditions and productivity of
the relationship between the test group and control group. Increase or control the
results regardless of illumination in the experimental group had increased production,
and constant illumination output of the control group also increased. In addition, tests
of the wages paid, rest breaks, the daily work of length and number of days per week,
and other factors, can not see these working conditions, there is a direct impact on
production efficiency. The second phase of the trial is led by Harvard Professor Mayo,
and focused on social factors and the relationship between productivity and found that
the production efficiency is mainly caused by the experimenter in the spirit of the
great changes have taken place. Participate in the trial of the workers are placed in
special laboratory research staff led by the social condition has changed the concern
from all sides, creating a feeling of participating, feel an important part of the
company so that the employees From the social point of view has been encouraging,
promoting increased production.
This effect tells us that when students or their attention or attention by the public, the
study and would greatly increase the efficiency of communication. Therefore, in our
daily lives to learn to live in friendship with others, understand what kind of behavior
is accepted by students and teachers and appreciation, we can only live and learn and
continually increase their good behavior, it may be more people's attention
and appreciation, but also can allow us to study progresses, full of confidence!

18, learned helplessness experiments
        ?The earliest effects of learned helplessness and Xiligeman Overmyer found
later in animal and human studies has been widely discussed. In short, many
experiments show that trained dogs can cross the barriers or engage in other behavior
to avoid the shock the experimenter added to it. However, if the dogs are not expected
before (do not know when to come) and can not be controlled by electric shock (such
as interruption of electric shock or not depends on the dog's behavior),
when the dog was an opportunity to escape electric shock, they also change was
unable to escape. Moreover, the dogs also showed other defects, such as frustration
and depression, decreased initiative and so on. The reason a dog show this situation is
due early in the experiment learned a sense of hopelessness. That is, they recognize
their own, whatever is done can not control the termination shock. In each experiment,
the electric shock Zhongzhi are under experimenter control, and the dog will not
know to their own outside of Kong Zhi Neng Li changed Zhezhong to learn Liao
sense of hopelessness. If he had learned helplessness, they become a deep despair and
sadness. Therefore, we should study and life in the open their eyes that see the real
events behind the decision factors do not make our own despair.

19, the witness's memory
Witness, in our understanding of where, usually with some objective evidence, is to
put himself saw and hear what people who speak out honestly. However,
psychological research shows that the testimony of many witnesses are not accurate,
or is a personal preference, with personal views and awareness. Witness confidence in
their testimony and their testimony can not decide the accuracy of the results of this
study is surprising. Mrs fees can be special and the psychologist Howard Springs
decided that further study conclusions. In order to investigate whether the testimony
of a witness something special, they will witness's memory and the
memory of general knowledge were compared. They made were shown a short video,
is about the kidnapping of a girl. The next day, to answer some of the subjects in the
content of the video and asked them to tell their own level of confidence to answer,
and then make a recognition memory test. Next, using the same method, the content
of popular literature from the encyclopedia and general knowledge of selected issues.
The same place as before, Perkin fees can be special, and Howard Springs also found
that the accuracy of the witness recalled, the confidence that their answers do not
actually have the confidence of the people than those who are not greater, but general
knowledge , the situation is not the case, people with high confidence in memories of
people who score better than the lack of confidence.
People in the general knowledge about their strengths and weakness with
self-knowledge. Therefore, tend to modify their test results for the confidence scale.
General knowledge is a database, is shared between the individual, it has recognized
the right answer can be tested to measure. For example, people will know whether the
issue in sports better than others or more almost. However, the event witnessed the
impact from such self-knowledge. For example, on the whole, they are unlikely to
know others in the memory of the incident than the participants in hair color side
better or worse.

20, Rosenthal effect
American psychologists in 1968, Rosenthal and others conducted a famous
experiment. Them to a primary election in the three sixth grade classes of all apparent
seriousness, children's, "predict the future development of the
test", then the experimenter would be considered "excellent
development possible" list of students to inform teachers. In fact, this list is
not determined according to test results, but randomly selected. It is based on
"authoritative lie" implies teachers to mobilize the teachers, the
students on the list some anticipation. 8 months later, another intelligence test results
showed that the list of general improvement in student achievement, teachers also
gave their good conduct reviews. This experiment has achieved miraculous results, It
is considered by teachers to nurture the students of psychology, so that teachers expect
students to achieve progressive phenomenon, known as the "Rosenthal
Effect", it is customary, also known as Pygmalion (Pygmalion of Cyprus in
ancient Greek mythology, the king, he created a statue of love for young girls, and his
ultimate desire to make the statue into a real person, the two fall in love combined).
Educational practice also shows that: if a teacher like some of the students, they will
have high expectations, after a period of time, students feel the teachers care, love and
encouragement; often a positive attitude towards teachers, towards learning and their
behavior towards the students more self-esteem, confidence, self-love, self-induce a
kind of positive passion, the teachers of these students often get the desired progress.
On the contrary, teachers who are ignored, discriminated against students from the
teacher's discourse over time, behavior, facial expressions of teachers feel
the "eccentric", will take a negative attitude towards teachers,
towards their own learning, to ignore or refuse to obey the teacher requirements;
These students often worse day by day, and finally reduced to the bad elements of
society. Despite some exceptions, but the trend is that, while it also sounded the alarm
for teachers.

21, false share deviation (false consensus bias)
We usually believe that our love is the same with most people. If you like playing
computer games, so it may overestimate the number of people like computer games.
You will usually overestimate the students to vote for their favorite numbers,
overestimate their own prestige in the population and leadership and so on. This
overestimation of your behavior and your attitude to the inclination of the same
number of features is called the "false sympathy bias." Some
factors will affect your share of this false bias strength:
(1) When the external time due to strong internal attribution;
(2) the current behavior or events when a person is very important;
(3) When your own point of view is to determine when or conviction;
(4) When your status or some kind of normal life and learning are threatened;
(5) when it comes to a positive quality or individuality;
(6) When you and other people as when they are similar.
?
  - Reproduced in small invincible summer BLOG, The Sciascia reproduced students
where known, to express deep respect to the original author!

North Guo Yan 2009.10.10

				
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