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2.9 Logical Framework

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					2.9 Logical Framework

                                                 Indicators                    Sources of                Risks/Assumptions
                                                                               verification
Educational Technology Strategy Vision


To use educational technology in teaching, learning, research and outreach so as to achieve academic excellence
Long-Term Outcomes
Staff and students capable of using The      various     types       of Documented      educational Resources are available to
various      technological   tools in technological tools               technological tools at unit buy       the      various
fulfilling the University Mission                                       level                       technological tools. Staff
                                                                                                    willing to use the tools.
                                                                                                    Maintenance costs are
                                                                                                    reasonable and affordable
                                                                                                    to the University




                                                                                                        Subventions are properly
                                                                                                        identified.    Educational
                                                                                                        technology       is   well
A Well Developed sequence of                                                                            popularised.
priorities in educational technologies     Identified Educational                                       Documentation acceptable
subventions                            Technological subventions             Documents                  to the end users
Well documented policies which
support the use of educational                                      Uploaded on the policy  Various        Universities
technologies in line with the                                      website                    organs have passed the
University vision                          Policies are in place   http://policiies.mak.ac.ug policies on time

                                                                                       Makerere      takes          fully
A well defined ICT needs for the     Outlying centres have     Visits to the centre to responsibility of           these
Makerere Outlying Centres        defined ICT needs         ascertain their veracity    centres


A highly supportive staff, alumni,
employers and students who are
aware of the usage of educational
technology in all spheres of the
Universities operation


A big number of staff who are fully
qualified to use appropriate education
technology support in teaching,
learning, research and outreach


A large number of staff and students
undertaking research and developing
relevant digital content


Policy for recording, storing, tracking,
retiring and quality assurance of all
digital    content    developed       by
Makerere University
Adoption of a Makerere model to suit
different styles and content delivery
in teaching and learning
Educational Technology Strategy Outputs

                                                                                                           Maintenance Costs is
                                                                                                            affordable.
                                                                                                           It is deployable.
An LMS which is stable, cost effective      Presence of a Learning          It is uploaded on the          Users have confidence in
and useful in course management          Management System                MAKNET                            the LMS. It is stable.
                                                                                                                        They are usr
                                                                                                            friendly. It is acceptable
                                                                                                            to the end users..
                                             Availability of IT systems                                                 They
A better user friendly and relevant IT   for support functions in              It is uploaded. There is     interface with each other.
systems providing the administrative     Finance, Human Resource,         increased traffic in their                    It          is
support functiosns as envisgaed by       Academic      Regisrar     and   usage. It is uploaded on the      affordable in cost, usage
the University                           Library                          MAKNET                            and maintenance
                                                                                                           Application exist in the
                                                                                                            industry.
                                                                                                           The public and private
                                                                                                            sector       use       ICT
                                                                                                            extensively.
                                                                          The number of applications       Friendly policy on ICT
An increase in ICT usage in various      Increased usage in applicable    have increased in the             available by government
sectors in Uganda                        ICT systems                      industry                          to support its growth.
                                                                                                           The              University
A creation of a ET Centre to support                                                                        management         supports
the    adoption    of    Educational                                                                        increased use of ITS.
Technology from different University     Centre to support Educational    It physically exist in the       The      resources       are
Units                                    Technology in the University     University                        available for its creation.
                                                                                                           Adequate sensitisation on
Usage of Educational Technology in                                          E-Portfolios database exist     their usage is done.
the development of support functions                                        and available.      Support    Programs are developed.
in monitoring and assessment in their     E-Portfolios         developed.   functions    have    mobile     Acceptance by users.
relevant contexts (i.e E-Portfolios, M-   Mobile      applications    are   applications which have        Maintenance      of   the
applications etc)                         available for E- Support          been developed.                 applications is done.
                                                                                                           Availability of cheap
                                                                                                            educational internet.
A Robust and stable ICT network to                                                                         Committed ICT staff to
support Teaching and Learning which                                                                         offer    the    necessary
uses Educational Technology.              MAKNET                            Statistics on logins            support.
2.10 Summary Budget
                                                                Input
                                                                From
                                         Input      Input       Other
                                         From       From        Devt
Project Name                             Makerere   PHEA        Partners    Total
Investigating possibilities of mobile
learning at Makerere University            60,058      32,748      32,748           125,554
The ARMS (project – development of a
records      management       software
system), Supporting the provision of
relevant learning experiences for
students in the Faculty of Technology
at Makerere University.                    21,700      32,550      54,250           108,500
Institutional structures, policies and
procedures to support educational
technology.                                                                               0
ETS: Content Development Project                       63,000     114,500           177,500
Development of e-learning content                                                         0
Gender perceptions, access, use and
impact of new ET at Makerere
University.                                            30,797                        30,797
iLabs@MAK project.                         25,730      79,100                       104,830
What principles should guide the
development         of games      and
simulations for teaching and learning
at the tertiary level?                     15,000      44,000     120,000           179,000
An audit of Makerere Information
Systems.                                            25,620                           25,620
E-portfolios to capture (students‘)
community-related experiences.            100,000      44,000     160,000           304,000
The need for an update server and
software repository.                                                                     0
Development Multimedia Digital
Materials for Distance Education at
Makerere University.                                                                     0
Expanding Educational Technology
Capacity at Makerere University
Outlying Centres                                                                          0
M. Sc in E-Learning                         44500       35500                        80,000
Total Investment                         266,988     387315 481,498            1,135,801
APPENDICES
2.7.1.1             Investigating possibilities of mobile learning at Makerere
                    University

2.7.1.1.1     Introduction
Educational technologies are vital in providing support to learners, accessing learning
resources and facilitating learner – learner and learner – teacher collaboration. One of
the teaching and learning activities that require constant learner support and
collaboration is field research and attachment. Learner support and collaboration in
field research and attachment can be scaffolded by mobile technologies such as mobile
phones, PDAs and MP3 Players. The use mobile technologies for learning has been
termed mobile learning.

Literature indicates that mobile learning offers academic and administrative support to
students (Muyinda et al., 2008; Pettit and Kukulska-Hulme, 2007; Fisher and Baird,
2006-2007; Kajumbula, 2006; Brown, 2005). In Muyinda et al. (2008), a mobile learning
initiative to support undergraduate distance learning students at Makerere University
completing field research projects is reported. This initiative is called the Mobile
Research Supervision Initiative (MRSI). In Kajumbula (2006), the effectiveness of a
system called the Mobile Broadcast System which provides administrative support via
SMS to distance learners at Makerere University is explored.

The mobile learning initiatives at Makerere University provide the potentials and
limitations of mobile phones in the distance education student support model. Some of
the limitations reported include: high cost of mobile telephony and the technological
limitations inherent in the tiny mobile devices. Also worth noting is that the initiatives
were founded by mobile learning enthusiastic staff and had limited institutional wide
context and scope. The possibilities for mobile learning at Makerere University as a
whole are a necessary prerequisite for any mobile learning intervention for the
University as a whole. When mobile learning possibilities are found to exist, it will then
be possible to propose interventions that could innovatively extend learning support to
the anticipated large student numbers emanating from Government of Uganda
programmes of Universal Primary Education and Universal Secondary Education.
Consequently, Makerere University will be able to realise one of its strategic pillars of
increasing student intake through open, distance and e-learning (ODeL).

2.7.1.1.2      Research Questions
a.      How are other universities in Africa implementing mobile learning
b.      What are the learning and teaching support needs for learners and staff at
        Makerere University?
c.      Which of the learning and teaching support needs can best be met using mobile
        learning?
d.      What are the key issues for Makerere University‘s adoption and implementation
        of mobile learning?
e.       How can mobile learning be effectively integrated in the traditional student
         support system of Makerere University?

2.7.1.1.3     Rationale
A range of educational technology possibilities need to be investigated, evaluated and
tested at Makerere University. Wherever possible, these should make use of existing
infrastructure (such as the existing Intranet backbone) and technologies (including
mobile technologies). In particular, 97% of the students and 100% of the staff at
Makerere University own mobile phones (Muyinda et al., 2008) and are inadvertently
using them for learning and teaching support. Makerere University needs to exploit the
increased access and use of mobile phones and harness the potential benefits they have
for teaching and learning support. As opposed to other educational technologies (such
as online learning technologies), mobile technologies are capable of providing
contextualized learning support to learners especially undertaking field
research/attachment in an anytime anywhere fashion. Mobile learning personalizes
support to a student and increases learner motivation (Muyinda et al., 2008). Other than
support for field research/attachment, there could be other possibilities for mobile
learning which call for an investigation to establish.

2.7.1.1.4      Research Project Outputs
The following are the anticipated outputs from this research project
       Research project inception report
       Research report titled ‗possibilities of mobile learning at Makerere University‘
       Publication titled ‗possibilities of mobile learning in African universities‘
       Publication titled ‗possibilities of mobile learning at Makerere University‘
       Possible mobile learning interventions at Makerere University
       Guidelines for implementing mobile learning at Makerere University


2.7.1.1.5      Research Project Budget

 Total                                     124,554     60,058            64,496
2.7.1.2 ARMS PROJECT PROPOSAL

2.7.1.2.1           Project Title
Development of an Academic Records Managements System using the Faculty of
Technology as the Developments and Test Site
2.7.1.2.2     Project Rationale
The Academic Records Management System (ARMS) Project is aimed at developing a
user-centric software package for management of academic records in institutions of
higher learning using the semester system. The ARMS Project offers a unique
opportunity to undergraduate students to engage in solving a real life problem at
Makerere University and in so doing acquire practical and professional skills; this will
go a long way in improving the quality of graduates. Students on different programmes
and at different levels collaborate amongst themselves, and with their lecturers and
industrial experts sharing experiences while solving a real life problem.
2.7.1.2.3     Project Outputs
A fully functional Prototype of the ARMS Software code named ARMS 1.0(A Web-
Based Three Tier Distributed Application using the .NET Platform) with all pertinent
documentation (System Requirements Specification, System Architectural Description,
System Design Description, Test Documentation, and Multimedia User
Documentation).
2.7.1.2.4     Project Activities
The core activity of the ARMS Project is Capacity Building in the Software Development
Process. A problem-based learning approach was adapted. The Lecturers through
formal class and tutorials introduce the fundamental aspects namely Requirements
Analysis, Architectural and Detailed Design, Implementation (Programming), Testing,
Documentation, Data Acquisition, and Maintenance. Then together with students,
weekly work plans are drawn and evaluated at the end of the week with mentoring and
guidance provided along the week whenever need arises. During longer vacations
internship is organised for the students following the same paradigm.
2.7.1.2.5     Project Budget
2.7.1.2.6
Grand Total                                                               104,830
2.7.1.3 Institutional Structures, Policies And Procedures To Support Educational
Technology

2.7.1.3.1     Introduction/Background


Makerere University is a well established institution with an elaborate history of
development. Started in 1922, Makerere University has seen it all: the odds and pros.
Now nearing its centenary of its existence, Makerere still holds the burner of an ivory
tower in Ugandan education development. Makerere University can proudly and more
so boast of more than 98% contribution to Ugandan management human resource plus
varying percentage of contribution to human resources in foreign countries and
international body's manage. Makerere University contribution to governments and
institutional management is enormous. It therefore follows and should be expected that
Makerere University excels in institutional structures, policies and procedures in
support to educational technology for teaching and learning. What is needed is careful
audit and stocktaking of is contribution in this area. The proposed research is just aimed
at doing exactly that. The project needs to assess the development of structures, policies
and procedures Makerere University has brought into operation and what
contributions they have made to its success and the success of the country in its
development endeavour.


2.7.1.3.2     A Statement of the Problem


Makerere University is an institution with a variety of programmes being offered to a
cross section of students. To implement these various programmes to this large student
body, the University employs various categories of staff and has put in place systems,
policies and structures to support its activities. However, these systems, policies and
structures seem to be fragmented and working in isolation and probably in
contradiction to one another.    More so the policies are believed to be scattered in
different Senate and Council minutes as individual statements and most of them have
never been brought to the surface and test for their effects. There are also fears that the
structures in place are riddled by complex bureaucracy leading to slow decision making
processes, delays in procurement and appointments, and suffocation of innovation. All
these challenges therefore ultimately affect teaching, learning, and research and service
delivery. To ensure improvement and ensure effectiveness in all these areas integration
of educational technology in all processes of the University, the challenges in the
systems, policies and structures will need to be clearly identified and ultimately
addressed and applied.


2.7.1.3.3          Research Questions


 i)       What policies are in place at MAK to support ET?
 ii)      What are the indicators of motivation for innovative use of ET (incentives and
          rewards)
 iii)     What is the extent of pedagogical skills available for innovative and use of ET
 iv)      How many organizational structures in support of ET in Makerere University
          can be identified
 v)       Do the structures, policies and procedures support equity and access to quality
          educational courses
 vi)      How engendered are the structures, policies and procedures of Makerere
          University


       2.7.1.3.4     Constructs


       Construct being the art of building by putting together different, the group in this
       research project will aim at gathering all available pieces that can contribute to this
       research topic to make it a whole. The team will review all existing relevant
       literature, consult the individuals that have knowledge about the development and
       operations of Makerere University as an institution, study the history of the
       University both ideologically and physically, use the team members personal
       experiences, seek views of non members of Makerere University for their opinions
       on Makerere and they would wish to hear, see and learn that Makerere is and
       should do.
2.7.1.3.5    Unpacking concepts used in the project


The major concepts used in this research project are: structures, policy, procedures,
educational and technology. Each of these concepts will be subjected to process of
unpacking in order to access the impact they have make in Makerere University
development, where they have failed and probably failed the University, where they
have succeeded and promoted the performance of the University and any other
relevant contribution both negative and positive. Unpacking will take each
individual concept implications, one time impact and/continued historical impacts
as well as expected and actual impacts.


2.7.1.3.6    Previous research studies


Makerere University being a giant academic institution, has not only done research
to unearth and reveal missing links and gaps in knowledge in subjects and
disciplines affecting the community at large, but has also conducted research works
reflecting on its own existence, being, survival and development. These works
depicting research on Makerere University as an institution will form the major part
of the literature search as part of the constructs. These works on Makerere
University and other collection of that nature are available in Africana Special
Collection of Makerere University Library and Britain, Uganda's colonial masters
libraries.


2.7.1.3.7    Trucking and using existing literature


The literature reviewed both those pertinent to Makerere University as research
works and those about Makerere from diverse contributions will be correlated,
juxtaposed and evaluated to find and isolated correct blocks that will be used to
build the study case capable of yielding viable and applicable outputs. All will be
done to make education technology at Makerere University and elsewhere get a base
from where it can spring and shoots the targets accurately.
   Critical literature review will be the emphasis for the whole exercise. Meaningful
   resources will be employed to adequately isolate the negative effects from the
   positive one and lay out the positive one to form building blocks for the future.

2.7.1.3.9     Summary Budget
. Cost will fall in the following areas:
Total                                                                        72,600
2.7.1.5 Learning Management Systems & E-Content
How can we manage our online learning with a learning management system? How do
we setup our classes and create assignments right online. What are the available
channels to send messages to students from within the system for tracking?

A very simple system to get moves your academic classes onto the web to reach a
bigger audience with a cheaper cost. Learning management system could be free, based
on some web platforms.

2.7.1.5.1    E-Learning Materials

Content Development
*    What tools and experience are available to develop and deliver custom e-Learning
     Courses?
*    What functionality and graphical templates for content development using a web-
     based course authoring tool designed for subject-matter experts?
*    Can we incorporate prescriptive assessments and exams in our custom courses to
     validate learning?


We need content that supports production objectives; increase employee productivity
and customer satisfaction.

2.7.1.5.2    Stages of the e-learning process
A typical e-learning content development cycle contains the following stages: Planning,
Design, Production, Evaluation, Delivery and maintenance, Instruction, and Marketing
(Badrul H. Khan).


2.7.1.5.3    Planning stage
During this stage a team consisting of project manager, instructional designer and the
director work together and develop a project plan after a thorough analysis of the
audience profile and user requirements. They analyse various aspects of people, process
and products involved in the e-learning development initiative. This plan must be
pedagogically and financially sound and should guide the entire e-learning team
(production, evaluation, delivery, maintenance, instructional and support services) to
engage in their respectively assigned activities. The planning team must consider the
various learning models and strategies before working out the entire plan. It is just not
enough to make the plans pedagogically sound; they must be financially sound too. The
team needs to work out the time-frame for every activity of the project, with possible
breakdown time and buffer time to take care of exigencies. The end product of the e-
learning planning process is a sound e-learning project plan, which provides guidance
during various stages of the e-learning process.


2.7.1.5.4     Design stages
What is the theoretical underpinning of technical Instructional Design process?

2.7.1.5.5     Design stage
The output from the planning stage, which is a plan document, should be available at
this stage. People involved in this stage are instructional and graphics designers,
interface designers, technology experts, and evaluation, quality and Research and
Development (R&D) personnel. The R&D person is responsible for reviewing course
content for pedagogical soundness and selection of the appropriate delivery medium.
He must be aware of limitations and capabilities of every medium and also the latest
development                      in                     the                    area.

Care must be taken to ensure the content is created using the relevant course models.

What are the common gaps in understanding the Instructional Design process?

2.7.1.5.6     Production stage
At the production stage the production team creates the e-learning course from the
storyboard put together at the design stage. The production team creates all the
required details independently and integrates them in the course module. It creates all
the necessary links and makes the navigation smooth. The production coordinator leads
the e-learning production process. All members must put their modules in a central
server so that security issues are also taken care of. All members must follow the same
naming convention for each module. Every day team members can work on the module
(s) and store it back on the server when they leave. This facilitates checking of the
content independent of members. Once the course is created and quality check of the
content is performed, it should be pilot tested. Once the project manager collects all the
comments from the pilot test team members, he can discuss them with the instructional
designer and necessary changes can be incorporated with the help of the development
team. The product of the production process, then, is course material ready for pilot
testing.

2.7.1.5.7     Evaluation stage
Evaluation is done at every stage of the entire life cycle, and feedback is incorporated in
the product. Basically, there are two types of evaluations, formative and summative.
Formative evaluation is conducted during the development stage and is iterative in
nature. Summative evaluation is conducted at the end of the development when all the
components       are       integrated      into        a      full    fledged       course.
All the assessments are checked with respect to the learning objects, for their relevance
and appropriateness. The overall look and feel of the course is very important and
clients are very particular about it. Finally, the learning expert has to satisfy that the
learner will learn from the course. The course is also evaluated for conforming to AICC,
SCORM or other standards.


2.7.1.5.8    Delivery and maintenance stage
After the content has been created, the focus shifts to delivery. The driving force behind
e-learning is that the course content (or the module) must be available at any time from
anywhere to the learner. The content material may include audio, graphics, simulations,
assessments, videos, reading material and other features. The delivery and maintenance
(D&M) team plays a pivotal part during this stage. The team has to first load the content
either on the server or on the learning management system (LMS) and test every bit of
it, including simulation and navigation. The team must also take into account the size of
the module and speed of access, etc. In most cases, an LMS may be used for delivery of
the module. There is a need to check the SCORM, AICC and other standards once the
course is loaded here. The e-learning module must be available to the learner any time.
The learner must have the control to leave the course and come back to it as many times
as                                        she                                       wants.

Overall, the D&M team is responsible for ongoing updating and monitoring of the e-
learning environment, including security measures for access control and information
confidentiality.


2.7.1.5.9    Instruction stage
The instruction team is the core of good e-learning content development cycle. At the
course instruction stage, instructional and support services staff (ISS) are the people
involved         in         delivering        the        instructional         product.

2.7.1.5.10   E-Learning environment
Once the content is ready the course may be offered either through a portal or in
standalone mode. The expectation of the learner is that they must be provided with a
good learning environment and uninterrupted learning time. It is necessary to see to it
that the correct courses are received by students who register for a particular course.
The Internet and availability of good bandwidth gives organisations one more medium
for delivery of learning content. This is attracting both academic and non-academic
institutions to seriously consider e-learning.
   Budget
Item        2010     2011     2012     Total
TOTALS      69,010   65,011   59,512   187,500
2.7.1.6 Title for the research group: Gender perceptions, access, use and impact of
        Educational Technology (ET) in Makerere University

   A hypothesis is an assumption about the status of events or about relations between
   variables. It is said to be a tentative explanation of the research problem or a
   possible outcome of the research, better still an educated guess about that out come
   (Sarantakos, 2005)

   As such I wish to suggest that this group adopts the following as our hypothesis:
    Gender influences perceptions , access, use and the resulting impact from
      educational Technology

Broad Objective: To examine the gender implications of the integration of new
educational technologies in Makerere University (MUK)
Sub Questions:
    What ET are in use in MUK
    What new Educational Technologies are in use in Makerere University?
    What are the implications of existing ICT policies on access and use?
    What are the perceived benefits and constraints of using new Educational
      Technologies in Makerere University?
    How can use of ET be improved / increased?
    What are the implications of ET on learning achievements? (say by comparing
      faculties that have embraced the ICT Educational Technologies versus those that
      have not

Constructs
Gendered Perceptions
   Both men and women form perceptions on the use of ICTs
   How do males and females perceive ET
   What is the effect of gender on acceptance of ET?

ET
 How does ET address Teaching, learning, Research, administrative and
   outreach/Collaboration activities of Makerere University?

USE
 There is a difference in use of ET between men and women (Staff and Students)
 Need to compare the use of ET among men and women in Makerere University
 How do men and women in Makerere University understand what new ET mean.-(
  group thought to include computers, e-Learning software. Mobile learning and the
  internet as new ET).
 What do men and women use ET for?
 What is the perceived impact of use (among staff, undergraduate and graduate
  students).
Concepts in Use
   Gender
   Educational Technology
   Perception
   Access
   Use
   Impact
   New Educational Technology
   Acceptance
   Adaptation
  
Keeping track of reading and status been added
          Group observed that some faculties/units have tried to integrate and
             work with ET at varying degrees. Others have not even tried. Hence there
             is a need to find out the status of ET adoption in MUK.
          Need to finding out what is motivating those that have ‖good ― degree of
             adoption?
          Need to take on the five priority units as case studies and assess there
             achievements so far. (These include: Gender, Faculty of Science, School of
             education, Faculty of Computing and information technology). Reason
             being that these units have enjoyed full university support which should
             be to them a spring board to successful integration. In this we can look at
             number of active online courses etc.
          What have been the challenges to integration of ET?
          Need a survey on the perceptions of the ET users. This should help guide
             setting up effective propositions and interventions

Total                                                                  58,514,000   30,797
2.7.1.7     Extension of the Use of Online Laboratories to other Universities in
            Uganda

2.7.1.7.1    Introduction

Online Laboratories refer to experiments accessed remotely. It involves the
development and deployment of experiments by technical staff on a platform that
enables remote access of these labs by users (students, Lecturers) at their own free time
or during lab session scheduled for the students. These types of laboratories are used in
the faculty of technology under the department of electrical engineering to offer online
experimentation to students offering programmes in electrical and telecommunications
engineering in study areas including digital and analogue electronics, communication
theory and basic telephony.

Students under the electrical engineering department are also encouraged to take up
research to improve the online laboratories infrastructure so as to suite the growing
demands in different programmes offered and from which research they write their
thesis.

Between the 7th and 9th of July 2008, iLabs@MAK hosted a conference under the theme
―ONLINE LABS: IMPROVING THE STUDENT LEARNING EXPERIENCE‖. The
conference attracted delegates from National Instruments, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), University of Dar-es-salaam
(UDSM) and from many local universities and institutions within the country.

One of the major results from the conference was the interest and request from
Kyambogo University (offering a Programme in Telecommunication Engineering),
Busitema University (offering a programme in Computer Engineering) and Ndejje
University (offering a programme in Electrical Engineering) for online laboratories to be
extended to them.

2.7.1.7.2    Project Rationale

The principles behind these appeals are that this extension would improve the students‘
learning experience and thus build capacity since online labs offer the students with
more laboratory time outside the class schedules (Students can do labs at home), they
also have access to experiment with expensive equipment in other universities through
sharing scheduled labs remotely. As a consequence of sharing equipment students will
be availed with a variety of experiments important for the development of skills in
those areas. Also, collaboration between these universities using online labs and sharing
equipment is expected to improve. Lecturer and student research activities especially
within areas involving experiment results are supported by available remote
experimentation.
In addition, capacity building will be achieved in the training of students and teachers
as local developers and since the nature of these experiments involve remote access,
students skills in computer usage will be definitely improved as a result of the
continuous usage of computers for labs. This project is expected to run for a period of
12months from August 2009 to August 2010.

2.7.1.7.3     Project Outputs

The end of this project will be marked by the integration of online laboratories into
curricula of the three universities, presence of local developers‘ teams to develop,
deploy and maintain experiments for each of the universities (Kyambogo, Ndejje and
Busitema), Publications, as well as conference and workshop proceedings and
dissertations expected as a result of final year projects research done in the areas of and
with the help of online laboratories.

2.7.1.7.5     Project Inputs and Budget

The execution of this project will require the following resources
    Human resource
    Equipment
    Software
    Office Consumable

       Total Budget                       108,500
2.7.1.8 What principles should guide the development of games and simulations for
teaching and learning at the tertiary level?
2.7.1.8.1     Introduction

Games and simulation are increasingly becoming an important aspect of educational
tools necessary for adoption at different stages of educational levels. Students get the
opportunities for self-directed learning in science, technology, engineering, and
mathematics. They create the "real world" dynamic environment needed to learn &
apply multiple skills. Macedonia (2003) has noticed that for a certain age group, the
increased use of multimedia and images rather text provides discovery based
experiential learning and allows multiprocessing in terms of the various electronic
devices presently available at their disposal.

The increased enrolment in the educational sector, in the primary, secondary tertiary
institutions and the availability of various educational possibilities in offering quality
and diverse methods in the delivery of content has paused a challenge to educational
providers to ensure that they are still relevant in getting viable solutions for the country
and the students involved.

Simulation and games is ideal pedagogical tools to teach students to increase their
attention span in disciplines that may be difficult to conceive and enable them discover
themselves.


2.7.1.8.2     Project Rationale

The main aim of this study is to conduct research on the use of simulations and games
in education. In addition to pedagogical and cognitive issues, the researchers shall also
focus on the social and technical issues of simulations and games.

However, there is not enough research about the potentials and problems of this new
media. As far as we know, no studies have been conducted to determine the effects of
gaming.

Thus we need to capitalize on computational science, simulation, and
telecommunications tools to create powerful informal science learning opportunities.

The proposal is to build curriculum units around game-based learning experiences
challenges basic assumptions of formal learning, such as those that underlie the
traditional role of teachers in the classroom. A digital game and simulation-based
approach to learning both accommodates student preferences and supports the core
cognitive processes of learning.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are currently taught in much the
same way as they were decades ago — that is, by disseminating content in the
classroom, including an increasing number of online classrooms.

Educators can now employ new technologies to target core cognitive processes in ways
that are highly compatible with how today‗s students learner behaviour. Research
shows that, in order to learn effectively, students need to construct a mental model —
their understanding — from their own questions and experience, and they need to
share, compare, and adapt their understanding with feedback from a larger expert
community (NRC 2000; Llewellyn 2002; Hammerman 2006). Digital game and
simulation-based approaches support these processes while utilizing the fun,
excitement, and highly motivating nature of self-directed game play to achieve serious
learning goals.

2.7.1.8.3      Project Outputs
The establishment of an interdisciplinary team drawn from the computer science,
education, engineering and fine art capable of researching and incorporating their
results into the various levels of the educational system in the country.
        i)     The creation and sustenance of Computer science students who are keen
               to develop computer games as projects.

       ii)    A team of educational and engineering students who can fuse the games
              created by the computer students into applicable scenarios.

       iii)   The School of fine students who can adapt graphics into computer games
              created by the computer science team

       iv)    Researchers who are able to create synergy between the components to
              incorporate them into the educational system in the country.

Makerere University becomes a centre of innovation for applicable educational content
for other Universities in the region. The participants will be able to develop

       Apply leadership skills and build an effective team


2.7.1.8.4     Project Budget

Total US $ 44,000
                    An Audit of Makerere University Information Systems


Introduction

In the recent past Makerere University has invested into design and implementation of
a number of information systems with a view of improving its operations and the
manner in which services are delivered to its clients. However, it is not clear whether
the systems have had an impact on the efficiency and productivity of the University,
met with the satisfaction of the users, or even laid ground for the intervention of other
ETs. It is therefore important to carry out an investigation/information system audit to
answer these questions.

Information System Auditing, also referred to as automated data processing (ADP)
audits and IT infrastructure audits, refers to an examination of the system controls
within an Information technology (IT) infrastructure which is the process of evaluating
the suitability and validity of an organization's information systems, practices and
operations.

Project Rationale

The Information Systems Audit at Makerere University will assess the University's
computer-based information systems (that include FINIS, ARIS, Mak LIBIS and
HURIS), technology architecture and processes to ascertain whether the systems are
reliable, effective, efficient and compliant with University policies and procedures, as
well as applicable laws and regulations.

The study will also evaluate the impact of these systems on the University‘s operations
and its abilities to achieve its goals and objectives.

Justification

The proposed investigation is vital because it is important to know the extent to which
the resources invested into the design and implementation of these information systems
have impacted on the efficiency and productivity of the university. Additionally, these
information systems are very vital for successful implementation of other ETs such as e-
learning in Makerere University.

Project Activities and Expected Outputs

Upon notification of acceptance of the concept, a full proposal will be developed. And
then the investigation will be carried. The major activities will include:
      Develop full project proposal
          o Write up
          o Design research tools (questionnaire)
          o Test tools (pilot)
      Carry out the investigation
          o Interview stakeholders
          o Physical audit of systems
      Analyze data
      Write Report (The report will be the main output of this investigation.)

Budget Us $ 25,620
2.7.1.10    Development Of An Electronic Student’s Portfolio To Capture
Curriculum Related Community Experiences

2.7.1.10.1    Introduction:

In a bid to bring health services closer to the consumers and attain the millennium
development goals, the government of Uganda has put in place policies that have
decentralized the provision of health care to the grass root level. In response to these
policy changes, the Makerere University College of health sciences (MUCHS) has
adopted and for the last five years been rolling out a responsive Problem Based
Learning (PBL)/ Community Based Education and Service (COBES) curriculum. This
change in curriculum delivery is moving the college towards attaining its mission, of,
improving the health of Ugandans, promoting health equity by providing quality
education, research and health services, through enhancing capacity and participation
of stakeholders; strengthening systems and partnerships; and harnessing the power of
new sciences and technology so as to build and sustain excellence and relevance. The
PBL curriculum, lays emphasis on biomedical science application in addition to the
early clinical and community exposure to guide the student‘s self-directed learning. In
self-directed learning students are responsible for finding the necessary information
required to solve a given problem or task. This is in line with the overall university
strategy mentioned above. Currently all the college undergraduate programs (Bachelor
of pharmacy, dentistry, medicine and surgery, medical radiology and nursing) have a
strong community orientation with the students spending about five weeks every
academic year in a community setting identifying and then solving some of the
community‘s problems. This they do this working in multidisciplinary teams with the
local health professionals and leaders. The community-based supervisors have
observed that 8-10 students at a community based learning results in a 15%-20%
increase in out patient department use by the local community.


2.7.1.10.2    Project Rationale

Provide justification for project to explain why investment is worth making. One of the
challenges with sending students out to the wards and community sites as part of
health professional training is to accurately document the information that the students
come across in a manner that would add to their scores. The current practice of using
work books is not effective or productive to the learning process as has been
highlighted in a recent external curriculum review. This essentially means that the
students have no evidence to support the vast amount of experience they gain as they
go through the five year course. Related to this is getting the student to reflect and thus
learn from these experiences. When the students reflect on their experiences they
develop habits that are consistent with self directed, life long learning. This is what the
college and the university would like to see in its graduates. Portfolios are an
acknowledged powerful tool for encouraging self reflection. Having an electronic
portfolio goes a step further by mimicking the use of electronic medical records that the
students will use as graduates. Thus, in addition to getting the student to learn how to
reflect their learning happens in the context of where they will eventually work as
graduates.

The other advantage of setting up this electronic portfolio is that the model can be
adapted to other faculties with internship of placement experiences. The time spent by
the students on these tasks once recorded can be converted into credit units. This is
important for many of the programs in say the college of health science as it sends a
message to the students that this part of the curriculum is important as shown by the
assessment. Foreign students will also benefit, as they will be in a better position to
show what they have done making the university a more attractive place for earning
credit units in the new developing educational tourism. Finally having credit units
assigned to this time will increase the weighting of programs offered by the university
thus helping it compete with other institutions globally.


2.7.1.10.3   Project Outputs

Install an electronic portfolio system
    Identified or developed an appropriate electronic portfolio software
    Installed the above software on the university server
    Developed a course to train students and staff on how to use the system
    Trained students and staff on how to use the system on how to use the system

Documentation of students experiences at internship sites
   Posting of appropriate entries under each student portfolio
   Weighting of experiences for conversion to university academic credit units
Publications from student experiences
   Developed a guide for students self reflection
   Number of Publications and papers generated by the students as case reports
   Number of publications on the trends observed in the student data bases



2.7.1.10.4   Project Activities

To achieve the above results, the following activities will be implemented:


2.7.1.10.5   Project Inputs and Budget

For to succeed there is need to secure the following inputs
   Server space
   Internet connectivity costs to be shared by the university and its users
   Time for tool development

Total                          144,000
2.7.1.12             Project Name:       Development      Multimedia      Digital
                     Materials for Distance Education at Makerere University


2.7.1.12.1           Project Rationale: Makerere University has been offering
                     traditional (print-based) distance education programs at
                     degree level since 1991. Although print has been the
                     dominant medium of delivery, demand for diversification of
                     delivery channels has been on the cards. Demand for
                     electronic access to Makerere University‘s distance
                     education programmes by international students has been
                     on the rise over the years. With increasing access to digital
                     technologies, there is need to diversify modes of delivery to
                     take advantage of benefits accruing to modern digital ET for
                     Ugandan distance learners as well. Collaborations between
                     Makerere University and other distance education providers
                     worldwide are hindered by the fact that we are employing
                     different generations of distance education.             This
                     disadvantage is more pronounced when the world is
                     moving more rapidly towards open educational resources.
                     For Makerere University to contribute to this and also
                     benefit from it, it is important that Makerere University
                     distance education materials be digitised.


2.7.1.12.2           Project Outputs:    The following       outputs     will   be
                     anticipated from the project:
                     1) Result 1: Current curricula materials reviewed
                     2) Result 2: Academic and technical staff         trained in
                        digitization of distance education materials
                     3) Result 3: Digitized distance education materials in
                        multiple media
Budget US$ 150,000
2.7.1.13            Project Name:      Expanding Educational Technology
                    Capacity at Makerere University Outlying Centres


2.7.1.13.1          Project Rationale: In the last 10 years, Makerere University
                    and her development partners have invested heavily in the
                    development of ET facilities at the Main Campus. While the
                    capacity created on campus caters to the ET needs of
                    campus-based      teaching    and    learning,    off-campus
                    teaching/learning, research and outreach facilities of the
                    university are not equally developed. ET facilities at the 10*
                    research outposts, eight IACE centres, five* off-campus
                    student hostels, four* staff quarters and project sites may
                    require assessing with a view to upgrading them. For the
                    purpose of achieving comparative parity of provision, it is
                    important to ensure equity of access to ET services for staff
                    and students on- and off-campus.
                    * Numbers require confirming.


2.7.1.13.2          Project Outputs:    The following         outputs      will     be
                    anticipated from the project:
                    1)   Result 1:         An audit report on the status of ET
                         facilities in the outlying centres of Makerere University,
                         including:
                         a)   Available infrastructure for ET installation and
                              usage
                         b)   Available ET facilities and the state of usability
                         c)   Human skills capacity for ET utilization at the
                              outlying centres
                    2)   Result 2:    Roll-out     plan          arising          from
                         recommendations of the Audit
                    3)   Result 3:       Additional ET facilities acquired and
                         installed
                    4)   Result 4:       Trained    end-users   of   installed     ET
                         facilities
Budget US$ 40,000

				
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