The draft CONCEPT OF NATIONAL INFORMATION POLICY REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN UNESCO Cluster Office Almaty Republic Kazakhstan, 2004. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 2 Foreword In Kazakhstan objective necessity of creation of the complete, complex and uniform policy covering all components of development of the information environment has ripened. The information environment, having political, economic and social attributes, is sphere and means of realization of state's national policy, it is level on which decision of strategic value are made, the mechanism of management of the society works, methods of regulation are formed by events, their efficiency is in a complex valued. Success of adoption of the given National Information policy (further - IP) and efficiency of its implementation guarantee conditions of common adherence to democratic values, equality and not-accepting of any form of discrimination and aiming to integration with the world community, support and declaration of peace initiatives (for example, taking into account, that Kazakhstan - the unique first-ever country voluntarily refusing the available nuclear weapon). Given system (IP) is the catalyst of successful development of the market of telco, information technologies, products and services, especially mobile communication, systems of bank sphere and administration of government, constituting base for forming uniform information- communication environment of republic and its integration in global information infrastructure. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 3 Contents Summary ……………………………………………………………. 4. Glossary …………………………………………………………….. 5. Introduction …………………………………………………………. 7. 1. General provisions ……………………………………………….. 8. 2. The purposes, problems and principles of information policy …… 9. 3. Forming of national information infrastructure ………………….. 11. 4. ICT development and high technologies …………………………. 12. 5. Providing of access of citizens to communication means and to information resources …………………………………………….. 15. 6. Creation of information centers (resources) on the basis of libraries, archives and museums …………………………………….. 18. 7. Modernization of the statistical account …………………………. 21. 8. The law on freedom of the information and other normative acts in the field of information policy ………………………………. 22. 9. National Expanded Commission on information policies ……….. 24. Conclusion …………………………………………………………… 25. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 4 The information policy of Republic Kazakhstan is policy of a national level according to whom all normative acts - in force and newly approved in territory of Republic should be corrected. Owing to fast development of information- communication technologies, political changes, by virtue of new offers concerning various aspects of this problem, the National Information policy can be if necessary reconsidered and corrected, but not earlier than in three years. The given changes at a regulatory role of the state are made at the consent of the majority of parties in interest of subjects of policy. CONCEPTION National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan Summary The concept of National Information policy of Republic Kazakhstan (further - the Concept) is prepared and presented by expanded workgroup consisted of representatives of public authorities, bodies of the public information and scientific and technical information, culture, scientific-production associations, mass-media, at support of the international organizations. The concept is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, ratified international agreements, the interstate agreements, approved earlier legislative acts and the orders in various fields of activity of information exchange, access to the public information, a transparency of the state, development of information-communication technologies, etc. By preparation of the Concept materials of similar documents of the various countries of the world with various experience of realization of similar programs have been used, recommendations of the international organizations which member is Kazakhstan, and also materials of the analysis of world experience and tendencies of development of the world community in the given sphere. Concepts also included offers concerning information policy, produced on the Round table, January, 28, 2004 in Almaty. Representatives of the National library of RK, Librarian Association of RK, the Kazakhstan Center of corporate cataloguisation of the National library of RK, KazGosINTI (Kazakh State Institute of Information Research), Central State Archive RK, Central State Museum РК, scientific-production association “Counterpart”, Public fund «Kazakhstan federation of the Internet», the Union of journalists of Kazakhstan, the Kazakhstan institute of the Social and economic Information and Forecasting, scientific-production association “ARA”, Informational Agency "Internews", UNESCO, UN, etc. have taken part in work of the Round table. The concept has recommendatory character, and is founded on the analysis of an existing situation in republic and current world tendencies. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 5 Glossary General access - equal in rights access for all citizens under reasonable prices to an information infrastructure and to information and knowledge, which necessary for development of the society and the personality. The state secrets - the data protected by the state, constituting the state and official secrets, which propagation it is limited by the state with the purpose of accomplishment of the efficient military, economic, scientific and technical, external economic, foreign policy, prospecting, counter prospecting, operative - search and other activity which is not entering the contravention with the common standards of international law. Access to the information and knowledge - 1. A universal availability of necessary methods, means and skills for an effective utilization of knowledge, i.e. availability of networks, infrastructure and services, and also information resources necessary for high-grade realization of political and social and cultural human rights in the society; means allowing citizens to contact to a relevant environment. 2. Access to the information and knowledge as a subject of discussions. The problem of access to the information and means of its propagation arises and is solved during contraventions between tendency to trans-frontier monopolization and standartization of information means and information itself, on the one hand; and tendency to decentralization, on the other hand. Home computerization - 1. Element of a state information policy (accepted in Russia), providing satisfaction of requirements of the people in the information and knowledge directly in-home, mainly through the Internet. 2. Process of house equipment by electronic devices. Information - Data on persons, subjects, the facts, events, the phenomena and processes, irrespective of the form of their presentation. Information safety - Has three fundamental bases: privacy, integrity and availability. Privacy refers to protection of the sensitive information against the non-authorized access. Integrity means protection of accuracy and completeness of the information and the software. Availability is an ensuring availability of the information and the fundamental services for the user during necessary time. Information-communication technologies (ICT) - Set of methods, processes of production and software-hardware means integrated with the purpose of the collecting, processing, storage, propagation, display and use of the information in interests of its users. Information content - Any significant content of an information system - texts, drawings, multimedia. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 6 Information inequality - the Digital breaking, information or digital split, a digital or electronic gulf, a computer watershed and a number of other expressions are used as synonyms. 1. The new kind of social differentiation following from different possibilities of use of newest ICT. Also 2. The term, characteristic of supporters of the concepts bounding destiny of information structures, tools and processes of their non-uniform propagation among citizens with questions of civil rights and material welfare. Information society - Step in development of the modern civilization, described by increased role of the information and knowledge in society's life, increased share of information communications, information products and services in a gross national product, creation of the global information space providing efficient information interaction of people, their access to world information resources and satisfaction of their social and personal needs for information products and services. Information for public access - sources and types of the data and information which use is not limited to intellectual property and other statutory modes and which is accordingly accessible the public for use without the permission or limitations. Information policy - the way of handling of available information highways and resources on the part of various institutional subjects, or separate organizations and establishments which also can have their own conception and interests working with the information. Information resources - documents and document files in information systems (libraries, archives, funds, data banks, other information systems), prepared and systematized in the convenient and suitable form for use. National Information policy - the way of use of information highways and the resources, responding interests of all citizens, i.e. promotes reduction of an information inequality, ensuring of information safety, stimulates development of information technologies, and maintains processes of assistance of democracy and steady development; Open access - open and a free access to the proprietary information in a network or on other news media, allowed by the holder of rights; that saves defined or all exclusive rights of the property which are granted according to statutory about rights to intellectual property. Electronic library - Distributed information system allowing reliably to save and efficiently to use diverse collections of electronic documents (the text, drawings, audio, video, etc.) through wide-area networks of data transfer in convenient manner for the end user. Electronic government (e-Government) - a metaphor designating information interaction of public authorities and society with the help of ICT. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 7 Introduction We need to adopt the most complete national information policy, responding world standards, in order Kazakhstan will not remain on peripheral of process of world development. One of indicating of civilization and openness of the state structure of country is that citizens can easily receive socially significant information necessary and interesting them as means of ensuring of a government's transparency and participation of citizens in democratic process. Information is not simply necessary for citizens, it also the major characteristic of democratic government. The information policy provides conditions of participation of citizens in adoption of socially significant decisions, defines a level of availability information and riches of world culture to citizens, the openness of the social structure, effectiveness of public opinion and, at last, a degree of a maturity of the society. Information environment, having political, economic and social attributes, is sphere and mean of realization of state national policy; a level on which decisions of strategic value are made, the controlling mechanism of the society acts, methods of regulation are formed by events, managing effects are conducted, their efficiency is in a complex valued. Today in development of Kazakhstan the basic place occupies the decision of the problems coupled to information policy of country, a mass media and communications, use of scale information management systems. The government of Republic Kazakhstan undertakes not efficient enough steps on a way to achievement of a transparency of the information for access of the population. The redundant "privacy", being consequent of the folded stereotypes after seventy years of a totalitarianism, prevents development of democratic processes in country and creation of civil open society. Privacy does not increase efficiency of activity of the government and promotes rooting of corruption on a background of imperfection of legislative base and, as practice shows, of weak realization of existing normative acts. There is an objective need for the funded decision of similar problems of the state together with the civil society on the basis of a constant monitoring of a situation of information policy at a republican level and on places. Intuitively it is understood, that the development of the society purposefully self-adjustable by some information limitations, laws and standards, cultural, moral and religious settings is more natural. The problem is in imposed by state limitations level: effectiveness of used controlling mechanisms and development of the society as a whole depend on it . Because of all this it's necessary to place at a national level priorities of use of information highways and resources both inside country, and in global information space - to solve the problems of struggle against an information inequality, to ensure information safety, to stimulate development of information technologies, to support National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 8 processes of assistance of democracy and steady development, to form bases of the information society in Kazakhstan. General provisions Development of information technologies (IT) raised revolutionary changes. It can be compared to effect made by electricity and internal-combustion engine on the industrial society. Development of the modern world has reached the physical borders. Progress at intensive development of ICT has reached a new level of development - virtual, (in which the fundamental values is information and knowledge) thus, inevitably being transformed from a consumer society where the fundamental values are the luxury and comfort (the raw material, material values). These conversions will bring the big changes both in household, and in working life. Some vacations and professions will be rationalized and disappear. IT can help invalids to extend their possibilities. There will be the workers carrying out their activity «not leaving from a house». The problem of employment actually will disappear. Information technologies have the big importance for public health services. IT can make also life easier and comfortable for people deprived or living in sparsely populated places. Society's relations with power structures can be made by more accessible with the help of new technologies. Easy communications will enable simple introduction of innovations and ideas of ordinary citizens, etc. It is natural and necessary development in which the new technology is presented with the purpose of improvement of efficiency of various processes of the society. It can seem something negative to some people, though the history clearly shows, that technological variations in the past invariable led to new possibilities of work and higher quality of life. The economy has mechanisms which establish new vacations, for the same reason on which old fade. It is coupled and to information technologies. ICT development is the strongest incentive of economy progress (for example, in USA), and underlies strategy and success of various countries of the world (Japan and countries «Pacific tigers»). ICT development opens huge prospects in medicine, education, culture, and also enables to benefit by public debate (development of democracy) and services (trade). It can considerably improve quality of life of citizens. IT allow to influence on political processes making optimum decisions. One of ways of access to the information became Internet, today many mass media already have their audience in a wide-area network. Association of IT communications with TV and radio establishes new kinds of a mass media, and also bears in itself structural political variations in mass-media. There is no necessity to mention all dignities of mobile communication. Creation of ecological balance in Kazakhstan also depends on scale of application of information technologies. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 9 If only market manage development of a new technical infrastructure, there is a hazard, that it will not reach population living in poorly occupied parts of country. The problem of government will be to guarantee access to the information to each citizen. The policy should consider problems of an ethnic variety and integration. National Information policy should control equal in rights access of various groups and layers of the society to information technologies and information resources. Information technologies give a possibility for growth, improvements of welfare, increasing of understanding inside the society and growing of democracy. However, not all these possibilities are explicit. The information-technological society can lead to marginality and exclusiveness, to threat of new social inequality, monopolization and to superficial cultural values. The fundamental preconditions of creation of the Concept of National Information policy of Republic Kazakhstan is: Wide use by various individuals and groups in the society of advantages of ICT development, necessity of equal access to the information for all and knowledge increase, and as effective improvement of quality of life, development of democratization of the society and strengthening of safety of the personality and the state. Here it is important to note, that the National Information policy constitutes rather a large part of the democratic draft, than technological one. Being found on a way to the information society, Kazakhstan continuously follows leading countries with their mature democratic reforms and advanced information technologies; the economic raising supervised in the last period in country - is great help to that. The fundamental purpose at present - to avoid hit of republic on peripheral of world development that means to its citizens deprivation of high-grade access to the information and technologies. Kazakhstan must be made country where knowledge and the information are accessible for anyone. The purposes, problems and principles of information policy Based on Constitution of Republic Kazakhstan, in particular on article 20 which is told, that «anyone has the right freely to receive and distribute information in any, not forbidden manner», and taking into account the leading part of conducted reforms of the state according to aims of strategic program "Kazakhstan - 2030", the purposes of the Concept of National Information policy are as follows: 1. Forming of the National Information infrastructure of RK (NII RK). 2. Development of national information resources and expansion of access of citizens to world information resources. 3. Ensuring of free and general access of citizens to socially significant information. For achievement of planned objects it is necessary to solve following problems: National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 10 1. To reform a national information infrastructure. 2. To develop the high technology in information-communication sector. 3. To introduce the satellite communication system and to stimulate a domestic computerization. 4. To establish information centers (resources) on the basis of libraries, archives and museums. 5. To modernize keeping of statistical records. 6. To pass the Law on freedom of the information and other normative acts in the field of information policy. 7. To establish the National Expanded Commission on information policy. Decision of the given problems should be conducted by the following principles: 1. Ensuring of equal in rights access to ICT tools, information and knowledge for all citizens and prohibition of any kind of discrimination in access to the information; 2. Observance of main principles of the general Declaration of human rights and other international documents; 3. Recognition of equality and freedoms for all subjects of information policy in the right to produce, receive and distribute information; 4. Establishing of a qualitative system of information safety and prevention of various threats to stability and integrity of an information infrastructure; 5. Promote of the Kazakh culture and language, creation of favorable conditions for preservation of a cultural and language variety in the country; 6. Conducting of monitoring, accomplishment of feedback, analysis of acting policy in the field of information taking into account changed tendencies and realities; 7. Integration with the world community on a question of forming of information society, participation in international programs of cooperating. Besides realization of the given Concept in the near future it is necessary to generate and accept the Paradigm of Information Society Forming in Kazakhstan. The concept is fundamental document of national level reflecting conceptual bases of conducting of Information policy, invoked to add state programs and strategy, such as National Strategy RK 2030, the State program of forming and development of National information infrastructure RK, Strategy of industrial and innovational development of RK, Concept of computerization of education system of Republic Kazakhstan for 2002-2004, the draft of the State program of forming of Electronic Government, etc. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 11 3. Forming of national information infrastructure On December, 9, 1997 the President of republic have signed the decree «About forming uniform information space in Republics of Kazakhstan». By way of realization of the Decree the Government pass a resolution (from December, 17, 1997.) and two orders («About concept of uniform information space RK» from June, 29, 1998 and «About development of uniform information space RK and creation of Joint-Stock Company NIT from April, 4, 2000 »). The given legal acts become a basis for development of the information environment. For development of information and communication technologies in Kazakhstan in 2001 the State program of forming and development of the National information infrastructure of Republic Kazakhstan» has been approved. Its fundamental purposes and problems consist in the following: Forming of national information infrastructure of Republic Kazakhstan. Forming in economy, administration of government, culture and social sphere of new technological ways basing on use of perspective information technologies, tools of computer engineering and telco. Creation of information and knowledge market. Ensuring of information safety of personality, society, and state. Raise of information infrastructure role in a system of a social production. However, implementation of basic arrangements of State program of forming and development of NII RK is postponed, there is no uniform standard of digital information and electronic documents exchange between included in NII RK systems until now, no technological integrity of the state program, weak social orientation, weak orientation to reduction of a digital breaking, etc. Weak implementation of ICT introduction is explained by three principal causes: 1. Lack of professional staff in the field of IT. (this problem takes place practically in all countries, however a situation in Kazakhstan, on a background of absence of its own professionals, is aggravated with a weak and ineffective educational system of the staff, and engaging of foreign technicians) 2. Lack of plenipotentiary and responsible body for efficient control, with corresponding powers. (in this case, the created Agency on information and communications are not capable to head such scale transformations). 3. Lack of successful introduction of information systems because of government officials counteraction, which have been not interested in a transparency of their activity. (introduction of off-standard products owing to lack of interest of person concerned, the problem is aggravated with disproportion of information systems of state bodies and private sector) National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 12 The following arrangements are necessary for successful development of NII RK: 1. Initiation of the State program on forming domestic market of information- communication technologies. 2. To entrust executive function on forming National information infrastructures (NII) and closely-related purpose-oriented programmes to the Ministry for Information RK. 3. Efficiency control of NII program implementation must be retained for established Expanded Commissions on information policies RK. 4. In a period of businesses transfer by the Ministry of Information it is necessary to conduct inspection of introduced Information systems in state bodies within the framework of NII. 5. To initiate program of creation of electronic government RK, and develop system of electronic trade in republic within the framework of this program . 6. Ensuring a transparency of tender conducting, creation of effective system for tracking of productivity of introduction and exploitation. 7. Integration of state information system with public systems and resources. 8. A deepening of public - social orientation of drafts on creation and introduction information systems and resources. 9. Solution of unification problem of information and communication systems of RK in the Uniform System, decentralized, distributed, open, duplicated, etc. Effort of all the country in close integration and cooperating to the world community in business for advance of Kazakhstan as countries with its own place on a world-wide map of information technologies and a high level of Internet use by its population is necessary. It is necessary complex and general support of development of the domestic market of information technologies: to maintain actions which will encourage export and foreign investments in Kazakhstan; to promote domestic information and communication campaign inside country and overseas (for example, in countries of Central Asia); to generate with active state participation development of high technologies spheres and innovations. 4. Development of ICT and high technologies In the Message of the President of country to people of Kazakhstan the priority purposes and strategy of their realization are indicated in the field of national security, ensuring of internal political stability and national unity, achievement of economic growth, improvement of health, education and prosperity of people of Kazakhstan, an effective utilization of power resources, development of infrastructure, creation of the professional state. Realization of these purposes presuppose complex decision of social, ecological and economic problems, i.e. requires system approach to decision of National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 13 scheduled strategic problems. Naturally, that scale problems where it is necessary to take into account complex intercouplings in the society and an environment, various limitations on a common status and managements, casual external actions; it is impossible to do without use of the information technologies founded on the scientific approach with deep research works. Only using fundamental achievements of science and world experience of economic planning on basis of information technologies it is possible to establish qualitatively new patterns allowing with a minimum error to count various way of development of each company, branch, region, Kazakhstan in the future, to attempt to choose optimum strategy for accomplishment of scheduled plans. It is necessary to take into account signed by the President of Republic Kazakhstan the State program of industrial-innovational development of Republic Kazakhstan for 2003-2015 which accents the fundamental direction of strategic development of the republic focused on technological and innovational drafts. The purpose is to focus a national economy on hi-tech, efficient and economic drafts. When using the high information technologies, it is necessary to limit as much as possible use of expensive production of the advanced countries, superseding with the Kazakhstan market information technologies of foreign countries, and thus to support development of a domestic production. It will allow Kazakhstan efficiently and above all - to implement state programs of information much more cheaply. As in natural sciences and modern mathematical patterns for today Kazakhstan advances many western countries. The given advantage in close integration with information technologies will enable to establish qualitative and competitive hi-tech products for domestic economy. The further we are advanced in information community and in the market, the stronger it is more supervised, that capitalization in sphere of real production is minimum. And information superstructure where all the profits are received, is maximal. Today in advanced countries of Europe, in America, in Southeast Asia in information infrastructure it is invested from 10 % up to 15 % of gross national product, in Kazakhstan this parameter is lower. It is necessary to use and develop strengths of country, and it in our case: 1. Available scientific and technical base. 2. Strong influence and authority of state bodies. 3. Practically general literacy and a high level of erudition. 4. Successfully conducted reforms and economic growth. It is necessary to initiate «State program on forming of domestic market of information-communication technologies and high technologies» about which it was spoken in the previous paragraph. The given program will allow to realize at qualitatively new level scientific drafts of industrial-innovational program, achieving a synergy in alliance of science, modern information technologies, world experience and of state support. It will allow not only to support economy and to boost quality of life of people, but to stimulate them on essentially new level. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 14 On the other hand, information technologies are fast developing branch of economy, both worldwide, and in Kazakhstan. It's obvious, that necessary to carry out scientific research in this area, to solve problem of a standartisation, to create scientific - practical base - for domestic industry of information technologies. Later on tendencies revealing of information technologies in the sub-section of science are scheduled. Illustration to this - creation in various scientific institutes and high schools of specialization on the given subjects. Recommendations to «State program on forming of domestic market of information-communication technologies and high technologies»: It is necessary: To create and introduce of vertical drafts, i.e. from scientific research through information technologies to direct introduction of a product in operation, and later on support and upgrade of product; Design, engineering and introduction of means and the software of information systems and their applications for the end user; to initiate on the basis of available and establishing scientific-information systems studying of problems of the analysis and forecasting; To conduct scientific research in the field of design of economic-mathematical patterns and to create on their basis information technologies of the decision of problems of management and optimization of economic processes, technological processes, enterprises, etc.; To stimulate foreign investments in research and development of information technologies in Kazakhstan. to maintain In every possible way : Research and analysis of development of Information technologies in Kazakhstan and worldwide; Creation and realization of high technologies in domestic economy; To solve the problems of optimum control of economic processes, technological processes, the enterprises, etc. Design and creation of scientific - information systems and their components; Design and creation of domestic management systems for enterprise/ organization (staff, book-keeping, supply, merchandising, sale, finances, production, electronic document circulation); Design and creation of domestic applications for electronic commerce (e-Business systems); Design and creation of data storehouses, working out and introduction of integration tools of data and applications; Complex scientific and technical decisions and system integration with application of Information technologies; Placing of a part of the research programs of the largest world-wide information technologies and companies of telecommunication sector, such as Microsoft, Nokia, Intel and IBM in Kazakhstan. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 15 Hereafter, strong position in sector of information technologies can be key factor for country, provoking strong economic growth and high employment. But it shouldn't be forgot other aspect of problem, that Kazakhstan exists in the world community and separation into "we" and "they" is less actual every year, here there is no speech about creation of "our own system », it is not possible and is unnecessary. A key to success in information epoch - integration with the world community on conditions of equal in rights and mutually advantageous partnership for cultivation of knowledge, creative potential and a variety for all. 5. Providing of access of citizens to telecommunication tools and to information resources Realizing of programs described above it is necessary to take into account a problem of a digital breaking in the world and in Kazakhstan. Because of the income, age, educational level, geographical factors, and other physical limitations, access to methods of info - communications and technologies is not equal to anyone. This digital break-up has appeared inside country, between countries and regions, and inequality is avalanche magnified by today between technological propertying and indigents. Inside country there are following tendencies to magnifying of a digital breaking: Direct dependence between a level of incomes and using of ICT tools. People living outside of city in villages, have a low level of access to computer and Internet in comparison with those who lives in cities. The knowledge of Russian language and English language considerably influences possibilities of use of technologies and the Internet. There are different demands in necessity of using of ICT tools in different professions. The inequality in access to the Internet between the high levels of education and the lowest increases. The older people, the more difficult they learn new technologies. Using of technologies dependences directly on social status. Low population density and urbanization of republic. On the other hand in the long term there are reasons to affirm, that progress of global socio-economic revolution will extend an information inequality between countries in northern and southern hemispheres as well as inside country in less developed countries. It is very important for Kazakhstan to overcome digital breaking with the advanced countries. There are big distinctions in distribution and using of ICT tools depending on relative riches of the nations. Besides the status of facilities of telecommunication networks is various between the advanced nations and less developed countries. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 16 Among less developed countries is present almost forty countries in which distribution of phone even is lower, than 1 on 100. In developing of countries of Asia level of telephone distribution still has not exceeded 3.1 percents. The majority of cities and villages in many countries has no even one phone, there is a big inequality in facilities of communication networks between urban areas and rural ones. According to Kazakhtelecom data telephone density in Kazakhstan for today constitutes 14 numbers on hundred inhabitants (overwhelming majority - inhabitants of large cities). It is totaled about 2 thousand villages and auls where in general there is no telephone communication at all. Telephonization of countryside means wasting money. To solve this problem all accessible methods, including resettlement, are used. Expansion of a rural telephony in Kazakhstan is bound up with preparing program of development of rural territories. The Kazakhtelecom attempts to work with technicians of the Ministry of Agriculture and heads of local executive authorities. At the same time number of subscribers of mobile communication in Kazakhstan is up to two million and it on fifteen millions citizens of republic. With development of the socio economic revolution called by information technologies, ability of an effective utilization of technology of info - communications and access to the Internet becomes even more important for participation in socio economic actions such, as: employment, education, and regional activity. Thus, if measures concerning a digital breaking won't be taken it will increase new social and economic inequality and it will be inevitable to have a negative effect on social stability and an economic activities. Now, the broadband access, allowing complete realization of Internet potential, becomes so necessary as access to an electricity, gas and water, ensuring services accessible to anyone. The population of Internet users constitutes already 200 million worldwide. At a regional level: 85 million users in the USA, 45 million in Asia and 63 million in other areas; while in Japan 18.3 million users. The number of users in percentage in Sweden constitutes 44.7 %, in Canada 44.3% and in the United States of 41.6 %. In Kazakhstan more than one third of adult population of large cities, i.e. 1318,4 thousand, have skills of work with PC, 713,3 thousand of them can be referred to as beginning users (18,9 %), 410,9 thousand. as ordinary users (10,8 %), operating with standard office software. 150,4 thousand. declare itself as experienced users (4,0 %), and 41,9 thousand more. as programmers (1,1 %). Moreover more than one thirds of audience visits Internet only from working place (34,8 %). Other widespread place are average and higher educational establishments (19,7 %), especially for the learning youth visiting Internet occasionally. Third on popularity are Internet - cafe which visit 13,6 % of an audience (predominantly irregular). The share of persons with higher education in an audience of the Internet is in 4 times higher as minimum, than as a whole in the population of Kazakhstan National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 17 New technologies are faster introduced into daily life, than older ones; for example, for overcoming of ten percent-cover of population in the field of telephonization there pass about 75 years, on mobile communication - 15 years, on PCs - 13 years, on the Internet - 5 years. One can say, that distribution of Internet has much more prospects and is faster, than to continue telephonization. Today for Kazakhstan with its extensive territories and low population density most favorably is to develop a satellite communication, as one of way to solve problem of a access to Internet, mass-media, Telephonies, etc. For accomplishment of wide access of the population to information resources and tools of communications it is necessary to initiate state program on «introduction in each house of the satellite digital network» and on its basis to develop DSL technology. Payment for services must be paid by a principle "fixed" and "at cost", the same principle as with phone, gas or other municipal payments. Development and promoting of given fundamental technology, its practical implementation should be made as one process with an exact direction and in the allotted time. The given process should proceed with well scheduled and considered distribution of strategic resources (distribution of funds and preparation of the distribution environment). It is natural, that basic financing of this draft should be undertaken by the state by means of the national telecommunication operator. Thus, the given draft not only decides a complex of problems as telephonization, cable TV, but also will help to solve in Kazakhstan a problem of digitization and above all solves a technical problem of access to information resources. The second part of solution of a technical problem of communications and access to information resources - a domestic computerization, and it is necessary to conduct policy «a computer in each house ». A domestic computerization - an element of a state information policy <http://www.iis.ru/glossary/ispolicy.ru.html>, providing satisfaction of needs of the population in the information and knowledge directly in- home, predominantly through the Internet. Either it is process of equipment of a house by electronic devices (computers). Need of Kazakhstan in computers is about 4 million. On market prices, under conditions that "by the gross cheaper", it is necessary to spend 2,5 billion dollars. there is no computer production in the country so this expenditures are inevitable. The situation is aggravated with that equipment becomes outdated morally much earlier than physically, not to mention of software. The whole point is only to size up, how to reduce costs. The following measures are obvious: 1. An effective system of fiscal incentives. 2. Development of the market of equipment assembling inside our country. 3. Development of the market of production of elements of assembling. 4. Placing of producing of the world-wide companies, such as HP, Microsoft, Nokia, Intel and IBM in RK. 5. A support of production of domestic software. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 18 6. Encouragement granting of computer equipment as a charity . 7. Search of alternatives (can be in an alliance with Russia). The secret of success of a computerization and the highest percent of access to the Internet of Sweden population is explained by some reforms. The enterprises have received the tax help for buying computers for staff. The purchased computers released from taxes, were installed in houses. The condition of this program was, that anyone with constant status, irrespective of position, will be included in program, and not just the employees requiring for a computer at home. This reform has given employees chance to purchase computers for price much below retail sail. Employees paid computers deductions from the salaries, as a rule within three years. Reform was a big success. Between 1997 and 1998 number of employees with access to a computer at house was boosted from 48 up to 67 percents. Reform has contributed heavily to ICT development and domestic computerization. For access to the information in Kazakhstan there is one more problem, quite characteristic - language barrier. Now the fundamental part of the network contents is in English, and a large part of terminals are PCs. Language can become a barrier to information for citizens not speaking in English or/and Russian. And we do not have unitized Kazakh font, a wide circulation of the adapted keypad and the software, untill now . One of approach is development of automated translation and other technologies allowing the citizens who do not speak English language or Russian to use information resources. And, according to a principle of general access it is necessary to develop everywhere conditions for access to the information for citizens with limited physical possibilities. It is necessary to create legislative base, support of the state and active participation of the civil society. Technologies of signs-language recognition, for example, are applied to this problem. As given drafts fulfilled it is necessary to develop simultaneously construction of the virtual worlds and integration with already existing ones. These cyber-creations would produce effect of real life in country or city, and it would be profitable and accessible in practice. Virtual banks (without queue, buildings, etc.), a system of delivery and trade, library and references, mass-media, labor exchange, education, cultures, etc. will develop. Now in the field of services of a high level for use of Internet, realizing of universal service it not seems to be a vital problem. However with escalating needs this problem becomes more actual. 6. Forming of information centers (resources) on the basis of Libraries, archives and museums Traditionally, libraries provided an access to the public information, archives and museums. Kazakhstan has the strong ramified system of libraries and archives. Naturally enough to develop access to the public information through libraries by National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 19 means of introduction of modern ICT. Certainly, the format of information will be changed and the modernized approaches are necessary. Libraries, archives and museums provide access to information, ideas and fruits of creative imagination. They open ways to knowledge, ideas and culture, provide a main support in continuous process of self-education, in independent decision-making and cultural development, promote to create conditions for realization of intellectual freedom and help to save the fundamental democratic values and general civil rights. Big responsibility for acquiring, conservation and ensuring of availability of the diversified materials reflecting pluralism of the society lays on them. It's naturally enough, that public organizations when selecting materials and granting services should be guided by professional reasons, instead of political, moral or religious beliefs, they should resist to any forms of censorship, and are obliged to ensure equal access for anyone to materials, library engineering and services. Discrimination under the sign of race, on political or to religious beliefs, on a sex, age or any other reasons is prohibited. These principles are applied all over the world and remain to date one of values of the modern society, they are maintained by more perfect legislation, by ICT development, more openness, etc. So, for example, to make library as an information center for people - that is national problem of USA government . It is directly coupled to setting on general availability of information that is fixed in «principles of public information» (are approved by National commission of USA on libraries and information science on June, 29, 1990). In the preamble of the document it is told: « we define public information as information which makes, collects and maintains federal government. We affirm, that public information is information belonging to people who transfer information to the government for management and this information should be accessible to people in any cases, except for forbidden by law ». From the point of view of Information policy tasks of libraries (archives and museums) are as follows: Providing of access of citizens to all kinds of the public information. Creation of information resources by libraries via digitalization of book collections, the organization of electronic catalogues, thematic text-through and databases. To organize of unified librarian information space by networking of the information resources of the republican libraries. Promotion of the requirement of development of the state program of information of public libraries of the country. To provide the effective organization of work of granting of the services of library (archive, a museum) in the Internet and to provide a qualitative and professional level. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 20 It is necessary to develop cooperation with corresponding partners, for example, with groups of users and other technicians, on local, regional, national, and also international levels. To uphold idea of free access to the information and intellectual freedom. To develop new ways for access to information for people with the limited physical and material possibilities. To encourage development of literacy, information skills, teaching, self-education. To provide access to local, regional, national and international resources, and also to use other possibilities. To support individual and independent education, and also formal education at all levels. To stimulate interest to a cultural heritage and to achievements of art, science and innovations. To develop intercultural dialogue and to encourage cultural variety. To organize arrangements, cultivating cultural and social consciousness, encouraging spiritual development. To development electronic libraries. Concept of electronic library - information system, allowing to accumulate, to keep reliably and to use efficiently diverse collections of electronic documents (textual, graphic, voice, video, etc.), accessible in convenient manner for users through telecommunication channels obtain wide recognition in the library environment. The primary goals of electronic library - integration of information resources and efficient navigation in them. As synonyms such word-combinations, as «digital library» and «Virtual library» are used. Efficiency of electronic library (actually - media libraries), will consist in the following: three main library problems are solved: small number of issuings, shortage of the areas for a storage of fund (for example, a reading room for a storage of periodicals of the last years), safety of book fund; and needs of users of library are satisfied more fully. Use of multimedia computers, CD ROM, with textual, audio and a video information, allows to master material better as information is perceived in a complex, by several sense organs simultaneously. The media library discharges not only information, but also cultural - educational and educational functions, it encourages mastering of computer literacy, aesthetic education. Information resources of Kazakhstan should be united under state data bases «Resources of Kazakhstan » which would act as intermediator between various data bases, provides determination of a uniform format of a data exchange, security and safety of information at technologic disasters, military conflicts, etc. Thus, the legislative regulation of procedures of access to information resources, ensuring of equal in rights access to the information and knowledge, determination of rights and duties of owners, holders and users of information National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 21 resources and ensuring of positive stability and reliability of information service is necessary. On the basis of libraries, archives, museums and other information resources with the help of introduction of ICT it's necessary to open for citizens the information for public access which use is not limited to intellectual property and other statutory modes. 7. Modernization of keeping of statistical records Information produced by Agency on statistics, should be provided to broad sections of the users (on demands of controls of districts, a mass media, separate physical persons and so on) in various kinds, somehow: official publications of data bases on paper, access to data bases in online and off-line modes, official publications of data bases on diskettes and compact discs, arrangement of information in Internet, etc. Basic demand to the information is its actuality, trustworthiness and availability. Given demands are discharged not fully, there is no qualitative execution of basic function of Agency - providing of the information. This censures more than once sounded to address of domestic statistics, both in state bodies, and in private sector. Reforming of state statistics at the end of 1992 on the basis of the State program on reforming of statistics and initial book-keeping has enabled to adapt present of the information in new market conditions. The complex of the actions which became basis for transition to a system of national accounts (SNA), for creation of new sections of statistics in republic: foreign trade activities, balance of payments, prices. As a result of realization of the program has been established national statistical system corresponding to the status of the independent state. With the purposes of the further perfecting of state statistics on the basis of introduction of the methods and methodology acknowledged worldwide, and also modern information technological means of data processing and publications, in 1996 according to action programme of Government on a deepening of reforms the Program of perfecting of state statistics for 1996-1998 has been approved. At the second stage of reforming of statistics creation of a system of national bookkeeping was finished basically and there began reforming of branch statistic on methodological basis of SNA. With this purpose transition was carried out from branch catalogues to uniform Register of managing subjects. For all this use of modern international classifications of kinds of an economic activities and production and services instead of out-of-date all-union classifications became significant progress. National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 22 Third stage of reforming is realized according to the Program of perfecting of state statistics in Republic Kazakhstan for 1999-2005. As against first previous two programs Government affirms more long-term problems - on a seven-year period. Kazakhstan, first of countries CIS, has introduced General standards of propagation of the data (GDDS) IMF. According to these standards the metadata on the fundamental economic parameters describing our republic, are placed not only on a site of Agency on statistics, but also on a site of IMF. In the field of introduction of new information technologies the first stage of modernization of statistical bodies is completed. In a system of statistics computer equipment arrives mainly from international organizations, but it does not satisfy requirements of this system. Now more than halves of computing park in regional and, in particular, regional managements of statistics constitute obsolete, physically worn out computers. And "density" of equipment: in regions - one computer approximately on three persons, and in districts - only one computer on five. Today development of information-communication technologies in statistics is one of the major problems of information situation. Conducted reforms have not achieved the fundamental purpose - the national statistics does not provide the state and citizens with authentic, actual and accessible information. Of course, this purpose is very difficult for one Agency only, but is reachable providing to conduct complex of measures and to realize aims reflected in given Concept as a whole. New iteration of modernization of keeping of statistical records in a synergy with other programs of information policy is necessary. The body of keeping of statistical records should play an active role in the market of information services and be fundamental player of information policy, develop and extend access to the state information, struggle for a actuality, authenity and availability of provided information. The question is to help domestic statistics to introduce ICT and to open access to information. 8. The law on freedom of information and other normative acts in the field of information policy The right on access to the information and ideas is vital for any society. If citizens want to undertake any actions and to make the reasonable choice, they should have access to the political, social, scientific and economic information and to manifestations of cultural activity. Citizens need access to the widest spectrum of ideas , information and images is necessary. Freedom, prosperity and development of the society depend equally on education and unimpeded access to knowledge, ideas, culture and the information. The right on intellectual freedom is necessary for creation and development of democratic society. The right on information in Kazakhstan is referred to category of constitutional laws. So according to item 3 of article 18 of the Constitution of Republic Kazakhstan it is told, that «state bodies, public associations, officials and a National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 23 mass media are obliged to provide to each citizen a possibility to familiarize with touching his rights and interests documents, decisions and sources of the information". In turn Item 1 of article 20 guarantees liberty of speech and creativity and prohibit censorship, according to item 2 of this article «anyone has the right freely to receive and distribute information in any not forbidden by law way». It is important to define frameworks «not forbidden by law» and not to lost or change in this process main idea - protections of rights of citizens. At the same time this process in itself ambiguous, long and dynamic dependent on a current situation, readiness of the society and many other factors. Freedom of information is not obstacle, but indispensable condition for a fair system of government and steady development of the state. Freedom of mass information is not an antipode, but one of the major guaranties of information security too as, firstly, it provides access of citizens to complete, comprehensive and reliable information, secondly, protects public and individual consciousness from effect of propagation and other forms of a manipulation, thirdly, stimulates accruing, updating and transmitting of information inside social system. And in this sense information security should be considered as a link between policy of ensuring of national security and policy of development of an information infrastructure. While in Kazakhstan there is no general law about access to the information, and that considerably hinders dialogue on the basis of normative and legal documents. Legislation on electronic information has technical character. While making an inquiry, it is required to demonstrate a legitimate interest, after that according to the law, state body can consider within a month, then inquiry can be readdressed or dismissed, and private body can ignore this inquiry. There is no common commercialization policy on information of public sector. This policy is defined by independently separate ministries and depends on a level of state body in structure of government. Access to state information has basically nominal character. Unfortunately, thesis that «everything that is not allowed is forbidden" flourishes. Analysis and forming of the information legislation should follow this directions: Base and self-formed laws, regulated base relations of subjects in sphere of information; Specific laws regulating information relations of subjects in spheres of creation and use of separate kinds of information products or on occasion constituting information production; Branch information legislation, regulating information relations in separate spheres of life. Interests of forming and development of information environment cause following prime directions of activity on development of national normative-legal base: Development of information structures and technology; Forming of information resources; National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 24 Regulation of access to information; Ensuring of information security; normative-legal base concerning mass-media and Internet; Protection of copyrights and patent business. Normative-legal aspects of a problem of forming of information policy should be based on the Law on Freedom of the Information. In this law such questions should be reflected: determinations of concepts, information security of the country, open access to public information, copyrights and patents, rights and responsibilities of state bodies by propagation/providing of information to citizens and mass-media, protection of the private information, etc. The law on Freedom of Information (Law) should provide necessary conditions for realization of the right provided with the legal sanction, on access to the information which is under the jurisdiction of state bodies, a degree of limitations on access to the information which is under the jurisdiction of private organizations, in cases when there is a necessity of protection and accomplishment of any right. The law should provided a number of exceptions included nondisclosure of information of private, commercial and confidential character, about health and security, law order, defense and formulating of political course - and all this exceptions are not applied to providing of public information and, in some cases, to information with the expired period of limitation. The law should provided protection of persons which distribute information on offences if they acted with kind intents and in reasonable reliance, that information was generally authentic, and contains evidences about offences or serious threat to health, safety or an environment. 9. National Expanded Commission on Information Policies It is conventional that, besides state supervision are necessary alternative supervision of the civil society for efficient struggle against corruption and crime, state estrangement, and also for public information accumulation, access to educational information resources, systematic and spiritual development of the society. And there comes a necessity for mass-media and various scientific- production association, which could manage this process. Thus, it is necessary to define "game rules", a corridor of limitations which would allow to maintain healthy antagonism in government, stimulating constructive and legal solution of constantly arising problems in sphere of information policy. The conflict between State and mass-media today obviously clears inadequate items of subjects of Information policy. The state takes upon itself significant roles of IP and does not cope with them. The veil of stealthiness aggravates negative processes in the state and only warms up corruption, impunity, confusion and weak execution of laws. The transparency of state bodies is the first condition for normal implementation of information policy, the state besides the supervision should set an National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 25 example and be in the vanguard in establishing openness and transparency of processes, both in state bodies, and in private sector. The fundamental organizational step in the given direction is creation of the National Expanded Commission on information policies (further the Commission) which is invoked to initiate measurements on development of economic, institutional and legal conditions for forming of information-telecommunication technologies sector, development of information resources, ensuring of universal access to information and knowledge for citizens of republic, accomplishment of cooperating to the world community on questions of information policy. The Commission is also responsible for supervision of ensuring of information security and protection of the information sovereignty. To avoid possibility of duplication, to reach efficiency of implementation and accomplishment of assistance at a republican level the Commission affirms and regulate having a special purpose budgetary state programs, intended on development of information systems and services, drafts initiated within the framework of programs of assistance under international programs and measurements of not-state organizations, commercial structures, public funds, etc. Before Commission following questions are raised: Step-by-step implementation of information policy. Forming and development of information environment. Coordination of efforts when solving wide circle of normative-legal, technical and financial problems of information policy at national and regional levels. Ensuring of wide access for citizens, state bodies and subjects of economic activities to national information resources and world information funds. Development of a system of information safety based on acting systems of national security and modern technologies. Engineering of mechanisms of creation and functioning of information resources on the basis of libraries, archives and museums. Profound interaction of information systems providing development of state information exchanges and their integration with civil sector. Creation legal, political, economic and engineering factors for development of a national information infrastructure and satellite technologies. Adoption and promoting of this Paradigm of forming Information society in Kazakhstan. Organization of interaction of information policy with educational, science, culture, economy and information technologies sectors. Concrete contents of measurements with the framework of programs regulated by Commission on forming and promotion of information policy will be defined by the national interests, current realities and priorities of Republic and reflected in programs and drafts realized in Republics of Kazakhstan. Conclusion National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 26 To reach basic purposes of Information Policy, to save its integrity and positive stability its realization is necessary on national a level. The concept should have prevailing character and to integrate in itself all other programs and drafts concerning information and freedom of information. Realization of Concept should not be based only on the basis of technical-technological drafts supplemented by separate organization-legal and economic mechanisms. Promotion of information policy should be realized in complex combination of various institutional, methodological and fundamental questions representing something integral. Concept should define fundamental directions and problems of perfecting of an existing system of the information legislation, including that in the field of copyright and close-related rights, protection of intellectual property, protection of state secrets. Realizing this Concept it is necessary a to monitor constantly results of conversions achieved at separate stages of information policy; it is built on the basis of a monitoring of development of the information environment with the help of various developed parameters, estimation of scales and depth of consumption of information and communication technologies, information products and services, realization of principles of a freedom of access to the information and its propagations to various areas: administration of government, economy, education, sciences, public health services, social sphere, libraries and archives, private sector, organization of a life and leisure, etc. It's necessary to organize and develop wide political dialogue and discussion about process of realization of Information policy, to promote main principles and problems of the Concept - to get active encouragement from various institutes and civil society. To get effect of first success and to save positive stability and integrity of National Information policy it is necessary, first of all and actively, to promote realization of the following processes : 1. To provide normative-legal act - promote implementation of Information Policy; and that is a basis of state influence on this process; 2. To approve the Law on freedom of Information; 3. To introduce system of electronic document exchange, both in state bodies, and in civil sector; 4. Computerization of mass libraries, museums, archives and other public institutions; 5. Creation of shared data bases in the field of natural sciences and the humanities, shared terminals of reference and consultative systems, integration of them with educational process; 6. Active introduction of simple information-communication technologies in educational process; National Information policy Republic of Kazakhstan 27 7. Engineering of cheap specialized communication devices for network interaction of citizens with information resources of public designation.