Securing Web Communication with Quantum Cryptography by ijcsiseditor


More Info
									                                                                   (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                        Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

                            Securing Web Communication with
                                  Quantum Cryptography
                                            R.K.Pateriya1, R.K. Baghel2, Anupriya Gupta3
                                    Associate Professor, Department of Information Technology
                                    Associate Professor, Department of Electronics Engineering
                       M.Tech (Information Security) Scholar, Department of Computer Science & Engineering
                                  Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India
                           Emails: ,,

Abstract—The problem of transmitting secret messages securely
between two parties is very old one. Human imagination has come                                                     Broken by Quantum
up with clever ways of overcoming the difficulties associated with                                                      algorithm
this problem, in particular preventing a malevolent eavesdropper                                                         Broken
from obtaining information about the secret message exchanged                   RSA public key encryption
over the communication channel. Now a days internet security is
most important issue because a large number of people depends on                     Diffie-Hellman                        Broken
online transaction. During recent year quantum cryptography has                      key-exchange
been the object of a strong activity and is now extending its activity                                                     Broken
into various areas. Quantum cryptography is now a days widely                   Elliptic curve cryptography
used for communicating secret data between two authenticated
parties. It has great potential to become the key technology for                     TABLE I.      SECURITY STATUS OF CRYPTOSYSTEM
securing confidentiality and privacy of communication and thus to
become the driver for the success of a series of web services in the
field of e-governance, e-commerce, e-health, transmission of                    The main protocol utilized in QKD is BB84 protocol. It
biometric data etc. The main problem with quantum cryptography                  consist of four stages [2] .
is to find the initial raw key. This problem is discussed in this paper
and a method is proposed which uses quantum cryptography in                     A. Stages Utilized in BB84 Protocol
SSL/TLS server for securing web communication.
                                                                                    Raw key generation: Transmission of randomly encoded
                                                                                    single photon stream over the quantum channel from
Keywords- BB84 protocol , Random key generation, QKD.
                                                                                    sender to receiver to establish initial raw key. The sender
                                                                                    will maintain the temporary database of each photon sent.
                       I.    INTRODUCTION
Quantum cryptography is an approach to securing                                     Sifting: Here receiver will send a list of photons detected
communications by applying the phenomena of quantum                                 and their basis but not their value back to the sender over
physics. Unlike traditional classical cryptography, which uses                      the same channel. photons are measured with three basis
mathematical techniques to restrict eavesdroppers, quantum                          horizontal, vertical, diagonal and only one basis can be
cryptography is focused on the physics of information. Unlike                       applied to one photon as it is measured once.
the public key cryptosystem the security of QKD is provable
and can not be compromised. Although QKD is not very                                Reconciliation: This phase mainly deals with the
practical but it has been the object of intensive research                          correction of errors. This process requires a number of
activities and of rapid progress. It is only useful for short                       communication between sender and receiver over
distance but with sufficient technical improvement it will                          classical channel and because of this, the size of key is
become possible to implement QKD over large distances.                              reduced than sifted key.
Unconditional security of QKD lies in the principal of
Heisenberg uncertainty and principal of photon polarization.                        Privacy amplification: In this step no communication is
According to the Current status of security of classical                            needed between sender and receiver. Using reconciled set
cryptosystem in relation to quantum cryptography[1].                                of bits a new smaller set of bits is computed.

                                                                                                          ISSN 1947-5500
                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                  Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
B. QKD based on three levels of complexity
                                                                               III. PROPOSED MODIFIED SSL/TLS RECORD
QKD is a cryptographic primitive which is used for various
                                                                              PROTOCOL WITH QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
purposes of increasing complexity. These purposes can be
classified according to the three levels of complexity. These             Here a modification is proposed in the Transport Layer
levels are equivalent to the first three layers of the OSI model.         Record Protocol of SSL/TLS using quantum cryptography
                                                                          key distribution. In this modification three parts of QKD are
        The first level is key establishment between two                 occurred first one is QKD setting protocol for the bias setting
         user shared by each . Quantum Key Agreement,                     and channel establishment . Second is one hand shake protocol
         falls in the category of physical layer security                 for communication for the client and server and finally
         cryptographic primitives.                                        amplification of encrypted message for authentication
        The second level is two user secure payload
         transmission built on top of key establishment
         scheme. These are link layer security cryptographic                        Application Layer
        The third level is key distribution    over a global
         network composed of multiple users. These are
         network layer security cryptographic primitives.

                   II.   PREVIOUS WORK
                                                                                                                          QKD setting protocol
Quantum computing is a rapidly growing field of research
that applies concepts of quantum physics to building more
efficient computers. Although only rudimentary quantum                                                                         QKD handshake
computers have been built so far, many researchers believe
that quantum computing has great potential. In recent years,                                                                     MAC algorithm
there has been extensive studies about the possibilities offered
by quantum computation to cryptology. From the point of
view of quantum computing researchers, after the advent of                          Compression                  MAC                    Padding
high power quantum computers, conventional cryptography
may be no longer secure. Cryptanalysis tasks would be
dramatically accelerated with the help of quantum computers,                                                   Encryption algorithm
if such computers are ever build. Till now quantum
cryptography is implemented successfully in optical fiber
communication but large distances is still a problem to be
                                                                                   Transport Layer                                  Amplification
solved. There are drawbacks in the existing techniques like
initially deciding a fixed length of key is a problem. As
distance increases key size varies and error rate also increases.
Presently sequential key generation is being used as a result of                                                        Header        Encrypted record
which if any intermediate sample of data get corrupted than all
preceding sample get affected and because of this error rate                              Figure 1. SSL/TLS Record Protocol
increases. Following method is used for key generation in
existing techniques [3]
                                                                          Our proposal is the random key generation for getting the
                                                                          initial key of fixed length. With this error rate will be reduced
                                                                          because corruption of intermediate sample of data will not
                                                                          affect the whole process of key generation. The Basic
                                                                          problem of QKD is to find the initial key length will also be
                                                                          removed remove by our proposed technique . As soon as raw
                                                                          key get fixed, base announcement is done and channel get
                                                                          established for further communication. We will simulate QKD
                                                                          in SSL server and make an error generator for estimating the
Where n=length of raw key, e=error rate and k=final key that              error to know which bit is get corrupted and this data will be
is obtained after error correction.                                       used in our random key generation scheme using monte carlo
                                                                          method [4].

                                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                             Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

                                                                    If x is discrete and
                                                                     Eg(x)=∫ g(x) fx(x)dx        (2)
                              Client hello
                                                                            xε X

                                                                    Now the value of threshold of key shift is
                                                                    τ ≤{ log21+4e-4e2 for e ≤ ½
           Server hello
                                                                        1            for 1/2≤ e

                                   QKD                              After modification
                                                                     E(τ)= ∫g (log21+4e-4e2 ) tdt
                                                                           xε e
                               Bias setting
                                                                    Now the final key length is
                                                                    K={1- E(τ)+f(e)
                                                                                               Where f(e)=elog2(e)+(1-e)log2(1-e)

                                                                            IV.    CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
                           Error Correction                         In this paper a new technique is proposed in which random
                                                                    key is generated for getting the initial key of fixed length
                                                                    Which will reduce the error rate because corruption of
                                                                    intermediate sample of data will not affect the whole process
                                                                    of key generation. The future work will be to evaluate the
            Reconciliation                                          performance of key found by new method and analyze the
                                                                    results by plotting the graph between error and key for both
                                                                    old and new key.
                                                                    The Success of this research work would have been uncertain
                                                                    without the help and guidance of a dedicated group of people
                                                                    in our institute MANIT Bhopal. We would like to express our
                                   Finished                         true and sincere acknowledgements as the appreciation for
                                                                    their contributions, encouragement and support. The
                                                                    researchers also wish to express gratitude and warmest
                                       Finished                     appreciation to people, who, in any way have contributed and
                                                                    inspired the researchers
                                                                     [1]Sean hallgren and Ulrich vollmer “Quantum computing”
Client                                         Server               Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Pages15-34 February 01, 2009
                                                                    [2] Jörgen Cederlöf and Jan-Åke Larsson “Security Aspects of
                     Figure 2. SSL Using QKD
                                                                    the Authentication Used in Quantum Cryptography” IEEE
                                                                    Transactions On Information Theory, Vol. 54, No. 4, April
Monte Carlo Key Generation Method                                   [3]Mario Pivk, Christian Kollmitzer “SSL/TLS with Quantum
                                                                    Cryptography” Third International Conference on Quantum,
In this we are integrating new concept of random sifting of         Nano and Micro Technologies, 2009.
key length using random number generator.                           [4] Eric C. Anderson“ Monte Carlo Methods and Importance
          Consider a random variable X having probability           Sampling” Lecture Notes for Stat 578C Statistical
density function fx(x) which is greater than zero, than             Genetics1999
expected value of function g of x is                                [5] Mohamed Elboukhari, Mostafa Azizi, and Abdelmalek
                                                                    Azizi “Integration of Quantum Key Distribution in the TLS
E(g(x))=    ∑ g(x) fx(x)     (1)                                    Protocol” IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science
           xε X                                                     and Network Security, VOL.9 No.12, December 2009

                                                                                               ISSN 1947-5500
                                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                 Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
[6] Alan Mink, Sheila Frankel and Ray Perlner” Quantum Key
Distribution (QKD) and Commodity Security Protocols:
Introduction and Integration” International Journal of Network
Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol 1, No 2, July 2009.
[7]. Rajni Goel, Moses Garuba, Anteneh Girma “Research
Directions in Quantum Cryptography” International
Conference on Information Technology (ITNG'07). Pages
[8].A.Falahati , Hadi Meshgi “Using Quantum Cryptography
for securing Wireless LAN networks”International Conference
on Signal Processing Systems. Pages 698-701 , 2009
[9] Stamatios V.Kartalopoulos “Identifying vulnerabilities of
quantum cryptography in secure optical data transport” IEEE
Military communications Conference Milcom , pages 1-9,

                          R K Pateriya M.Tech & B.E. in
                          Computer Science & Engg. and
                          working as Associate Professor in
                          Information Technology Department
                          of MANIT Bhopal . Total 17 Years
                          Teaching Experience ( PG & UG ).
                          Guided more than twenty M.Tech
                          Thesis     .   Published  several

                          R K Baghel Working as Associate
                          Professor in Electronics Engineering
                          Department of MANIT Bhopal. PhD in
                          Optical communication, M.Tech in
                          Digital Communication & B.E. in
                          Electronics & Communication Engg.
                          Total 20 Years Teaching Experience
                          ( PG & UG ). Guided more than
                          twenty M.Tech Thesis. His research
                          area is Low power VLSI &

                          Anupriya Gupta B.E. in Electronics
                          Engineering. Pursuing   M.Tech. in
                          Information Security from MANIT

                                                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500

To top