SOL Review Scientific Investigation

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					            SOL Review:
Scientific Investigation
The Science 8 SOL Test
 5 Categories
  Scientific Investigation
  Earth & Space Systems
  Life Systems
  Ecosystems
  Force, Motion, Energy, & Matter
  The Breakdown
 50 Total Questions
    11 Scientific Investigations Questions
    6 Earth & Space Systems Questions
    7 Life Systems Questions
    8 Ecosystems Questions
    18 Force, Motion, Energy, & Matter Questions
Graphically Speaking…
The Plan
Monday      Tuesday   Wednesday   Thursday   Friday


                                   Earth & Space
 Scientific Investigation
                                     Systems

   Life Systems                   Ecosystems

         Force, Motion, Energy, & Matter
THE Book
 Compilation of all released SOL
  questions based on topics
 What that means for you…
   Everything that we will be reviewing
   is relevant and VERY likely going to
   be on this SOL test
 What I need from YOU!
 Attendance
 Attention
 Effort
 Cooperation
 Strong Positive Attitude
 …with this, you’ll have SUCCESS!
  SI Metric Units
What are the metric units for the following (may be more than 1):

  Volume    milliliter, liter
            grams/milliliter
  Density
            kilograms/cubic meter
            grams/cubic centimeter
  Mass milligrams, grams, kilograms
  Temperature Degree Celsius
  Metric Instruments
What instrument do we use to measure…
Mass     Triple-beam balance
Volume   Graduated Cylinder
Length   Ruler
Time     Stopwatch
Temperature Thermometer
What is the length of the line?




           1.4 cm
What is the volume?




       52.8 mL
What is the mass?
     30    100
0


          0.5

    130.52 grams
What is the mass?




    545.2 grams
 Scale Models
                      1 cm = 50 meters
1 cm = 50 meters      According to the
4.5 cm = 225 meters   scale shown
                      above, what is
                      the length of the
                      orange box?
Scientific Notation

Write each number in Scientific Notation:

0.07882          7.882 x     10-2

0.00000272338 2.72338 x 10-6
118000        1.18 x   105

87200        8.72 x 104
  Scientific Notation
 Move the decimal to a place where the
  number is between 1 and 10.
 The exponent is the number of places that
  you move the decimal.
 If the exponent is negative, it’s a little tiny
  number.
 If the exponent is positive, it’s a very large
  number.
Standard Format
Write each number in
 Standard Format:
3.443 x 10-7 0.0000003443


1.525 x 106   1,525,000
 Range
  3.7 4.6 7.3 0.2 4.6
What is the range for the data above?
Range = largest number – smallest number
      Range = 7.3 – 0.2
      Range = 7.1
Reading a Bar Graph
            According to
            this graph,
            what month
            was the
            deadliest?
                July
  Interpreting a Graph
Which graph below shows the most
probable effect of environmental pollution
on the chances of human survival?
A) In 1939 a greater percentage of energy was obtained from
   hydroelectric dams than in 1989.
B) Fossil fuels made up a greater percentage of total energy
   use in 1939 than in 1989.
C) Coal represented a larger percentage of the total energy use
   in 1989 than in 1939.
D) The percentage of natural gas used has decreased over
   time.
                               The Longest = Energizer


The Shortest = Panasonic


Which battery lasted the longest? The shortest?
Based on the graph below, on day 11, how many
pages do you think Sue will have read in her book?

                                Number of Pages Read over Time   55 Pages
Number of Pages Read



                       60

                       50

                       40

                       30

                       20

                       10

                       0
                            0   2      4       6       8         10   12

                                    Number of Days
Given this incomplete data table, describe the
procedure you would carry out for this experiment.
The chart shows results of a plant fertilizer experiment.
Which group of plants showed the greatest gain in height?

                                    Average       Average
  Group Group Brand of               Height       Height 2
                       Fertilizer    Before      Weeks After
              Size                   Using       Using Plant
                                    Fertilizer   Light (cm)
                                      (cm)

     1         25          A         5.4          29.0
     2         25          B         5.3          27.0
     3         25          C         5.2          28.0
     4         25          D         5.5          25.5
   Classifying Organisms
1. Wings covered by an exoskeleton …………..…go to step 2
   Wings not covered by an exoskeleton ……..….go to step 3

2. Body has a round shape ……………………....…….ladybug
   Body has an elongated shape ……………..….grasshopper

3. Wings point out from the side of the body ……….dragonfly
   Wings point to the posterior of the body ………….housefly



   Ladybug       Grasshopper     Dragonfly      Housefly
Experimental Design

Two companies make baseballs, and each claims its ball goes
farther. Which would be the best scientific evidence to decide
which ball goes farther?
A) A base ball player hits each ball, and one measures how far
   each goes.
B) A machine hits each ball with exactly the same force, and one
   measures how far each goes.
C) One reads results of tests conducted on the two balls by each
   company.
D) One sets up a survey and asks 500 baseball players which ball
   goes farther.
  Experimental Design
A gardener did an experiment to determine which of the
three brands of fertilizer would produce the most growth
in his plants. For three different plants of the same
species, he used each of the three brands of fertilizer.
Once a week, he made observations for each plant. Which
would have improved the experiment?
A. Using a different species of plant for each brand of
fertilizer.
B. Mixing the fertilizers.
C. Making observations every two weeks.
D. Testing each fertilizer with more than one plant.
  Experimental Design
Robyn wants to find out if the rainfall in her town
contains pollutants. The best way for Robyn to
gather this information would be to collect ___.
A. one sample on one rainy day
B. one sample a day on several rainy days
C. several separate samples on one rainy day
D. several separate samples on several rainy days
     Experimental Design
High quality valid scientific experiments, should:

   Have a high “n” value…which means you test a lot of subjects

   Be repeatable and repeated…with the same conclusions

   Have a control…although not every experiment lends itself to one

   Have only one independent variable…keep everything else constant

   For plant experiments, make sure you give all plants equal sunlight
   exposure and water…unless of course, your independent variable is to
   vary the amount of sunlight or water
  Watch out for sketchy experiments…

 Not enough subjects

 Subjects were not similar

 Conditions of experiment were not kept the
  same OR more than one independent variable.
 The experiment was not reproducible.

 No control group, when there should have
  been one!
Variables

o Independent Variable - something that is changed
  by the scientist
  o What is tested
  o What is manipulated

o Dependent Variable - something that might be
  affected by the change in the independent variable
  o What is observed
  o What is measured
  o The data collected during the investigation
  Constants vs. Control
 Constants = all the factors that are kept the same
  throughout the whole experiment…this is everything except
  the independent variable
   Example: In a plant experiment to test 3 different
    fertilizer brands, the constants include: type of plant,
    amount of sunlight, amount of water, etc.
 Control = the basis for comparison…not all experiments lend
  themselves to a control
   Example: In a plant experiment to test 3 different
    fertilizer brands, the control group would have no
    fertilizer applied at all
Identify Independent & Dependent Variables

Students of different ages were given the
same jigsaw puzzle to put together. They
were timed to see how long it took to
finish the puzzle.
 Independent = Different Ages of Children
 Dependent = Time it takes to Finish
 What’s held constant in this experiment?
 the puzzle, the stopwatch, environment, etc.
Identify Independent & Dependent Variables

An investigation was done with an
electromagnet made from a battery and wire
wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails
were used. The number of paper clips the
electromagnet could pick up was measured.
Independent = Size of the Nail
Dependent = Number of Paper Clips Picked Up
What’s held constant in this experiment?
Battery, Wire, Type of Nail, etc…
  Independent & Dependent Variable

The temperature of water was
measured at different depths of a pond.
Independent = Depth of Water
Dependent = Temperature of Water
What’s held constant in this experiment?
Thermometer, Time of Day, etc.
Scientific Resources

 If the question asks about “which resource is
  best for…”
   Look for key words like “current”  think
    Internet
   Most “accurate” or “effective”  think
    government report/website or scientific
    journal
   Use common sense & just make sure it
    sounds legitimate