# SOL Review Scientific Investigation

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```					            SOL Review:
Scientific Investigation
The Science 8 SOL Test
 5 Categories
 Scientific Investigation
 Earth & Space Systems
 Life Systems
 Ecosystems
 Force, Motion, Energy, & Matter
The Breakdown
 50 Total Questions
11 Scientific Investigations Questions
6 Earth & Space Systems Questions
7 Life Systems Questions
8 Ecosystems Questions
18 Force, Motion, Energy, & Matter Questions
Graphically Speaking…
The Plan
Monday      Tuesday   Wednesday   Thursday   Friday

Earth & Space
Scientific Investigation
Systems

Life Systems                   Ecosystems

Force, Motion, Energy, & Matter
THE Book
 Compilation of all released SOL
questions based on topics
 What that means for you…
Everything that we will be reviewing
is relevant and VERY likely going to
be on this SOL test
What I need from YOU!
 Attendance
 Attention
 Effort
 Cooperation
 Strong Positive Attitude
…with this, you’ll have SUCCESS!
SI Metric Units
What are the metric units for the following (may be more than 1):

Volume    milliliter, liter
grams/milliliter
Density
kilograms/cubic meter
grams/cubic centimeter
Mass milligrams, grams, kilograms
Temperature Degree Celsius
Metric Instruments
What instrument do we use to measure…
Mass     Triple-beam balance
Length   Ruler
Time     Stopwatch
Temperature Thermometer
What is the length of the line?

1.4 cm
What is the volume?

52.8 mL
What is the mass?
30    100
0

0.5

130.52 grams
What is the mass?

545.2 grams
Scale Models
1 cm = 50 meters
1 cm = 50 meters      According to the
4.5 cm = 225 meters   scale shown
above, what is
the length of the
orange box?
Scientific Notation

Write each number in Scientific Notation:

0.07882          7.882 x     10-2

0.00000272338 2.72338 x 10-6
118000        1.18 x   105

87200        8.72 x 104
Scientific Notation
 Move the decimal to a place where the
number is between 1 and 10.
 The exponent is the number of places that
you move the decimal.
 If the exponent is negative, it’s a little tiny
number.
 If the exponent is positive, it’s a very large
number.
Standard Format
Write each number in
Standard Format:
3.443 x 10-7 0.0000003443

1.525 x 106   1,525,000
Range
3.7 4.6 7.3 0.2 4.6
What is the range for the data above?
Range = largest number – smallest number
Range = 7.3 – 0.2
Range = 7.1
According to
this graph,
what month
was the
July
Interpreting a Graph
Which graph below shows the most
probable effect of environmental pollution
on the chances of human survival?
A) In 1939 a greater percentage of energy was obtained from
hydroelectric dams than in 1989.
B) Fossil fuels made up a greater percentage of total energy
use in 1939 than in 1989.
C) Coal represented a larger percentage of the total energy use
in 1989 than in 1939.
D) The percentage of natural gas used has decreased over
time.
The Longest = Energizer

The Shortest = Panasonic

Which battery lasted the longest? The shortest?
Based on the graph below, on day 11, how many
pages do you think Sue will have read in her book?

Number of Pages Read over Time   55 Pages

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0   2      4       6       8         10   12

Number of Days
Given this incomplete data table, describe the
procedure you would carry out for this experiment.
The chart shows results of a plant fertilizer experiment.
Which group of plants showed the greatest gain in height?

Average       Average
Group Group Brand of               Height       Height 2
Fertilizer    Before      Weeks After
Size                   Using       Using Plant
Fertilizer   Light (cm)
(cm)

1         25          A         5.4          29.0
2         25          B         5.3          27.0
3         25          C         5.2          28.0
4         25          D         5.5          25.5
Classifying Organisms
1. Wings covered by an exoskeleton …………..…go to step 2
Wings not covered by an exoskeleton ……..….go to step 3

2. Body has a round shape ……………………....…….ladybug
Body has an elongated shape ……………..….grasshopper

3. Wings point out from the side of the body ……….dragonfly
Wings point to the posterior of the body ………….housefly

Experimental Design

Two companies make baseballs, and each claims its ball goes
farther. Which would be the best scientific evidence to decide
which ball goes farther?
A) A base ball player hits each ball, and one measures how far
each goes.
B) A machine hits each ball with exactly the same force, and one
measures how far each goes.
C) One reads results of tests conducted on the two balls by each
company.
D) One sets up a survey and asks 500 baseball players which ball
goes farther.
Experimental Design
A gardener did an experiment to determine which of the
three brands of fertilizer would produce the most growth
in his plants. For three different plants of the same
species, he used each of the three brands of fertilizer.
Once a week, he made observations for each plant. Which
would have improved the experiment?
A. Using a different species of plant for each brand of
fertilizer.
B. Mixing the fertilizers.
C. Making observations every two weeks.
D. Testing each fertilizer with more than one plant.
Experimental Design
Robyn wants to find out if the rainfall in her town
contains pollutants. The best way for Robyn to
gather this information would be to collect ___.
A. one sample on one rainy day
B. one sample a day on several rainy days
C. several separate samples on one rainy day
D. several separate samples on several rainy days
Experimental Design
High quality valid scientific experiments, should:

Have a high “n” value…which means you test a lot of subjects

Be repeatable and repeated…with the same conclusions

Have a control…although not every experiment lends itself to one

Have only one independent variable…keep everything else constant

For plant experiments, make sure you give all plants equal sunlight
exposure and water…unless of course, your independent variable is to
vary the amount of sunlight or water
Watch out for sketchy experiments…

 Not enough subjects

 Subjects were not similar

 Conditions of experiment were not kept the
same OR more than one independent variable.
 The experiment was not reproducible.

 No control group, when there should have
been one!
Variables

o Independent Variable - something that is changed
by the scientist
o What is tested
o What is manipulated

o Dependent Variable - something that might be
affected by the change in the independent variable
o What is observed
o What is measured
o The data collected during the investigation
Constants vs. Control
 Constants = all the factors that are kept the same
throughout the whole experiment…this is everything except
the independent variable
 Example: In a plant experiment to test 3 different
fertilizer brands, the constants include: type of plant,
amount of sunlight, amount of water, etc.
 Control = the basis for comparison…not all experiments lend
themselves to a control
 Example: In a plant experiment to test 3 different
fertilizer brands, the control group would have no
fertilizer applied at all
Identify Independent & Dependent Variables

Students of different ages were given the
same jigsaw puzzle to put together. They
were timed to see how long it took to
finish the puzzle.
Independent = Different Ages of Children
Dependent = Time it takes to Finish
What’s held constant in this experiment?
the puzzle, the stopwatch, environment, etc.
Identify Independent & Dependent Variables

An investigation was done with an
electromagnet made from a battery and wire
wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails
were used. The number of paper clips the
electromagnet could pick up was measured.
Independent = Size of the Nail
Dependent = Number of Paper Clips Picked Up
What’s held constant in this experiment?
Battery, Wire, Type of Nail, etc…
Independent & Dependent Variable

The temperature of water was
measured at different depths of a pond.
Independent = Depth of Water
Dependent = Temperature of Water
What’s held constant in this experiment?
Thermometer, Time of Day, etc.
Scientific Resources

best for…”
 Look for key words like “current”  think
Internet
 Most “accurate” or “effective”  think
government report/website or scientific
journal
 Use common sense & just make sure it
sounds legitimate

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