Skills and competences development and innovative pedagogies in by vaz16169

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									Skills and competences
development and innovative
pedagogies in Hungary


Detailed Thematic Analysis




                             March 2007
This thematic analysis is part of a series of reports on vocational education and training produced
for each EU Member State (plus Norway and Iceland) by members of ReferNet, a network
established by the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop). Further
information on ReferNet Hungary coordinated by the Supportmanagement Directorate of the
Ministry of Education and Culture is available at: http://www.refernet.hu.
Please note that ReferNet reports are based on strict templates and are intended for use in an
online database available at:
http://www.trainingvillage.gr/etv/Information_resources/NationalVet/. Therefore, the reader may
encounter repetitions in content.


Prepared for Cedefop by:

Dr. Tamás Köpeczi Bócz
Eszter Bükki (sections 0701-0702, 0705-0707)
Lídia Vinczéné Fekete (sections 0703-0704)

ReferNet Hungary

The report was commented by:

András Benedek (Budapest University of Technology and Economics)
András Emőkey (Szent István University)
Anikó Kálmán (University of Debrecen)
Zsolt Kalmár (Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry)
András Laczkó (Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture)
György Mártonfi (Institute of Educational Research and Development)
Ella Regina Pais (Univeristy of Pécs)
Roland Soós (North-Hungarian Regional Training Centre)
Anikó Tóth (Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour)
László Vízvári (Institute for Basic and Continuing Education of Health Workers)

The compilation of the report was assisted and the report was reviewed by organisations involved
in the ReferNet national consortium:

       Budapest Business School - Life Long Learning Center
       Budapest Technical College - Kandó Kálmán Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of
       Developing Human Resources and Methodology
       Budapest University of Technology and Economics - Faculty of Economic and Social
       Sciences, Institute of Applied Pedagogy and Psychology, Department of Technical Education
       Corvinus University of Budapest - Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Behavioural
       Sciences and Communication Theory
       Educatio Public Service Company
       Education Office
       Employment Office
       Hungarian Central Statistical Office – Department of Social Services Statistics
       Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture
       Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
       Institute for Basic and Continuing Education of Health Workers
       Ministry of Agriculture Educational and Advisory Institute
       Ministry of Education and Culture - State Secretariat of Higher Education and Science /
       State Secretariat of International Relations, EURYDICE National Unit
       Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement General Directorate of Education
       Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour - State Secretariat of Employment and Training
       National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education
       SuliNova Agency for Educational Development and In-service Teacher Training - Centre of
       In-service Teacher Training and Accreditation
       Tempus Public Foundation - Leonardo National Agency
       University of Debrecen - Lifelong Learning Center
       University of Miskolc - Centre for Social Research
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

0701    ANTICIPATION OF SKILL NEEDS: GENERAL BACKGROUND ..................................... 2
  070101     Policy development on the anticipation of skill needs ............................. 4
  070102     Legal, administrative and institutional framework .................................. 7
  070103     Methods, approaches, practices and tools used ..................................... 9
  070104     Building partnerships and raising awareness ....................................... 13
  070105     Financing the anticipation of skill needs (incl. statistics) ....................... 15
0702    DEVELOPING QUALIFICATIONS: GENERAL BACKGROUND ................................... 17
  070201     Policy development on developing qualifications .................................. 19
  070202     Legal, administrative and institutional framework ................................ 22
  070203     Methods, approaches, practices and tools used ................................... 24
  070204     Building partnerships and raising awareness ....................................... 28
  070205     Financing the development of new qualifications (incl. statistics) .......... 30
0703    INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES: GENERAL BACKGROUND ......................................... 32
  070301     Policy development on innovative pedagogies ..................................... 35
  070302     Legal, administrative and institutional framework ................................ 40
  070303     Practices of innovative pedagogies in VET .......................................... 43
  07030301 e-learning in VET (incl. statistics) ...................................................... 47
  07030302 Barriers to implementation............................................................... 52
  070304     Building partnerships and raising awareness ....................................... 54
  070305     Financing innovative pedagogies (incl. statistics) ................................. 54
0704    INNOVATIONS IN TEACHER TRAINING ........................................................... 61
0705    INNOVATIONS IN ASSESSMENT .................................................................... 67
  070501     Innovations in evaluation and quality monitoring................................. 70
0706    INNOVATIONS IN GUIDANCE AND COUNCELLING .............................................. 74
0707    THE EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION ............................................ 79
  070701     Europeanisation of VET curricula ....................................................... 82
0708    BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE AND WEB SITES ............................................... 84




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0701 ANTICIPATION OF SKILL NEEDS: GENERAL BACKGROUND

DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPTS “SKILLS” AND “COMPETENCES” IN HUNGARY

The official definitions of the concepts “skills” and “competences” in Hungary are on the
whole in line with the understanding of these terms appearing in official EU education
policy documents. While Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational education and training refers to
competences simply as “theoretical and practical knowledge elements” (when speaking
about the preconditions of entering vocational education and training), and the Strategy
of the Development of Vocational Education and Training 2005-2013 differentiated basic
skills and key, general and specific competences but without giving formal definitions,
the Strategy for the enhancement of lifelong learning (2005), and most recently, 1/2006.
(VII.5.) decree of the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour provided detailed definitions of
the terms.

Annex 3 of the LLL Strategy of 2005 gives the following explanations:

     skill: Knowledge and experience indispensable for the execution of a specific task or
     work, which is acquired by the individual through learning, training or practical
     experience;
     basic skill: The sum total of skills required for activities in a modern society, such as
     writing, reading, numeracy, communication (ICT skills, foreign language), decision-
     making, the ability to participate in a work organisation, ability for individual
     learning, etc.;
     competence, proficiency: The proven ability of an individual to utilize his/her
     knowledge (skills, vocational qualification) in both a general and a changing
     professional environment. Competence in fact is the sum total of knowledge,
     theoretical and practical skills, attitudes, emotions, values and ethical characteristics
     and motivations necessary for successful activities in a given environment;
     key competences: The entirety of competences supplementing basic skills, which
     enable the individual to:

        -   acquire new knowledge and to adjust his/her knowledge to new
            requirements,
        -   adjust his/her knowledge and skills to the requirements of learning
            organisations and to contribute to the evolving new forms of learning
            organisations,
        -   adapt to the prospects of a changing career and to increase his/her mobility
            by way of lifelong learning.

1/2006. (VII.5.) decree of the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour defines the formal
requirements of preparing the ‘professional and examination requirements’ (szakmai és
vizsgakövetelmények, SZVK) of state recognized vocational qualifications, i.e., of those
listed in the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ). The
comprehensive renewal of the qualification structure based on modularisation and a
competence- and learning outcome-based approach was implemented in the period of
2004-2006 with EU Structural Funds assistance within the framework of the Human
Resources Development Operational Programme (see section 070203). This new piece of
legislation regulated the development of the SZVKs accordingly, instructing to follow the
following understanding of the more differentiated concepts of skills and competences:

     vocational skill: a component, element of the working activity typical of the given
     vocational qualification which operates automatically, without the direct control of
     the mind, and the level of which indicates the content of the activity that having this
     skill enables one to perform;



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     vocational competence: ability to perform the work functions of the given vocational
     qualification [comprised of vocational knowledge and skills];
     method competence: characteristics of the person concerning her/his working
     method, working style, problem solving and thinking during work, describing her/his
     role in defining the work process, relation to the activity and the quality of her/his
     activity;
     social competence: characteristics describing the direct relation with others involved
     in the work activity and with customers (persons targeted by the work activity), and
     the related activities, especially the quality of cooperation, communication and
     conflict resolution;
     personal competence: those personal characteristics (talents, features, intellectual
     and emotional attitudes) the possession of which facilitates or enables the efficient
     and effective performance of the work activity.

The differentiation and the above detailed definitions of the various types of skills and
competences relevant to vocational education and training were provided in official
documents for the first time in Hungary which in fact indicates the importance the
competence-based approach has gained education policy in the past years. In the
outcome requirements of the renewed OKJ, in addition to the identification of vocational
knowledge and skills, thus appear also the method, social and personal competences
required to perform an occupation/vocation.

TRADITION OF ANTICIPATING SKILL NEEDS IN HUNGARY

As regards forecasting skill needs in the labour market, the quantitative approach aiming
at forecasting labour market demand and supply has a long tradition in Hungary. In the
socialist era, from the 1950s, the calculation of labour force needs – the basis of
educational planning - was based on the logic of plan economy management, like in all
other socialist countries (Varga, 1998). The National Planning Office (Országos
Tervhivatal) defined the plan-targets of the planning period which were then broken
down by sectors; afterwards the sectoral ministries developed their own plans which too
were furthermore broken down by the organisations and state companies falling under
the ministry’s supervision. All these plans – which were finally aggregated and then
revised by the National Planning Office – specified forecasted labour demand, and the
annual admission quotas of the various school types were then adjusted to these
numbers.

Later, in the beginning of the 1960s, there were corrections made to the procedures
urged by the critical remarks of experts and researchers, and the time horizon of labour
demand forecasting was extended from the previous period of (at most) 5 to 15-20
years. In addition, a part of vocations were aggregated into groups of vocations
considered to involve more or less the same vocational knowledge and skills, i.e., in
which occupational mobility was relatively simple, therefore training capacities were
considered to be convertible.

Qualitative approaches were as well employed in that period, though the forecasting of
skill needs was in many aspects more direct and immediate in the plan economy than
today since it was ultimately based on governmental economic development programmes
and the close relationship between state companies providing practical training to
students and VET.

Following the change of the political system in 1989, the development of a market
economy resulted in considerable quantitative and structural changes in the labour
market, among which the most apparent were the radical decline of employment rates,
the emergence of mass unemployment and the restructuring of labour force among the
economic sectors. Multinational companies owned by foreigners appeared among


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employers, but the decisive part of the economy is represented by individual
entrepreneurs and small companies. The process of economic transformation took place
with considerable territorial differences. As a result, significant differences in the labour
market have developed across regions, while the decrease of inequivalences is limited by
the low geographical mobility of the labour force and the fact that investments creating
new jobs are focused in the more developed regions of the country. Alternative
employment forms have become more common in the past years, though their share is
still insignificant. All these developments resulted in significant changes in the skill needs
of the economy which created new challenges to vocational education and training.

In the 1990s, long-term labour market demand and supply forecasting was largely
abandoned – except for a major research project within the framework of the World Bank
programme in 1995-1997 (Tímár, 1996) – and were replaced by short-term regional
forecasts of labour needs structure based on employer surveys (see section 070103).
Apart from surveys of skill needs related to the development of the OKJ defining the
state recognized qualifications other, more qualitative type of researches on the
anticipation of skill needs have been conducted only sporadically.

The development of forecasting – primarily in the quantitative sense – skill needs, the
development of the strategic planning system of VET has recently become a central issue
of educational policy, primarily because of the structural tensions experienced in the
labour market. Representatives of the economy, employers have complained for a long
time about labour shortage of skilled workers in certain vocations, economic sectors (e.g.
building industry, health care), and talk about the overproduction of degrees (due to the
substantial extension of higher education). On the other hand, according to surveys of
the Public Employment Service (Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat, ÁFSZ) and others, for
example the regular surveys of the chambers (The HCCI Research Institute of Economics
and Enterprises, MKIK Gazdaság- és Vállalkozáselemzési Intézet), although in general
employers are increasingly satisfied with the preparedness of young skilled workers
entering the labour market, they still experience significant deficiencies in certain fields
(e.g. economics) and skills (e.g. language proficiency).

While forecasting skill needs especially in the quantitative sense is limited in principle by
several factors (such as differences between the needs of multinational companies versus
small enterprises, regional variations, etc.), on the training market currently there is no
real market competition regarding training offer either, and the outcome of training
institutions, companies is measured not by matching labour market needs or social,
individual expectations but rather by survival and profit. Institutional interests do not
ultimately involve the interest to adapt to the labour market, the legal and financing
systems do not sufficiently encourage modernization, and there are no adequate
information system, incentive and sanctioning, and career tracking systems.

 070101      POLICY DEVELOPMENT ON THE ANTICIPATION OF SKILL NEEDS

 Adjusting the structure and content of vocational education and training more to the
 needs and demands of the economy and the labour market is a prioritized objective of
 current VET policy in Hungary, in order to eliminate phenomena of labour shortage in
 certain regions and sectors, vocations and overproduction of certain qualifications (see
 also section 0701). The Strategy of the Development of Vocational Education and
 Training 2005-2013 aims to achieve this goal ultimately by increasing the role of the
 economy in the development and provision (practical training) of VET, renewing the
 qualification structure, and improving the labour market information system.
 Concerning the latter, the Strategy defined as operational objectives the following:

 a) “We support that young people and adults have the necessary information to make
  a decision regarding their career choice or change; to achieve this, the statistical


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 information system of vocational education and training must be improved, a complex
 information system has to be set up based on the information base of the labour
 organisation and information provided by the economy.
b) Forecasting the content of the ‘professional and examination requirements’ (szakmai
 és vizsgakövetelmény). …”

In order to improve the quality of VET and reform it according to the users’ demands,
the 1057/2005. (V. 31.) government resolution on the Measures necessary for the
implementation of the strategy of the development of VET defined the objective of
developing “a system of VET that – through continuously monitoring and analyzing the
changing demands of the labour market – can constantly adapt to its changes, and can
provide the necessary vocational competences and ensure the satisfaction of the users
by developing the structure, content and methodology of VET”. To achieve this, the
resolution ordered to create a planning system of VET based on labour market
demands, including the planning of VET within the school system satisfying longer term
demands and the definition of short-term demands. Through improving regional
planning and making use of the information provided by the labour market information
system, it instructed to “continuously monitor the range of vocational qualifications that
VET either within or outside the school system provides training for”, and to “enact with
the involvement of enterprises the necessary measures for ensuring that the
appropriate number of VET participants are enrolled”. The government resolution also
stipulated the continuous monitoring of the employment status of VET graduates and
adult training participants to provide information for correcting the national, regional
and local level VET structure as well as for career orientation and career choice, the
introduction of a career tracking system, and the development of a complex
information system collecting statistical information about various indicators related to
VET.

Although the need of anticipating future skill needs of the labour market in a more
qualitative way as well is referred to here and there in these policy documents, the
focus seems to be on quantitative approaches, i.e., on forecasting the composition and
quantity of labour demand at national, regional and local levels. Regional level
forecasting is reinforced also by the operation of the regional training and development
committees (regionális képzési és fejlesztési bizottságok, see section 070104) in charge
of defining regional level strategies of VET development. There are also some initiatives
to develop regional level monitoring systems of the future skill needs of the local
economy and the follow-up of the employment status of VET graduates, as part of, for
example, a complex regional economical development-employment system targeted by
the project called “Employment Pact”, financed within the framework of the Regional
Development Operational Programme of the I. National Development Plan of Hungary.

In order to improve the involvement of the economy in the planning and development
of VET, the 2006 amendment to Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational Education and
Training ordered professional consultative bodies involving the social partners to be set
up in larger vocational training schools and in the newly established regional integrated
vocational training centres (térségi integrált szakképző központ, TISZK). These bodies
will advise the maintainer and management of the school in any questions regarding
VET, including the range of vocational qualifications offered and the approval of the
vocational programme (curricula) of the school.

The ultimate (qualification) structure and content – as regards learning outcomes – of
VET is defined centrally in the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési
Jegyzék, OKJ) and the professional and examination requirements of OKJ qualifications
published in ministerial decrees. Regional/local level monitoring of skill needs would
still, however, be able to contribute to the adjustment of VET to labour market
demands not only in quantitative terms (i.e., through defining/forecasting local labour
demand by occupations/training fields) but also through identifying which specific

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vocational skills and competences should be supplied by local VET provision (by
adjusting the vocational programme of the local schools to locally prioritized skill
needs).

In addition to new initiatives launched by the Strategy of the Development of VET
aiming to improve the statistical information system of VET – developing the labour
market information system, introducing career follow-up in school-based VET, etc. –,
current legislation assigns the task of “continuous monitoring of the development of
VET structure” to a new consultative body (OKJ committee) to be set up of
representatives of the responsible ministries and the social partners, as a replacement
of the so-called OKJ occupational group committees. These OKJ committees operating
with more or less intensity between 2001 and 2006 assisted the development of the
OKJ also through preparing various studies on the current status of human resources,
and the labour and skill needs of their sector. Such studies might also be prepared by
research and development-service provider institutes that (pursuant to the Act on
Vocational education and training) ministers responsible for vocational qualifications of
their sector may establish to assist the development of the OKJ and the professional
and examination requirements of OKJ qualifications (currently, there are two such
institutes founded by the ministry of health and the ministry of agriculture).

In the past years, the state has also commissioned some researches related to the
subject of the anticipation of skill needs (see section 070103) through tenders of the
National Institute of Adult Education and research projects coordinated by the National
Institute of Vocational Education (these two institutes have recently been merged as
the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education, Nemzeti Szakképzési és
Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI). On the other hand, the recent major renewal of the OKJ
implemented within the framework of Measure 3.2 of the Human Resources
Development Operational Programme involved an extensive analysis of current
employment structure, job profiles and expected future developments in each vocation
(see section 0702). The new structure and content of VET resulting from this
development is considered by education policy as ultimately adequate to current labour
market needs and should only be updated from time to time based on the reported
needs of the economy.

Current national policy regarding the anticipation of skill needs is criticized by many
researchers as still following the outdated “labour planning approach” when focusing on
forecasting labour demand in order to provide a basis for the strict quantitative
planning of VET. They emphasize the various theoretical limitations of such forecasting,
including significant differences in needs and demands according to the size of
enterprise (cf. multinational companies versus small enterprises) and region, fast
development of alternative employment forms, size and openness of the economy,
weakness of social partner mediation, etc. (cf. Tordai; Mártonfi, 2005). The composition
of labour force practically never matches exactly the composition of labour needs, since
the demand and supply for labour force constantly varies with the change of the
economy and training, respectively.

Researches and studies based on a more qualitative or combined approach have been
conducted only sporadically and without major central coordination, and there are no
policy guidelines regarding the objectives, content or methods of anticipating skill
needs in the more qualitative sense. The results of various anticipating skill needs
activities by various actors are not centrally collected and do not always seem to reach
or make significant influence on decision makers. Following the recent major project of
restructuring and modernising the OKJ, education policy seems to be satisfied with
creating the formal framework of involving the economy in VET development through
establishing consultative bodies at every level and providing the opportunity to report
changing labour market needs by the initiation of the modification of the OKJ. However,
cooperation between enterprises, the social partners, training providers and public

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agencies aiming to identify future skill needs and develop strategies– in spite of policy
efforts to strenghten partnerships and increase the interest of training providers to
adapt to the labour market – is still rather weak. In fact, the ambiguities or vagueness
regarding the understanding and extent of scope of the concept “anticipating skill needs
activities” in Hungary may suggest the rather underdeveloped status of such studies
and the lack of elaborate policies.

Focusing on specific target groups is not in general prioritized by current policy
initiatives on anticipation of skill needs, although supporting the training and the labour
market integration of various disadvantaged groups – primarily of unemployed and
unskilled people, those living with disabilities, and Roma people – and training at SMEs
is a priority issue. Most of their training programmes financed/supported by the state
aim to provide tailor-made courses matching the special skill needs of the target group.

070102     LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

Anticipation of skill needs activities are legally regulated only as regards preparing
labour market prognoses by the national labour organisation. Although the Strategy of
the Development of Vocational Education and Training 2005-2013 refers also to the
need of forecasting the content of ‘professional and examination requirements’
(szakmai és vizsgakövetelmény) which define the competence-based learning outcomes
of state recognized qualifications, the 1057/2005. (V. 31.) government resolution on
the Measures necessary for the implementation of the strategy of the development of
VET prescribed only the improvement of regional level labour market forecasting, the
introduction of the continuous monitoring of the employment status of VET graduates
and of a career tracking system, and the development of a complex information system
collecting statistical information about various aspects of VET. Pursuant to this
resolution, by 30 September 2006 the regional development and training committees
(regionális fejlesztési és képzési bizottság, see section 070104) prepared regional lists
of qualifications in short supply in the labour market (hiányszakképesítés) which they
will have to update once in every three years, and the career tracking system of VET
school graduates shall be developed by the end of 2008.

Measure 1.2 of the Human Resources Development Operational Programme of the I.
National Development Plan of Hungary supporting the modernisation of the Public
Employment Service (Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat, ÁFSZ) involved the development
of short, medium and long-term forecasting (including regional and sectoral prognoses
and the international comparison of labour force structure) and the planning of a
complex statistical database (see section 070103). Improvement of the labour market
information system will also be supported within the framework of the Social Renewal
Operational Programme of the New Hungary Development Plan governing the use of EU
Structure Funds assistance in the period of 2007-2013.

Otherwise, Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational Education and Training prescribes only the
establishment of a new consultative body replacing the so-called OKJ occupational
group committees (see section 070101) with the objective of “continuously developing
and modernising the VET structure” by advising the modification of the National
Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ). This new OKJ committee is to
be set up and operated by the minister responsible for VET and adult training
(currently, the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour) in cooperation with the minister
responsible for education (currently, the Minister of Education and Culture), involving
representatives of national chambers of economy, national economic interest
representative organisations and professional chambers.

The only regularly conducted anticipation of skill needs activity, short-term labour
market forecasting is implemented by the Employment and Social Office


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(Foglalkoztatási és Szociális Hivatal, FSZH). Pursuant to 291/2006. (XII.23.)
government decree on the Public Employment Service, the FSZH “defines the data
collection system regarding the public authority and service provider tasks of labour
centres [munkaügyi központ], related to which it prepares prognoses, analyses,
statistical summaries and registeries”. The course of action for preparing labour market
statistics, prognoses and analyses is defined by the directives, information bulletins and
methodological guidelines prepared by its Statistical and Analysis Main Department,
approved by the general director of the FSZH.

The methodology of short-term labour market prognosis is defined jointly by the
Statistical and Analysis Main Department of the FSZH and the Employment and Training
State Secretariat of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour. Data collection is
implemented by the regional (formerly county) labour centres and their local branches,
coordinated by the Statistical and Analysis Main Department. This department ensures
the procession of data at each (local, regional and national) level, and prepares the
prognoses in cooperation with the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour. Since 2005 the
Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara,
MKIK) has participated in the preparation of these short-term prognoses. The HCCI
Research     Institute   of   Economics     and   Enterprises   (MKIK    Gazdaság    és
Vállalkozáselemzési Intézet) has been involved in the definition of the methodology and
coordinated the data collection of the local chambers.

Other types of researches related to the theme of anticipation of skill needs have been
conducted only sporadically, mostly commissioned and financed through tendering by
the ministries of education and of employment and labour, or through the National
Research and Development Programme (Nemzeti Kutatási és Fejlesztési Program, now
called Jedlik Ányos programme) by the National Office for Research and Technology
(Nemzeti Kutatási és Technológiai Hivatal, NKTH) supervised by the ministry of
economy.

The National Institute of Vocational Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési Intézet, NSZI) and
the National Institute of Adult Education (Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, NFI), recently
merged as the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education (Nemzeti
Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI), have coordinated or tendered most such
research projects. Other Hungarian research institutes – both private and public – most
active in the field include (see also section 070103):

   HCCI Research Institute of Economics and Enterprises, conducting various employer
   surveys and researches related to the anticipation of skill needs since its foundation
   by the MKIK in 1999;
   3K Consens Office (3K Consens Iroda) and 3K Foundation (3K Alapítvány),
   participating in several research and development projects aiming to improve
   regional labour force forecasting and to adjust VET to local economic needs;
   GKI Economic Research Co. (GKI Gazdaságkutató Zrt.), preparing macro-economic
   and long-term labour market demand and supply forecasts;
   Institute for Higher Education Research (Felsőoktatási Kutatóintézet) and National
   Institute of Public Education (Országos Közoktatási Intézet), recently merged as the
   Institute of Educational Research and Development (Oktatáskutató és –fejlesztő
   Intézet), conducting some quantitative as well as qualitative researches on labour
   market demand for higher education and VET graduates;
   Institute of Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA
   Közgazdaságtudományi Intézet) and the Human Resources Department of Corvinus
   University of Budapest (Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Emberi Erőforrások Tanszék),
   conducting researches on the relationship between education and the labour
   market, educational attainment and employment, etc.




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070103     METHODS, APPROACHES, PRACTICES AND TOOLS USED

Currently the only regularly conducted anticipation of skill needs activity in Hungary is
preparing short-term labour market prognoses by the Public Employment Service
(Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat, ÁFSZ). Most other researches commissioned and
financed by various state agencies have typically focused on forecasting future
developments/trends of demand and supply of existing (formal) qualifications, often
combined with a survey of employers’ satisfaction with the skills and competences of
fresh VET graduates. Other kinds of researches have been conducted only sporadically.

LABOUR MARKET PROGNOSES BY THE NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT SERVICE

Short-term labour market prognoses

Short-term labour market prognoses have been prepared regularly by the ÁFSZ since
1992 (following a pilot survey in 1991), shortly after the change of the political system.
The objective of this forecasting activity – conducted annually since 2003, formerly
twice a year – is to identify short-term labour demand and economic trends. It surveys
the human resources management plans of economic organisations – including
forecasting the amount and composition of planned dismissal and employment of
labour force, permanent labour demand, plans to employ fresh graduates, and the
training activities of economic organisations - and the real trends affecting it, in order
to identify:

   the main labour market trends at national, regional (formerly county) and local level
   (neighbourhood of local branches of regional labour centres, regionális munkaügyi
   központ);
   vocations in shortage in the labour market;
   trends concerning the forms of employment;
   the composition of those involved in labour force circulation (plans to employ or
   dismiss unqualified and qualified physical workers, employees in non-physical
   positions with a secondary and with higher education degree, on the part of both
   employers and employees); and
   the indicators and trends of business activity.

These short-term prognoses have been prepared based on a similar methodology for 15
years with modifications in the priorities of the survey and employing improved data
sheets. They are based on employers surveys applying both questionnaires filled out by
the enterprises and personal interviews with the management about their anticipation
concerning the economic status and human resources management of the company.
The sample of the survey has been increasing every year, especially since 2005 when
the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és
Iparkamara, MKIK) started its cooperation with the ÁFSZ: in 2005, altogether 8040
enterprises answered the questions asked by the staff of labour centres, their branches
and the local chambers. Detailed description of the methodology and sample is provided
in the national reports available on the homepage of the ÁFSZ at
http://www.afsz.hu/engine.aspx?page=full_afsz_rovidtavu_prognozisok_oldal.

The time horizon of the short-term prognoses was increased from 9 to 15 months in
2004, then – due to the uncertainty of enterprises in the anticipation of changes for 15
months – the data sheet was modified to ask questions about the human resources
management plans of companies in two time periods: until the first and until the second
half of the year following data collection (conducted in autumn).

The results of the survey are evaluated and analysed at three levels: the national,
county and branch-level summaries – as well as the national and county level lists of


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vocations in short supply or in surplus in the labour market based on them - are
available at the Employment and Social Affairs Office (Foglalkoztatási és Szociális
Hivatal, FSZH) and the labour centres of the ÁFSZ and published on their websites.
Since early 2007, the HCCI Research Institute of Economics and Enterprises (MKIK
Gazdaság és Vállalkozáselemzési Intézet) has been piloting an online database
(available at http://www.mmpp.hu) presenting the results of the 2006 survey to
employees, job-seekers, employers, training providers, researchers and anyone
interested.

In addition, the ÁFSZ prepares quarterly prognoses as well regarding labour demand in
the next three months, based on a non-representative survey. These include also a
rotated question asking employers about their satisfaction with the competences of
fresh graduates.

Development of medium- and long-term labour market prognoses under Measure 1.2 of
the Human Resources Development Operational Programme (HRD OP)

Short-term labour market prognoses report only about current skill needs and demand
in the near future which is insufficient to orient the career choice of those entering
vocational education and training. In order to continuously provide information on
labour demand and supply to policy makers as well as all actors of the labour market
and VET, the development of a medium- and long-term forecasting system (model)
began in 2005 within the framework of the modernisation of the ÁFSZ supported by
HRD OP Measure 1.2. The objective of component titled “Development of services,
strategic planning and research” is:

   to provide information about the future of vocational-occupational groups for the
   labour organisation, and
   to improve the information service of the ÁFSZ, to provide more accurate
   information to training participants (or their parents), for career choice and change,
   and to training providers.

Labour demand and supply forecasts with the time horizon of 10 years (until 2015)
have been prepared within the framework of several projects, implemented by various
research institutes commissioned through tendering. Forecasting labour demand
involves the preparation of:

   a macro-economic forecast prepared by the budgetary Institute for Economic
   Analysis and Informatics (ECOSTAT Gazdaságelemző és Informatikai Intézet), based
   on a macro-economic model called ECO-TREND applying projection of past data
   series, past experiences as well as expert estimates (the methodology is described
   at http://www.ecostat.hu/ecolabor/index.html);
   a forecast of the number of employees by sector based on international data (trends
   in OECD countries) prepared by the Institute of Economics of the Hungarian
   Academy of Sciences (MTA Közgazdaságtudományi Intézet), with the objective of
   checking the accuracy of the national forecast which can be based on an only 10-
   year-long series of data, based on a methodology developed by the Institute,
   including applying an adapted version of the Irish HERMIN model to measure the
   macro-economic influence of development programmes financed by EU community
   funds assistance;
   a forecast of the number of employees by sector based on national data by the GKI
   Economic Research Co. (GKI Gazdaságkutató Zrt.), presenting the future
   development of the sectors due to various factors including technical-technological
   development, typical size of companies and location, and the future sectoral labour
   demand by sector, category of size of enterprise and region;



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   a forecast of the number of employees by vocational-occupational groups within
   each sector (altogether nearly 200) which allows for comparing labour demand and
   supply and a research of the change in the skill (training) needs of the various
   occupational groups (processes inducing quantitative and structural changes) by the
   3K Consens Office (3K Consens Iroda), based on a method of “rolling forecasting”
   which applied a model of occupational structures varying by company size and
   included the following activities: compilation of existing data for the starting 2005
   database based on a model of technological division of labour; conducting an
   employer survey to provide data for calculating the coefficiens for estimating the
   forecast; developing the data presenting tables by occupational-vocational groups;
   and evaluating the reliability of short-term forecasting and recommending possible
   necessary interventions.

Forecasting labour supply involves the preparation of demographical and educational
output forecasts and the development of county level labour balance and an adequate
database in order to provide the foundation for the continuation of forecasting activities.
The synthesized results of all these researches will be presented in a publication
summerizing the future trends of each vocation, to be published in August 2007 and
disseminated at the Employment Counselling Departments (Foglalkozási Információs
Tanácsadó, FIT bázisok) located in regional labour centres (regionális munkaügyi
központ).

OTHER ANTICIPATION OF SKILL NEEDS ACTIVITIES

In addition to the forecasts of the National Employment Service, other anticipation of
skill needs activities have been conducted rather sporadically in Hungary. Most of these
have applied quantitative methods and focused on forecasting labour demand of
existing (formal) qualifications, possibly combined with a survey of employers’
satisfaction with the competences of fresh graduates, i.e., of employers’ current and
short-term skill needs and the level these are matched by current VET provision.
Anticipating the future changing content and competences required in specific vocations
or sectors is much less typical and has been the subject of only a few researches
conducted in the past years. Below a summary of the most important researches and
approaches is presented.

There have been some shorter and long-term labour market forecasts at national or
sectoral level prepared by various research institutes (e.g. the GKI Economic Research
Co., the Institute of Applied Pedagogy and Psychology of the Budapest University of
Technology and Economics), based either on already available statistical data and other
resources or on employer surveys.

The HCCI Research Institute of Economics and Enterprises have conducted several
(though not always representative) empirical surveys – employing both questionnaires
and expert interviews - on the prosperity of companies, their demand for labour and
willingness to employ fresh graduates, and their skills needs through surveying the
level of satisfaction of employers with the skills and competences of students of VET
and fresh VET as well as higher education graduates (http://www.gvi.hu/). This
Institute prepared also a study surveying the possible “softer” methods of forecasting
the changes of the structure and content of vocations in 2004, commissioned by the
National Institute of Adult Education (Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, NFI). Their
research report (Szakmastruktúra és szakmatartalom változások …, 2004) described
the methods applied in France, UK and USA, and presented the results of piloting an
innovative method in Hungary in 16 vocations, based on questioning subject matter
experts about the influencing factors and expected trends of the development of the
given vocation, using a structured questionnaire. The objective of this research was to
design the methodological framework of forecasting the directions, trends of change in


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technological development and in the knowledge, skills and competences required by
the given vocation; it, however, was not followed by regular forecasts or similar
research projects.

Some surveys of the satistaction of employers as well as of fresh graduates with VET
provision have been conducted also with the coordination of the National Institute of
Vocational Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési Intézet, NSZI, http://www.nive.hu/). The
labou market status of higher education graduates is regularly or occasionally followed
up by some higher education institutions, and commissioned by the Ministry of
Education, it was surveyed also by reserachers of Human Resources Department of
Corvinus University of Budapest (Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Emberi Erőforrások
Tanszék) several times (1998, 1999, 2001) within the framework of the project Young
Graduates Career Path Research (Fiatal Diplomások Életpálya Vizsgálata, FIDÉV, see
http://www.okm.gov.hu/main.php?folderID=556) The compulsory general introduction
of a career tracking system in VET (until 31 December 2008) and in higher education -
which would provide useful feedback also on the adequacy of education to labour
market needs - is prescribed by the Strategy of the Development of Vocational
Education and Training 2005-2013 and Act CXXXIX of 2005 on Higher education.

A felsőoktatásból kilépők munkaerő-piaci helyzetének alakulását rendszeresen vagy
alkalmanként nyomon követik egyes felsőoktatási intézmények, illetve több alkalommal
(1998, 1999, 2001) vizsgálták az Oktatási Minisztérium megbízásából a Budapesti
Corvinus Egyetem Emberi Erőforrások Tanszékének kutatói a.

The 3K Foundation (3K Alapítvány) and the 3K Consens Office (3K Consens Iroda) have
also conducted several employers surveys commissioned by ministries or the NSZI to
forecast labour market demand at regional and national level. Based on these
experiences, researchers have developed an innovative methodology of forecasting
quantitative labour demand, described in a publication of the Adult Training Research
Studies (Felnőttképzési Kutatási Füzetek) series of the NFI (see Dávid, 2005). The 3K
Foundation conducted an employers survey also about the quantitative and qualitative
skill         needs          of          local        enterprises      in          2003
(http://www.klaszter.hu/program.php?programid=8&dokumentumid=37,
http://www.szakma.hu/komponensek_es_projektek/content/index.php?komp=2&altme
nu=4) within the framework of an action research related to the national Vocational
School Development Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program) aiming to increase
the labour market “embeddedness” of VET. This research as well as the more recent
project called “Employment Pact” supported by Measure 3.2.1 of the Regional
Development                               Operational                      Programme
(http://www.klaszter.hu/program.php?programid=17, see also 070104) aimed also to
create mechanisms for the continuous provision of information about local skill needs to
local training providers and all other actors of VET.

A recent major research programme financed by National Office for Research and
Technology (Nemzeti Kutatási és Technológiai Hivatal, NKTH) aimed to assist the
“Harmonization of labour market needs and higher education training programmes”.
Projects implemented within the framework of this programme included a survey of
higher education planning and labour demand and supply forecasting mechanisms,
methods and available information sources in the EU countries and in Hungary (Galasi;
Varga, 2006), and researches about the quantitative and qualitative demand of the
labour market for higher education graduates (Berde et al., 2006). The latter included
reviews of relevant national literature on the subject (Györgyi, 2006) and of the
experiences of EU countries regarding the labour market influence of the Bologna
process (Berde; Morvay, 2006), researches of the skill and competences demanded by
employers through a job advertisement survey (Híves, 2006) and through experts
(representatives of multinational companies and recruiting agencies) interviews



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(Szerepi, 2006), as well as a study of the national press about graduate unemployment
and related problems (Czenky, 2006).

Regarding the anticipation of skill needs by sector, researches based on employers
surveys and expert interviews have typically focused on the current (or short-term) skill
needs of the sector and the extent current VET provision matches those needs. Such
studies have been prepared by, for example, within the framework of the research
programmes of the National Employment Foundation (Országos Foglalkoztatási
Közalapítvány, OFA) or the Adult Training Research Studies of the NFI (see, e.g., dr.
Futó et al., 2005), as well as by the commission of the OKJ occupational group
committees assisting the development of the National Qualifications Register (Országos
Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) and by the relatively recently established bipartite sectoral
dialogue committees (ágazati párbeszéd bizottságok, see section 070104). On the other
hand, the recent major project of the renewal of the OKJ involved also a survey of the
future trends (“positive and negative phenomena”) of the analysed 480 vocations
expected by the experts (practitioners of the given vocation at small, medium and large
enterprises) as part of the job profile analyses (see section 070203).

There are also some examples of Leonardo da Vinci and other international R&D
projects financed through community programmes aiming to modernize or develop new
qualifications which involved surveys of skill needs by sector, occupation or target
group. For example, an innovative empirical study of surveying the social and learning
skills required from vocational shool graduates and VET provision by employers has
recently been conducted as part of an international development partnership project
“Soft Skills – Key to Employment in Europe” (SSKEE) of the Hungarian “Second
Chance” EQUAL project (Mártonfi, 2007). This research has questioned enterprises
regarding the importance of these skills, vocational school students about the extent
they possessed them, as well as teachers/trainers concerning how much VET provision
currently focuses or shall in the near future focus on developing these skills.

In addition, Hungary has participated in the first phase of the 1999 joint Cedefop/ETF
international project called “Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Education and
Training                       in                      Europe”                      (see
http://www.trainingvillage.gr/etv/Projects_Networks/ScenariosStrategies/default.asp).
This project, coordinated in Hungary by the Institute of Sociology and Social Politics of
ELTE university, was based on a Delphi survey. It examined trends of the next decade
in three important contexts: (a) the economy and technology, (b) employment and the
job market, and (c) training, skills and knowledge, through questioning stakeholders of
VET using a questionnaire developed by the international team and at the workshop
presenting the first results of the survey. The Delphi method was used also in a
foresight project called “Vocational Training and future” conducted in two phases in the
1990s (commissioned by the Ministry of Labour and the NSZI), aiming to assist the
development of VET through exploring the expectations of vocational training
stakeholders regarding the future and analysing the place of VET in the social future-
models, thus providing possible, desirable, complex and consistent futures alternatives
to policy makers and other stakeholders (Hideg, 2006). Other educational foresight
studies have also been prepared by researchers of the Futures Studies Department of
the Corvinus University of Budapest coordinating this project (Nováky, 2005).

070104     BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS AND RAISING AWARENESS

Partnerships in Hungary with the capability of operating as mechanisms to anticipate
skill needs in the labour market, matching education and training provision with
employment needs, include various consultative bodies involving the social partners set
up by the law as well as some voluntary partnerships.




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At local level, a recent amendment to Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational Education and
Training ordered professional consultative boards involving the social partners -
representatives of the local chambers, employer and employee associations,
enterprises providing practical training to students - to be set up in larger vocational
training schools and the newly established regional integrated vocational training
centres (térségi integrált szakképző központ, TISZK). These boards will advise the
maintainer and management of the school in any questions regarding VET, including
the range of training programmes offered, the number of students enrolled, the content
of the vocational programme (curricula) of the school adjusted to local labour market
needs, or the use of the development subsidy provided to the school by an enterprise
paying a part of its vocational training contribution (szakképzési hozzájárulás) in this
way.

In CVET outside the school system, in adult training, accredited training providers must
set up a professional advisory board of representatives of professional organisations
and other stakeholders and adult training experts. This body performs primarily quality
assurance functions (approves the quality assurance documents and annual self-
evaluation of the adult training institution), but may also have an influence on defining
the fields and content of training through approving the annual training plan of the
institution.

At regional level, pursuant to Act LXXXVI of 2003 on the Vocational Training
Contribution and the support of the development of training, regional development and
training committees (regionális fejlesztési és képzési bizottság) coordinate the
tendering of funds available for regional development of VET from the Labour Market
Fund (Munkaerő-piaci Alap, MPA) and define regional strategies of VET and human
resources development. These committees involve representatives of the social
partners (regional branches of national employer and employee associations
represented in the National Interest Reconciliation Council, see below, and chambers of
economy), maintainers of vocational training schools, board of trustees of public
education development public foundations, the national employment organisation,
higher education institutions and the Education Office (Oktatási Hivatal), appointed by
the minister responsible for VET and adult training. The regional development
strategies developed by the regional development councils (regionális fejlesztési
tanács) may as well provide useful information about future skill needs of the local
economy.

There are also a few examples of voluntary partnerships of the local authorities, self-
governments and non-profit organisations at this level. For example, in county Tolna,
the county labour centre (megyei munkaügyi központ), the county self-government
with the Partnership of Micro-regions coordinated by it and the 3K Foundation have
recently initiated a project called “Employment Pact” aiming to establish an
employment partnership for the development of regional information services and
communication channels. These would facilitate employment also through matching
VET provision and local needs.

At national level, there are various consultative bodies involving the social partners set
up by the law to advise the government and the responsible ministry in developing VET
and the vocational qualification structure in line with labour market demands. Most
importantly, the so-called OKJ occupational group committees operating with more or
less intensity between 2001 and 2006 assisted the development of the National
Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) also through preparing studies
on the current status of human resource and the labour and skill needs of their sector.
Current legislation (Act on Vocational education and training) assigns the task of
“continuous monitoring of the development of VET structure” to a new consultative
body (OKJ committee) to be set up of representatives of the responsible ministries and
the social partners. The tripartite National Council for the Conciliation of Interests

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(Országos Érdekegyeztető Tanács, OÉT) is involved primarily in advising the strategic
development of VET, while the National Vocational and Adult Training Council (Nemzeti
Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Tanács, NSZFT) contributes mainly to the development
of qualifications through advising the minister responsible for VET and adult education
on any modification proposals of the OKJ (see also section 070204).

At sectoral level, the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar
Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara, MKIK) is actively involved in the anticipation of skill
needs and the development of vocational qualifications through participating in the
consultative bodies described above, through its research institute preparing various
studies on the subject (see section 070103), as well as through concluding agreements
with the relevant ministry on developing the professional and examination
requirements (szakmai és vizsgakövetelmény) of certain OKJ qualifications (see section
070203). The relatively recently (in 2004) established bipartite sectoral dialogue
committees (ágazati párbeszéd bizottságok, ÁPBs) are also increasingly involved in
studying and representing labour market needs toward vocational education and
training. These committees regularly deal with and discuss questions related to VET in
their sector, and several have also commissioned studies on current employment
trends and the adequacy of VET provision to labour market needs in their specific field.

The various foreign-Hungarian chambers – for example, the German-Hungarian
Chamber of Commerce and Industry, or the American Chamber of Commerce in
Hungary – also often deal with questions of VET and skills supply-demand issues as
related to employment and economic competitiveness in their publications, working
groups and at professional events. Other examples of cross-border and international
partnerships are typically created through research and development projects
implemented within the framework of various community programmes (Leonardo da
Vinci, EQUAL, Interreg, etc.). For example, several projects aiming to develop new or
modernised qualifications or training programmes, financed by the Leonardo
programme, involve surveys and analysis of future skill needs in the specific
sector/vocation.

Research findings about anticipating skill needs are disseminated primarily through final
reports and other publications, either in hard copy or published online on the homepage
of the research institute/commissioner of the study. Information is provided to policy
makers, social partners, the education and research community, guidance and
counselling professionals, etc. also at professional events, conferences, workshops and
seminars organized by ministries and other public authorities or the social partners
(e.g. chambers, ÁPBs). However, there are no newsletters, discussion forums or any
kind of regular publications dedicated exclusively to the issue of anticipating skill needs
in Hungary.

070105     FINANCING THE ANTICIPATION OF SKILL NEEDS (INCL. STATISTICS)

The only regularly conducted anticipation of skill needs activity in Hungary is the
preparation of short-term labour market prognoses by the National Employment
Service (Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat, ÁFSZ). The financing of data collection and
analysis by the county (now regional) labour centres (munkaügyi központ) and their
local branches, the Employment and Social Office (Foglalkoztatási és Szociális Hivatal,
FSZH), the ministry responsible for employment, and – in the past two years – the
HCCI Research Institute of Economics and Enterprises (MKIK Gazdaság és
Vállalkozáselemzési Intézet) and local chambers is provided from the central annual
budget.

In addition to the budgetary funding of national research institutions and some national
research support programmes, the major public source of financing researches on


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subjects related to the anticipation of skill needs is the Labour Market Fund (Munkaerő-
piaci Alap, MPA). Funding from its training sub-fund – whose income derives from the
vocational training contribution (szakképzési hozzájárulás) paid as a tax by enterprises
in the amount of 1.5% of their annual wage costs - can be provided either directly or
through tendering. The allocation of sources by the minister responsible for VET is
advised by the National Vocational and Adult Training Council (Nemzeti Szakképzési és
Felnőttképzési Tanács, NSZFT, see section 070204) and the regional development and
training committees (regionális fejlesztési és képzési bizottság, see section 070104),
and in the former case tendering is organized by the National Institute of Vocational
and Adult Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI) or the
National Employment Public Foundation (Országos Foglalkoztatási Közalapítvány, OFA).
These sources have provided funding, for example, for conducting researches within
the framework of the Adult Training Research Studies (Felnőttképzési Kutatási Füzetek)
published by the former National Institute of Adult Education.

Another national fund providing financial support for some related research projects is
the Research and Technological Innovation Fund (Kutatási és Technológiai Innovációs
Alap). This fund was set up in 2003 and the allocation of its sources (50% of its
revenue comes from a tax levied on economic organizations except for small
enterprises in the amount of 0.25% of their turnover, the other half from the budget) is
managed by the National Office for Research and Technology (Nemzeti Kutatási és
Technológiai Hivatal, NKTH), supervised by the Minister of Economy and Transport.

Significant financial sources have become available with EU Structural Funds assistance
for developing the national and regional labour market information systems,
modernising the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ)
based on an extensive survey of current and future labour market demands, or
developing career tracking systems of VET graduates within the framework of the first
and second National Development Plan. Community funding provides the financing also
of the Leonardo da Vinci, Interreg, etc. projects.

Private funding for anticipation of skill needs activities is of a much smaller scale and
may derive primarily from the membership fees of various chambers and employer
associations (in the case of research initiated by the social partners), sometimes from
large companies (typically in sectors in which one company has a quasi-monopolistic
status, e.g. in the energy sector).

Partnership building for anticipation of skill needs is supported mainly through financing
the operation of the various national consultative bodies set up pursuant to the law,
otherwise creating partnerships may be supported or even required by some calls for
tender (e.g., creating employment partnerships has been supported within the
framework of Regional Development Operational Programme financed by EU Structural
Funds assistance).

There is no statistical information available on public and private investment for
anticipation of skill needs in the labour market in Hungary. Most such researches are
financed through tendering by various bodies through various schemes for which there
is no centrally collected information. Even the cost of preparing annual short-term
labour market prognoses, the only regularly conducted forecasting activity, could only
be estimated (based on the number of involved employees of the ÁFSZ and the
ministry, plus the cost of data collection by local chambers and project coordination by
the HCCI Research Institute of Economics and Enterprises in 2006).




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0702 DEVELOPING QUALIFICATIONS: GENERAL BACKGROUND

DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT “VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION” IN HUNGARY

The Strategy for the enhancement of lifelong learning of the Government of the
Hungarian Republic (2005) gave the following definition of vocational qualification
(szakképzettség, szakképesítés):

 a) The entirety of the requirements the individual needs in order to pursue a certain
  vocation/profession, occupation and to make progress therein.
 b) An official proof (diploma, certificate) of the successful completion of an education
  or training programme or the passing of an examination or test.

Depending on the type and level of education and training, various types of vocational
qualifications can be differentiated in Hungary:

     state recognized vocational qualifications of ISCED 2-5 levels listed in the National
     Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ), obtainable within or
     outside the school system (OKJ-s szakképesítés);
     master certificates (mesterlevél) built on specific OKJ qualifications, developed and
     awarded at the “master examination” by the relevant chamber of economy;
     nationally and internationally recognized licenses, vocational qualifications based on
     international/EU regulations and awarded by public authorities primarily in the fields
     of mine, road, water and air transportation, plant and veterinary health inspection
     or food hygiene, which are not included in the OKJ (so-called hatósági jellegű
     képesítések);
     other qualifications, certificates, and diplomas obtainable in accredited or non-
     accredited adult training courses, including non-OKJ qualifications required for
     entering a vocation (e.g. fisherman, hunter) and internationally recognized
     qualifications awarded by “technology-owners” (e.g. those awarded by the CISCO
     Networking Academy Programme); and
     qualifications obtainable in higher education (szakképzettség) which enable
     graduates to enter a profession defined in the training and outcome requirements
     (képzési és kimeneti követelmények) of the given training programme.

This section focuses on the development of state recognized OKJ qualifications awarded
in school-based IVET in vocational training schools (szakképző iskolák) and in higher
education (offering ISCED 5B higher level vocational qualifications, felsőfokú
szakképesítés) and also in the majority of adult training programmes. Some information
about the development of other types of qualifications is available in other Detailed
Thematic Analyses (qualifications awarded in higher education degree programmes:
040702; master certificate: 060203; certificates awarded by adult training programmes:
050102, 050201, 050204).

Benedek (2003) provides the following definition of vocational qualifications (footnote 66
on p. 91): “Certification of the ability to perform a specific range of activities, a vocation
or to do a job, which can be obtained by completing predefined conditions, requirements
uniform for the given field. The relevant authority (board) issues a nationally recognized
document (usually a certificate, diploma) certifying the completion.” That is, obtaining an
OKJ qualification attests the competences required to practice the vocation defined in its
centrally   issued     professional    and    examination     requirements     (szakmai     és
vizsgakövetemények), certified at the state vocational examination.

TRADITION OF DEVELOPING QUALIFICATIONS AND JOB PROFILES IN HUNGARY




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The National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) listing state
recognized vocational qualifications was created in 1993 pursuant to Act LXXVI of 1993
on Vocational education and training with the merging of several registers which together
defined the qualification structure in Hungary in the previous decades. The nearly 3500
vocational qualifications listed in these (altogether one and a hald dozen) independent
registers differed in terms of level and type of education and were developed by the
relevant ministries (regulated in nearly three dozen ministerial decrees), independently
from the Unified Job Classification System (Foglalkozások Egységes Osztályozási
Rendszere, FEOR) and in varying ways (for this and the following, see Benedek, 2003,
pp. 97-98, 205-234).

From the 1960s until the end of the 1980s, the National Skilled Worker Qualifications
Register (Országos Szakmunkásképzési Jegyzék) - defining mostly the qualifications
required in physical vocations built on primary school (8 grades) certificate - was
developed by expert work committees. These involved representatives of the relevant
ministries, “employers” (experts of the 25 most prominent large state companies),
“employees” (experts of the relevant trade unions), as well as school principles and
teachers/trainers. These committees prepared documents corresponding to the simpler
and shorter version of the current professional and examination requirements, when
advising a modification of the Register.

“Technician qualifications” listed in the Register of Technician Qualifications (Technikusi
Szakok Jegyzéke) were developed by the relevant ministries with at most the
involvement of schools providing technician training, in varying ways depending on the
nature, approach and interests of the sector. These secondary level qualifications had no
separate documents defining their vocational requirements; the training objective and
requirements were defined in the educational documentation. The number of technician
training programmes and students was relatively limited, resulting in a kind of elite
training.

The Register of Secondary Level Qualifications (Középfokú Szakok Jegyzéke) defined the
range of non-industrial and non-agricultural, i.e., economic, art, educational and medical
qualifications. Their content was developed continuously by the relevant ministries, and
the training objective and requirements were defined in the curricula of these training
programmes.

Finally, the Register of Company (sectoral) Qualifications (Vállalati [ágazati] Szakmák
Jegyzéke) included simple vocational qualifications matching the special needs of
companies, i.e., qualifications required for doing a job. This register was as well
maintained by the relevant ministries, but its development was the least regulated:
usually simply the approval of the course syllabus and of the examination questions was
sufficient for including a new qualification. The participation of the relevant ministry at
the qualification-awarding examination guaranteed only that the qualification was
recognized by all state companies of the given sector.

In 1993, in a radically changed political, economic and social environment, the OKJ was
set up to include all (altogether 955) state recognized vocational qualifications
irrespective of the type of education (within or outside the school system) and of the
school type. Defining the range, classification and attributes of qualifications by the
relevant ministries was assisted by expert committees in 33 fields including
representatives of public authorities, employers, employees, training providers and
coordinators of the National Institute of Vocational Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési
Intézet, NSZI), and was advised by the tripartite National Training Council (Országos
Képzési Tanács, OKT). The work of the committees built on the preparatory work of the
NSZI which involved the evaluation of experiences of foreign developments and of
previous local innovative pilot programmes of the 1980s aiming to adapt VET to the


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needs of the economy, and the development of methodological documents. The
regulation of the preconditions and procedure of the modification of the OKJ was also
developed in 1994, based on the experiences of this development process.

Training in accordance with the OKJ was only gradually introduced in school-based VET
and became universal only by the beginning of the 21th century. The OKJ has been
modified annually since its creation which involved:

    minor and more important structural changes (introduction of ISCED levels and of
    “occupational groups”, szakmacsoport, the latter in relation with the introduction of
    “grounding training” in the common vocational theoretical and practical knowledge
    and skills of related qualifications; change of identification numbers and names of
    qualifications; specification of the duration of training programmes of qualifications
    obtainable within the school system in grades, in relation with the change of the
    structure of VET schools; differentiation of qualifications typically offered in school-
    based IVET, those required in regulated occupations, and more specialized
    qualifications typically offered in adult training; introduction of a new type of higher
    level vocational qualifications and training in 1998);
    the inclusion, modification or deletion of qualifications; and
    the modification of these latter procedures pursuant to the amendment of the
    relevant laws (e.g., the involvement of chambers of economy, transferring the
    duties of the OKT to the qualification committee of the National Vocational Training
    Council, Országos Szakképzési Tanács, OSZT) and with the objective of shortening
    their duration.

The major improvements of the 1990s concerned the development of new competence-
based modularised VET curricula (in altogether 105 OKJ qualifications, most offered in
secondary vocational schools, szakközépiskola) based on the SCID (Systematic and
Instructional Development) and DACUM (Developing A Curriculum) methods, within the
framework of the so-called World Bank programme implemented in two phases:
Development of Human Resources (1991-1996) and Development of Initial Vocational
Education and Training (1998-2001).

In order to introduce modularized training on a comprehensive basis and strengthen
competence-based training, and to develop, in addition to professional knowledge and
skills, also the method, social and personal competences related to work, the OKJ has
been thoroughly renewed recently based on an extensive analysis of current employment
structure and occupations/jobs and developments of the past years.

 070201     POLICY DEVELOPMENT ON DEVELOPING QUALIFICATIONS

 The key concepts of national policy priorities concerning the development of vocational
 qualifications in the past years were the modernisation of the content of vocational
 education and training corresponding to labour market needs and the introduction of
 modularised and competence-based training. The objective of enhancing the role of the
 economy in VET provision as well as in qualifications development was manifested in,
 for example, the agreement of the Ministry of Education and the Hungarian Chamber of
 Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara, MKIK) in 2004, in which
 the ministry handed over to the chamber the task of the development of 16
 qualifications pursued by the majority of vocational school (szakiskola) students (see
 section 070203). By a recent agreement of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and
 the MKIK, the chamber is assigned to continuously develop the professional and
 examination requirements (szakmai és vizsgakövetelmény) of an additional 11
 vocations, in cooperation with national economic interest representative organisations.




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In addition to increasing the involvement of the social partners in qualifications
development through these agreements as well as through various consultative bodies
(see also sections 070202 and 070204), the most important policy development of the
past years is related to the renewal of the qualification structure in the period of 2004-
2006, based on an analysis of the Hungarian employment structure and on previously
developed programmes of a modular VET system. This major development was
implemented through a project of Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources Development
Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National Development Plan of Hungary
governing the use of EU Structural Funds assistance (component called The new
vocational training structure). The new National Qualifications Register (Országos
Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) was published by the 1/2006. (II.17.) decree of the Minister of
Education, though VET in accordance with the new OKJ is being introduced only
gradually in school-based education (beginning from September 2006 in qualifications
of two occupational groups, szakmacsoport, in the member schools of the newly
established integrated regional vocational training centres, térségi integrált szakképző
központ, TISZK).

The major objective of this development programme was to strengthen the links
between VET and the economy through:

   adjusting the OKJ to the demands of the labour market;
   decreasing the number of vocational qualifications available in the 21 occupational
   groups by setting up a modular system of qualifications (it was decreased to 416
   from the 805 listed in the previous version of the OKJ);
   ensuring the correspondence of the OKJ and the Unified Job Classification System
   (foglalkozások egységes osztályozási rendszere, FEOR); and
   establishing a system in which participants may receive complete vocational
   qualifications within or outside the school system, but which also provides for
   continuing training periods that may award also partial or specialized qualifications.

The new structure of the OKJ is based on so-called module maps developed by a
comparative analysis of, and the identification of the links between, training modules
derived from the competence profile analysis of each occupation. These module maps
present the links between the content of individual modules and their integration into
vocational qualifications. Participants will be awarded a vocational qualification upon the
completion of a pre-defined group of training modules to each of which corresponds:

   a professional requirement module (szakmai követelmény-modul) that defines as
   learning outcome requirements the necessary and sufficient level, content and type
   of competences identified through the job profile analysis concerning a group of
   tasks involved in the occupation (competence profile: presenting the tasks and the
   related vocational knowledge of a given type, vocational skills of a given level, and
   the personal, social, and methodological competences which are necessary to
   perform those tasks);
   an examination requirement module that defines the characteristics of the
   vocational examination (szakmai vizsgakövetelmény-modul); and
   one or more curriculum modules (tananyagegység) corresponding to a given
   professional requirements module and defining the characteristics and form of the
   learning-education-training process of mastering the competencies needed to
   perform a group of tasks of the occupation (a programme module of the centrally
   defined framework curricula is made up of one or more curriculum elements,
   tananyagelem).

The new OKJ ensures the classification of vocational qualifications by ISCED levels and
differentiates ‘basic’ (alap-szakképesítés), ‘branch’ (elágazás), ‘partial’ (rész-
szakképesítés), and specialized ‘built-on’ (ráépülés) qualifications. Basic qualifications


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refer to those that involve modules occurring most frequently in a given occupational
group: they contain a basic and an auxiliary module groups which together qualify one
to take more than one job. Branches refer to related qualifications that comprise
common basic and auxiliary module groups (about 80-85%) as well as a special module
group/module chosen on a mandatory basis, and they also qualify one to take more
than one job. Partial qualifications will be obtainable upon completing some but not all
modules of a complete qualification and they qualify one to take at least one job. The
target group of these qualifications involves disadvantaged young people and low-
skilled adults, but participants of school-based IVET may also obtain a partial-
qualification depending on their performance at the vocational examination. Finally,
‘built-on’ qualifications will be obtainable in CVET on the basis of a previously earned
complete qualification, thus improving lifelong learning opportunities.

The range of vocational qualifications listed in the OKJ and the nationally uniform
qualification standards specified in the professional and examination requirements of
each OKJ qualification are defined centrally in ministerial decrees (see also section
070202). As described above, the new OKJ issued in 2006 introduces competence-
based qualifications and training, and was developed with an approach and
methodology which will allow for the relatively simple integration of VET in a National
Qualification Framework (NQF).

The development of an NQF in Hungary began in the spring of 2006 when the Ministry
of Education commissioned an expert work group of representatives of the relevant
ministries and researchers to prepare a study on the concept of the National
Qualifications Framework, in order to guide the process of its development and
introduction. The first draft of the concept of the NQF outlining the recommended
functions, principles, and requirements-structure was built on the current learning
outcome requirements of the various sectors of education. The work group has also
identified the institutional, administrative and quality-assurance conditions of its
introduction. Based on this concept paper a proposal to the government shall be made
by the third quarter of 2007. Experts, however, agree that the complete development
of the NQR and of the professional and legal conditions necessary for its introduction
will take several years (see also section 0707).

In addition to the comprehensive renewal of the structure and content of the OKJ
described above, the duration of the process of creating, modifying or deleting a
vocational qualification has also been simplified and shortened considerably to less than
100 days by the 1/2006. (II.17.) decree of the Ministry of Education, in order to
enhance the flexibility of VET. This piece of legislation defines all aspects of the process
of qualifications development including the steps and bodies involved and the required
documented labour market justification of creating a new qualification (see section
070202).

However, the continuous development of the OKJ is only formally ensured by allowing
the initiation of OKJ modification by anyone and by Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational
Education and Training prescribing the establishment of a consultative body to
“continuously develop and modernise the VET structure”. This new OKJ committee will
replace the former OKJ occupational group committees (OKJ-s szakmacsoportos
bizottságok, see 070204) created in 2001, but the latest amendment of the law does
not anymore refer to any timescale of such work as it used to when requiring those
committees to review the OKJ at least once in every three years. In general, OKJ
qualifications development in Hungary has been periodical rather than continuous in the
past.

Furthermore, while the participation of the social partners in the formal development
process of OKJ qualifications is guaranteed by current legislation through various


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consultative bodies, representatives of the economy occasionally complain about that
their opinion is not always taken into account. On the other hand, representatives of
the social partners are sometimes critized that they are not fully competent at
representing the interests of their mandators by representing only partial interests.

Regarding the comprehensive renewal of the OKJ based on modularisation and a
competence-based approach that was discussed above and its further development, a
significant challenge is that although the teacher/trainer community has learnt about
and naturally deals with the new structure and content of VET, it is not sufficiently
informed and its conceptual frameworks are imprecise. The new concepts of VET
structure have not yet been cleared enough, the new expectations have not formed a
coherent system in their mind, but they do not seek information as much as they
should. Institutions know the process of VET reform only in parts and they very much
feel they lack information, though they acknowledge the need for reform and agree with
the education policy objectives.

In addition to differentiating the various types of OKJ qualifications and thus providing
opportunities for disadvantaged students, people living with disabilities and drop-outs to
obtain state recognized partial qualifications, an important outcome of the recent HRD
OP development project is that it permits entering VET without a formal school
certificate, based on previously obtained competences. The introduction of prior
learning assessment whose methods are currently being developed under the same
HRD OP measure would thus make VET more flexible and accessible also to
disadvantaged people. Due to the new modular structure of the OKJ, also unemployed
people will be able to obtain a new competitive vocational qualification in a short time
based on previously completed modules and competences acquired in a non-
formal/informal way.

070202     LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

The need of developing vocational qualifications listed in the National Qualifications
Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) is defined by Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational
Education and Training. Pursuant to the law, the minister responsible for vocational and
adult education together with the minister of the relevant sector have the right to
define new and changing qualifications (see below for details of the formal development
process). The development of qualifications is based on methodological guidelines and
templates prepared by the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education
(Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI). The ministers responsible for
vocational qualifications of their sector may establish further “background institutes” to
assist their work of developing the OKJ and the professional and examination
requirements (szakmai és vizsgakövetelmények) of OKJ qualifications; currently, there
are two such institutes founded by the ministry of health and the ministry of agriculture
(Institute for Basic and Continuing Education of Health Workers, Egészségügyi
Szakképző és Továbbképző Intézet/ETI; Ministry of Agriculture Educational and
Advisory Institute, FVM Képzési és Szaktanácsadási Intézet/FVM KSZI).

Furthermore, the minister responsible for VET and adult training (currently, the Minister
of Social Affairs and Labour), in cooperation with the minister responsible for education
(and thus for VET within the school system; currently, the Minister of Education and
Culture), creates and operates a consultative body involving the social partners with the
objective of “continuously developing and modernising the VET structure” by advising
the modification of the OKJ. This new OKJ committee will replace the former OKJ
occupational group committees (OKJ-s szakmacsoportos bizottságok), but the latest
amendment of the law does not refer to any timescale of such work as it used to when
requiring those committees to review the OKJ at least once in every three years.




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The process of creating, modifying, or deleting a qualification of the OKJ is defined by
the 1/2006. (II.17.) decree of the Ministry of Education. The bodies involved in creating
and defining OKJ qualifications include ministries, national professional research and
development institutes and the social partners. The development process involves the
following steps:

1. The minister of the relevant sector can initiate the creation, modification, or deletion
   of any OKJ qualification falling under her/his competence, by her/his own initiation
   or by the proposal of anyone else (i.e., the social partners, training providers, etc.).
   Such a proposal must include:

     -   the detailed professional and examination requirements (szakmai és
         vizsgakövetelmény) of the proposed qualification, the formal requirements of
         which are defined in the 1/2006. (VII.5.) decree of the Minister of Social
         Affairs and Labour,
     -   an analysis of its relation to other existing OKJ qualifications, and
     -   supportive documents and declarations of the economic and professional
         chambers, employer and employee associations, labour centres (munkaügyi
         központ), other professional organisations and institutions, VET providers and
         their maintainers, etc. regarding its economic and labour market justification;

2. The minister of the relevant sector sends the proposal – except for the case of
   higher level VET qualifications (see below) - to the NSZFI and the above mentioned
   consultative body (OKJ committee) of the minister responsible for VET and adult
   education to ask for their professional opinion to assist her/his decision;
3. The minister of the relevant field sends the accepted proposal to the minister
   responsible for VET and adult training who forwards it to the National Vocational and
   Adult Training Council (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Tanács, NSZFT, see
   section 070204) for a professional review;
4. Based on the recommendation of the NSZFT, the minister responsible for VET and
   adult education – in agreement with the minister responsible for education and the
   minister of the relevant sector – orders the introduction to, modification, or deletion
   from the OKJ of the given qualification. In case the NSZFT does not support the
   proposal, the minister sends the proposal back to the minister of the relevant sector
   for review.

In the case of higher level vocational qualifications (felsőfokú szakképesítés, ISCED 5B),
higher education institutions and the economic (professional) chambers - in cooperation
with the national economic interest representative groups/associations – can develop
the professional and examination requirements of a new qualification and initiate its
registering in the OKJ, based on an agreement with the relevant ministry.

Development process of OKJ qualifications
  INSTITUTES, BODIES INVOLVED                       ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
                                Developing methodological guidelines and templates,
      NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
                                reviewing proposals on the creation, modification or
 VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION
                                          deletion of an OKJ qualification
  THE INITIATOR – INCLUDING THE
                                     Proposing the creation, modification or deletion of an
   ECONOMIC AND PROFESSIONAL
                                      OKJ qualification by developing its professional and
     CHAMBERS, EMPLOYER AND
                                         examination requirements and preparing the
 EMPLOYEE ASSOCIATIONS, TRAINING
                                        documentation of its labour market justification
         PROVIDERS, ETC.

                                      Initiating the creation, modification or deletion of an
 MINISTER OF THE RELEVANT SECTOR
                                       OKJ qualification and assisting the decision-making



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                                          of the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour
                                     Continuously developing and modernising the VET
         OKJ COMMITTEE                structure, reviewing proposals on the creation,
                                      modification or deletion of an OKJ qualification
 NATIONAL VOCATIONAL AND ADULT      Reviewing proposals on the creation, modification or
       TRAINING COUNCIL                       deletion of an OKJ qualification
    MINISTER OF EDUCATION AND          Assisting the decision-making of the Minister of
             CULTURE                               Social Affairs and Labour
 MINISTER OF SOCIAL AFFAIRS AND          Deciding to create, modify or delete an OKJ
             LABOUR                                      qualification



Increasing the role of the economy in VET and in particular in qualifications
development has been a policy priority in the past years. As an important measure, in
an agreement of the Ministry of Education and the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce
and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara, MKIK) in 2004, the ministry handed
over to the chamber the task of the development of 16 OKJ qualifications pursued by
the majority of vocational school (szakiskola) students. By a recent agreement of the
Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and the MKIK, the chamber is assigned to
continuously develop the professional and examination requirements of an additional 11
vocations, in cooperation with national economic interest representative organisations.

070203     METHODS, APPROACHES, PRACTICES AND TOOLS USED

Since the creation of the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék,
OKJ), the development of state recognized vocational qualifications has been assisted
by methodological guidelines developed by the National Institute of Vocational
Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési Intézet, NSZI, merged recently with the national
research and development institute of adult training as the National Instiute of
Vocational and Adult Education, Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI).

The NSZI hosted the so-called OKJ occupational group committees (OKJ-s
szakmacsoportos bizottság) as well, which – created from representatives of the
ministries of the relevant sectors, chambers of economy and professional organisations
- participated in the review process of the OKJ in 2001-2003. At that time the OKJ
committees reviewed 420 qualifications to confirm the adequacy of their occupational
group labelling, their qualification requirements, and actual employment needs. In order
to update and modularize the professional and examination requirements (szakmai és
vizsgakövetelmény, SZVK) of OKJ qualifications, they used the DACUM (Developing A
Curriculum) method for job profile analysis, the technique of which was first introduced
and disseminated in Hungary during the World Bank project in the 1990s (see section
0702). The principle of modularizing vocational qualifications was also endorsed in their
work, but a fully modular qualification system was introduced only through a major
recent development project based on innovative methods (see below).

Although all OKJ qualifications are defined centrally in ministerial decrees (see section
070202) and the ultimate uniform methodological background of qualification
development is provided by the NSZI, some specific sectoral approaches to
qualifications development could as well have emerged. Through special agreements
with the responsible ministry, the chambers of economy and other sectoral
organisations (e.g. the Hungarian Associations of Craftsmen’s Corporations,
Ipartestületek Országos Szövetsége/IPOSZ, or the National Association of Commerce
and Catering Workers, Kereskedők és Vendéglátók Országos Érdekképviseleti
Szövetsége/KISOSZ) were assigned to develop the qualification requirements and/or


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framework curricula of specific OKJ qualifications. In some cases, the creation of a new
qualification urged by technical-technological development was initiated by sectoral
associations based on foreign examples (e.g., the SZVK of the qualification “dry
builder”, szárazépítő, was developed by the National Federation of Hungarian Building
Contractors, Építési Vállalkozók Országos Szakszövetsége/ÉVOSZ, based on the
German curriculum).

DEVELOPMENT OF OKJ QUALIFICATIONS BY THE HUNGARIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND
INDUSTRY

The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és
Iparkamara, MKIK) has been particularly active in the development of OKJ
qualifications. Based on an agreement with the Ministry of Education in 2004, the MKIK
has reviewed and updated the SZVK of 16 vocations, and in a recent agreement with
the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, it was assigned to “take care of” 11 more OKJ
qualifications.

The 2004 development work of the MKIK was based on the experiences and results of
previous qualification development activities as well as a survey of employers’ needs
conducted by the HCCI Research Institute of Economics and Enterprises (MKIK
Gazdaság és Vállalkozáselemzési Intézet, see section 070103). The outcome of this
survey emphasized the importance of improving practical training and the development
of competences, while the professional content of VET was not for the most part critized
by employers. The 16 qualifications selected to be reviewed were those pursued
altogether by the majority of vocational school (szakiskola) students at ISCED level 3.

The experts participating in the development work were selected from among
practitioners with immediate relevant work and training experience, capability of
representing the professional interests, and knowledge of employers’ demands,
recommended by the local chambers. Four experts representing small, medium and
large enterprises and training providers were selected by each vocation to become
members of the so-called OKJ committees, while the others formed thematic expert
groups. In five qualifications the experts were chosen by the IPOSZ (bricklayer, building
tiler, painter, upholsterer) and by the KISOSZ (waiter/waitress) which – along with
various professional associations of the 16 vocations - cooperated with the MKIK in the
project. The work of the experts was assisted by the expert networks of the local
chambers, experts of the MKIK and of the NSZI which provided a preparatory training
for them as well.

The updating process of the SZVK of the 16 vocational qualifications involved the
following steps:

1. Job profile analysis: the OKJ committees – headed by an expert of the MKIK who
   had participated in the work of OKJ occupational group committees – updated the
   DACUM tables of the qualifications provided by the NSZI;
2. Validation: validating the updated lists of activities, tasks involved and competences
   required in the given vocation, based on a survey of a sample of 1259 employers
   through personal interviews;
3. Updating the DACUM tables based on the results of validation: the OKJ committees
   incorporated the outcome of validation - 434 new tasks (related mostly to
   entrepreneurial activities and technical/technological development) and 36 tasks
   recommended to be deleted – subject to full consensus or the opinion of the
   thematic expert groups;
4. Developing competence profiles based on the DACUM tables;
5. Identifying professional outcome requirements;



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6. Drafting the competence-based SZVKs based on the NSZI guidelines (applying the
   principle of modularisation was also considered but could not be fully enforced due
   to the short time available for development);
7. Validation of SZVKs by experts invited by the NSZI.

The additional 11 OKJ qualifications whose development was handed over to the MKIK
in 2007 through an agreement with the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour are
vocations in shortage or special demand in the labour market (e.g. welder, retailer,
toolmaker, CNC-cutter).

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW QUALIFICATION STRUCTURE UNDER MEASURE 3.2.1. OF THE HUMAN
RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME (HRD OP)

The new modular, competence-based qualification structure of VET developed in the
period of 2004-2006 within the framework of HRD OP Measure 3.2.1. of the National
Development Plan of Hungary was based on the results of previous (and parallel)
development programmes and a comprehensive analysis of the Hungarian employment
structure. The project coordinator NSZI has also been monitoring international trends
and projects such as the competence-system developed by the European Training
Foundation and the drafting of the European Qualification Framework, and the outcome
of the Hungarian project shows many similarities with these parallel but independent
international developments.

The antecedents of the modularisation of the OKJ include a 1998 project modularising
the SZVKs of agricultural and health care qualifications in three occupational groups
(catering, animal husbandry and nursing) by the NSZI, in cooperation with the relevant
background institutes of the two ministries. In 1999 the modules of 30 training
programmes offered in adult training were developed within the framework of the World
Bank project (see section 0702), and in 2000 the Ministry of Education initiated the
modularisation of 400 OKJ qualifications. The HRD OP project was harmonized also with
the objectives and results of the parallel projects of the national Vocational School
Development Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program) aiming at the modernisation
of VET curricula and methodology in vocational schools and of the SZVK development of
16 OKJ qualifications by the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (see
above).

The preparation of this innovative project included the definition of the principles of the
development of the qualification structure and creating the system of cooperation of all
stakeholders (ministries responsible for OKJ qualifications, VET providers and school
maintainers, chambers of economy, social partners and other experts) involved. All
methodological materials and project results were consulted and reviewed by a
Consulting Board (Tanácsadó Testület) created from 30 representatives of ministries
and other public authorities, chambers, employer and employee associations, school
maintainers and professional institutes and associations. Most of the more than 10,000
experts participating in the project were selected through tendering, based on detailed
selection criteria defined by the NSZI, which prepared also the methodological
guidelines and templates for the development work.

The comprehensive renewal process of the OKJ involved the following steps:

1. Analyses of occupations/jobs: The analyses of altogether 480 occupations/jobs –
   selected on the basis of a study on “The classification of occupations of the Unified
   Job Classiciation System (Foglalkozások Egységes Országos Jegyzéke, FEOR), their
   relation with the occupational groups (szakmacsoport) of the OKJ for the job profile
   analyses” by the NSZI - were conducted in 2-day workshops by 1-1 job experts
   (experienced practitioners of the given vocation) from small, medium and


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   multinational enterprises, assisted by a facilitator and a record keeper. The
   methodology of the job-profile analysis was based on the DACUM handbook
   published by the NSZI and Ministry of Education in 2001 and other guidelines
   prepared by the NSZI in 2001-2002 for the adapted job profile analysis of
   qualifications developed by the Ministry of Education. The outcome included
   organisational charts presenting the possible jobs of each occupation and their
   relation, the job-analysis tables specifying the groups of tasks and tasks of each
   occupation, and four lists of the knowledge and skills, the work attitudes, and
   equipments/tools/instruments required for performing the job, and future trends
   expected by the experts.
2. Validation of the outcome of the analyses of occupations/jobs: All documents
   prepared in the first stage were to be validated by 20 experts in each occupation
   selected by the NSZI from among employees of small, medium and large
   enterprises recommended by the Consulting Board. The experts were requested also
   to rank the tasks listed in the job-analysis tables and judge the necessity of
   information in the four lists. The validation documents prepared by the NSZI were
   sent to 9395 experts, and the 8080 packages received back were processed
   electronically by the NSZI. The results were considered and built in during the next
   stage.
3. Task analysis and development of competence profiles: The task analysis performed
   by experts (practitioners with training experiences) individually or in small groups
   aimed to identify the content of the tasks of the occupation/job and their relation
   with the requirements and other characteristics of the occupation/job. The outcome
   was the identification of the competence profile of each of the 480 occupations
   including:

  -   the task competence-profile (competences related to the occupation/job),
      prepared by breaking up the tasks identified through the job profile analysis and
      grouping them by various aspects most adequate to the occupation; and
  -   the attribute competence-profile (competences related to the individual
      performing the occupation/job), prepared by summarising the first part of the
      task analysis table of the occupation which assigns professional competences
      (professional knowledge and skills), method competences (thinking, problem-
      solving and work style), social competences (communication, cooperation and
      conflict-resolution), and    personal   competences     (flexibility,  creativity,
      independence, capabilities and characteristics) to each task listed in the task
      competence-profile.

  The second part of the task analysis table assigned the required
  equipments/tools/instruments and expected trends to each task listed in the task
  competence-profile and identified:

  -   the performance criteria, levels of the tasks (observable and measurable
      criteria);
  -   decisions to be made when performing the tasks;
  -   information sources, aids assisting correct decision-making;
  -   events resulting from incorrect decisions;
  -   security considerations; and
  -   environmental risks, hazards and tasks to prevent them.

4. Comparison of the competence profiles of occupations/jobs: The competence
   profiles of the 480 occupations/jobs were compared by experts first within 40-42
   groups of occupations created by the NSZI from occupations judged to be similar by
   various predefined criteria. The comparison aimed to identify the relation and
   common components, elements of these competence profiles (separately for the list
   of tasks, the professional knowledge category, and the professional, method, social
   and personal competences) and to present their content in partially coded form in

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   order to facilitate computer-aided modularisation later (the experts were required
   also to highlight the key terms in the task descriptions). Based on these newly
   created and coded competence-profile element names, the competence profiles
   were next compared by 10 experts across all occupations (the experts examining
   different categories individually but cooperating in email and at regular meetings),
   in order to identify their common tasks and task groups and to create a minimalized
   number of uniform attribute competence category elements which can be used to
   describe the attribute profiles of all occupations.
5. Comparison of the competence profiles of occupations/jobs with current professional
   requirements: The competence profiles of each analysed occupations/jobs were
   compared with the current qualification requirements defined in the SZVKs of OKJ
   qualifications, SZVKs developed by the MKIK and in the Vocational School
   Development Programme, and the requirements of vocational grounding training.
   The analysis was conducted by thematic groups defined by the NSZI consisting of
   several occupations and professional requirements, individually or in small groups
   by 80 experts (registered in the national register of vocational experts, országos
   szakmai szakértői névjegyzék) selected through tendering. This exercise aimed to
   identify to what extent the current qualification requirements match the competence
   profiles created in the previous stages (thus how these requirements have to be
   modified or new documents created for which occupations/jobs) and to provide the
   basis for preparing the proposal about the structure and content of the new OKJ.
6. Creation of module maps: Module maps presenting the relations, coherence and
   integration in qualifications of modules were created on the basis of the competence
   profiles of each occupation, the outcome of their comparisons, a background study
   and a guideline developed by the NSZI, in working groups consiting of experts
   (registered in the national register of vocational experts) selected through
   tendering.
7. Desiging the new structure of the OKJ: The proposal about the new structure of the
   OKJ corresponding to the FEOR, including the characteristics and relations of
   vocational qualifications and ensuring the transparency of the qualification structure
   (see also section 070201), was prepared on the basis of module maps created in the
   previous stage and a guideline developed by the NSZI by a working group of 10
   experts (registered in the national register of vocational experts) selected through
   tendering. The proposal took account also of recommendations made by the
   participants of a series of conferences organised by the NSZI, summarised by the 50
   experts of four thematic groups preparing these conferences.

The development of the SZVKs of the qualifications listed in the new OKJ published by
the 1/2006. (II.17.) decree of the Minister of Education, specifying the professional
requirements (including professional requirement modules made up of task and
attribute profiles) and examination requirements, began in 2006 (so far the SZVK of 15
qualifications have been published in ministerial decrees). The module maps of OKJ
qualifications could be finalised following the development of the SZVKs; the NSZI
created     an     online  database     of   these   module      maps    available    at
http://www.nive.hu/modulterkep/. Framework curricula (called central programmes,
központi program) of OKJ qualifications obtainable in school-based VET, made up of
programme modules corresponding to the given professional requirement modules and
defining the characteristics and form of the learning-education-training process, have
been and are currently being developed with the participation of VET teachers/trainers.

070204     BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS AND RAISING AWARENESS

Partnerships in Hungary as mechanisms to develop new qualifications and job profiles
matching education and training provision with employment needs include various
consultative bodies involving the social partners set up by the law as well as some
voluntary partnerships organized typically at sectoral or national level.



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Pursuant to Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational Education and Training, the minister
responsible for vocational and adult training (in cooperation with the minister
responsible for education) creates and operates a consultative body with the objective
of “continuously developing and modernising the VET structure” by advising the
modification of the OKJ. This new OKJ committee to be set up of representatives of
national chambers of economy, national economic interest representative organisations
and professional chambers will replace the former OKJ occupational group committees
(OKJ-s szakmacsoportos bizottságok). These latter committees organized by sector
(occupational group) operated with more or less intensity between 2001 and 2006 and
were required by the law to review the OKJ at least once in every three years. Like its
predecessors, the new OKJ committee will also participate in the formal development
process of OKJ qualifications through reviewing the proposals initiated by the minister
of the relevant sector (see section 070202).

The National Vocational and Adult Training Council (Nemzeti Szakképzési és
Felnőttképzési Tanács, NSZFT) contributes to the development of qualifications through
advising the minister responsible for the given qualification on any modification
proposals of the OKJ. The NSZFT was set up by a recent modification of Act LXXXVI of
2003 on the vocational training contribution and the support of the development of
training (through merging the two formerly independent advisory bodies of VET and
adult education) as the national consultative body of the minister responsible for VET
and adult education. It involves representatives of the relevant ministries, civil
organisations, experts from the fields of VET, adult training and higher education, the
professional social organisation working in the field of VET, the interest-representative
organisations of adult training institutions, national employer and employees
associations represented in the National Interest Reconciliation Council (Országos
Érdekegyeztető Tanács, OÉT), national chambers of economy, and school maintainers,
appointed by the minister.

Voluntary partnerships operating as mechanisms for qualifications development include
the national chambers of economy operating as public law bodies (mandatory
membership of the chambers was abolished from 2000) which participate in the work of
the above mentioned national consultative bodies and develop higher level OKJ
qualifications (felsőfokú szakképesítés, ISCED 5B) in partnership with higher education
institutions. The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi
és Iparkamara, MKIK) also acquired the right to develop 16 OKJ qualifications through
an agreement with the Minister of Education in 2004. The Chamber is assigned to
continuously develop the professional and examination requirements (szakmai és
vizsgakövetelmény) of 11 more vocations, in cooperation with national economic
interest representative organisations, pursuant to a recent agreement with the Minister
of Social Affairs and Labour.

In addition, professional sectoral associations also have developed and proposed new or
changing OKJ and other qualifications (e.g., the National Federation of Hungarian
Building Contractors, Építési Vállalkozók Országos Szakszövetsége/ÉVOSZ, or the
Hungarian Associations of Craftsmen’s Corporations, Ipartestületek Országos
Szövetsége/IPOSZ). There have been some international partnerships as well between
Hungarian chambers and professional associations with partner organisations in other
countries and/or within the framework of Leonardo da Vinci and other community
development programmes, aiming to develop or modernise sectoral IVET or CVET
qualifications.

Information about new qualifications development is disseminated primarily through
the homepages and newsletters of the developer institution and of the relevant public
authorities and agencies (ministry responsible for VET and adult training, the National
Institute of Vocational and Adult Training, Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési
Intézet/NSZFI, other responsible ministries and ministerial background institutions).

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Information is provided to policy makers, social partners, the education and research
community, guidance and counselling professionals, etc. also at professional events,
conferences, workshops, seminars and further trainings organized by ministries and
other public agencies or the social partners (chambers, etc.).

The Programme Coordinating Office of Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources
Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National Development Plan of
Hungary, hosted by the NSZFI, created a special homepage presenting the
development work and its outcome (available at https://www.nive.hu/nft/). The
principles of the new qualification structure and the qualifications of the renewed OKJ
have been introduced to teachers/trainers and all stakeholders of VET in hard copy and
online publications (cf. NQR 2006), at a series of conferences, numerous locally
organized seminars, and in-service teacher/trainer training courses.

070205     FINANCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW QUALIFICATIONS (INCL. STATISTICS)

In addition to the budgetary funding of some of the institutions involved in the process
of qualifications development (the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education,
Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet/NSZFI, ministries and ministerial
background institutes), the major public source of financing the development of state
recognized qualifications listed in the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési
Jegzyék, OKJ) is the Labour Market Fund (Munkaerő-piaci Alap, MPA).

The allocation of sources from the training sub-fund of the MPA – whose income derives
from the vocational training contribution (szakképzési hozzájárulás) levied as a kind of
tax by enterprises in the amount of 1.5% of their annual wage costs - by the minister
responsible for VET is advised by the National Vocational and Adult Training Council
(Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Tanács, NSZFT, see section 070204). The MPA
has provided funding for the operation of the consultative bodies involved in the formal
process of qualifications development (OKJ committee, NSZFT) as well as for the
qualification development work – in cooperation with the national economic interest
representative organisations – of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
(Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara, MKIK) based on its agreement with the
ministries, and occasional development (e.g. of higher level VET qualifications) by other
professional bodies and institutes.

The most significant qualifications development activity of the past years was funded by
EU Structural Funds assistance (supplementary funding provided from the central
budget and the MPA) through a project of Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources
Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National Development Plan of
Hungary. HRD OP measures provided funding also for the development of qualifications
obtainable in higher education through tendering.

Private funding of qualifications development has been of a much smaller scale. It is
estimated by an expert – there is no aggregated national data on this – that annually
about 10-15-20 OKJ qualifications are developed and proposed by non-governmental
organisations, most importantly by training providers and professional sectoral
associations.

Partnership building for qualifications development is supported through financing the
operation of the various national consultative bodies participating in the process of OKJ
development pursuant to the law.

There is no statistical information available on annual public and private investment for
qualifications development in Hungary. The total cost of the OKJ development project in



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the period of 2004-2006 under HRD OP Measure 3.2.1. was HUF 2,395,300,000 (EUR
9,581,200).




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0703 INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES: GENERAL BACKGROUND

DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT ”INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES”

The concept of innovative pedagogies is not currently defined in legislation or strategic
documents in Hungary, therefore the definition of this phrase applied here is based on
the continuously developed online version of the pedagogical lexicon published most
recently (Online Pedagogical Lexicon, March 2007). According to it, pedagogical
innovation can be defined as a process of modernisation, renewal, creation as well as
transformation which induces positive changes in the pedagogical activities and operation
of educational institutions, the knowledge and personality development of students, and
the preparedness, educational work and behaviour of instructors.

Although the most up-to-date technological innovation in education is the application of
information and communication tools these days, it becomes more and more generally
realized that the application of innovative pedagogies is far more than using these tools.
Therefore, the concept of innovative pedagogies means not only the application of new
learning forms or teaching aids, but also a change of approach regarding the role of the
student and of the teacher and the objective of learning. The phrase innovative
pedagogies will be used in this sense in this report.

TRADITION OF INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES IN HUNGARY

Since the economic and political change of system in 1989, various developments
regarding the organization of training and curriculum development have emerged in
vocational education and training in Hungary, but pedagogical innovations born during
the two decades prior to the change of the system were important antecedents of later
developments, they still operate well, and even have an influence on the development of
innovative pedagogical methods.

A part of these innovations are ultimately adaptations of foreign examples. Among these
the most prevalent are the Waldorf-, Freinet-, Rogers and Montessori-pedagogies.
Another part of the innovations is the outcome of the work of Hungarian teachers and
experts. Later on more and more schools have applied and built into its programme
adapted to its needs, the methods, elements and approaches of the various reform
pedagogies.

The Act on Public education of 1985 guaranteeing the professional autonomy of schools
which for the first time in Central-Eastern Europe limited the direct school administration
powers of the state encouraged further the already on-going pedagogical innovations,
allowed space for institutions, school experiments. Since the 1980s the economic reform
process and technological development, later since the 1990s the rapid increase of
unemployment had increasingly more direct impact on education. The idea of the
“adaptive VET model” was born at the time (Benedek, 1992) which perceived the
harmonization of training output and the needs of the economy in institutional level
adaptation rather than the central planning of training content and enrolment numbers.
In the 1990s the improvement of the school curricula, programmes of VET began in a
new direction in line with this objective.

The World Bank “initial VET loan programme” linked to the transformation of the
structure of economy, implemented in two phases, from 1991 to 1996, then from 1998
to 2001, aimed at and executed the continuous development of training content in line
with labour market needs, with the involvement of large numbers of teachers/trainers
working in VET. The outcome of this initiative related to innovative pedagogies and VET
curricula development were:



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       development of labour market oriented VET programmes provided after the
       maturity examination (érettségi vizsga), the final exam of upper secondary
       education;
       influence on the National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv), the Act on
       Public education and the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési
       Jegyzék, OKJ) which modified the structure of VET provided in secondary
       vocational schools (szakközépiskola) based on the system that was piloted and
       proved successful in these model schools (prevocational training by occupational
       group and general education until the maturity exam, then vocational education
       and training);
       establishment of nine regional training centres to perform regional tasks of human
       resources development.

Adult learning which had a long tradition in Hungary also underwent a major
transformation after the change of the political system in terms of objectives, content,
providers, administration and financing. In addition to factors mentioned above, this was
the result of the emergence of a training market which currently involves several
thousands of private enterprises as well as public and higher education institutions
offering fee-charging educational services that started to provide alternative, shorter and
more flexible adult learning opportunities.

The accession of Hungary to the European Union has even more directed attention to the
international processes and trends of public education and VET. The PISA study serving
the international assessment of student performance, the first results of which became
available to the Hungarian public in the beginning of 2002, inserted its impact in this
period and had a major influence on educational policy. In this survey putting the
emphasis on general competences independent from school subjects rather than on
knowledge in subject areas, Hungarian students achieved much weaker results,
especially in the field of reading comprehension, than at earlier surveys assessing mainly
students’ factual knowledge.

All of this strengthened the approach becoming increasingly widespread since the middle
of the 1990s according to which the objective of school studies is primarily developing
skills or competences assisting social and labour market integration and enabling lifelong
learning, rather than conveying a predefined set of cultural knowledge. These intentions
became manifested in the educational policy and development priorities of the various
strategic documents of the past years (see section 070301) and also in the new National
Core Curriculum concerning general education provided in school-based VET. The
national competence measurement executed annually since 2001 in public education and
thus in VET provided within the school system also assesses the areas of problem-solving
to be developed in the fields of reading-comprehension and mathematics. Concerning
general education, the reform of the final exam of secondary vocational schools and
grammar schools, the maturity examination, making it multi-level, standardized and
competence-oriented, was of outstanding importance.

DEFINING THE CONCEPT OF CURRICULUM IN HUNGARY

According to the continuously developed online version of the pedagogical lexicon
published most recently in Hungary (Online Pedagogical Lexicon, March 2007), the
expression „curriculum” means the conception of selecting, ordering and processing the
content of education, a tool of educational administration. Usually it involves the
objectives of education, syllabi, content, requirements, main methods and tools of
delivery by school type, level of education, grade, class, cultural fields and subjects. It
functions are: to plan the education process, facilitate the ultimate content unity of
education, govern, influence the content of education by educational policy; specify the
requirements of general and vocational education.


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Both types of vocational training schools (szakképző iskola) offering IVET within the
school system provide both general education (in the first two or four grades) and VET,
and the curriculum regulation of general education and VET differ accordingly.

The content of general education is defined by three-level curriculum regulation.
Pursuant to Act LXXIX of 1993 on Public education, the highest level of regulation is the
National Core Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv, NAT) which defines by educational fields
the mandatory and common objectives, knowledge, skills and competence requirements
of education provided in the phase delivering general education. The second, middle level
of this content regulation system is provided by NAT-compatible, accredited and optional
framework curricula recommendations (so-called framework curricula) which involve
recommendations concerning the actual content and timing of education. Career
orientation, pre-vocational training and vocational grounding provided by vocational
training schools are based on framework curricula developed for each of the 21
occupational groups (szakmacsoport). The third level of regulation is the local curriculum
developed by the school.

The system of vocational qualifications obtainable in VET within the school system is
defined by the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) which in
addition to listing state recognized vocational qualifications includes also fundamental
data (e.g. relations between qualifications, maximum duration of training programme,
responsible minister) concerning each qualification. The professional and examination
requirements (szakmai és vizsgakövetelmények, SZVK) defining the outcome
requirements of OKJ qualifications which act as powerful outcome regulation tool of
vocational training are developed by the ministry responsible for the given qualification,
supported by the methodological support of the National Institute of Vocational and Adult
Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI), and, in a growing
number of qualifications, with the assistance of the chambers of economy. The
framework curricula of VET called central programmes (központi program) published also
by the responsible minister, which pursuant to Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational education
and training provide guidelines for the organization of school-based VET and preparation
of educational documentation (vocational programme, school books, etc.), are based on
the SZVKs of the vocational qualifications. The curricula of VET grades called vocational
programmes (szakmai program) are developed by the schools on the basis of the above
mentioned documents.

The pedagogical programme of vocational training schools including the local curriculum
and the vocational programme is approved by the school maintainer.

Pursuant to Act CI of 2001 on Adult training, institutions providing IVET or CVET outside
the school system offering OKJ qualifications have to develop a training programme
which should be in line only with the professional and examination requirements of the
pursued qualification. Adult training institutions thus have more independence in defining
the content and pedagogy of their training programmes (concerning both OKJ and other
types of courses) which is a major strength as well as opportunity of CVET outside the
school system to provide training which adapts flexibly to individual and labour market
needs.

TRADITION OF RENEWING VET CURRICULA

The need for and process of content renewal in vocational training schools started in the
1970s, 1980s and became intensive by the beginning of the 1990s. The Acts on Public
education and on Vocational education and training accepted in 1993 and the OKJ
published pursuant to the latter have led to the ultimate renewal of the content and
structure of VET.



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Concerning general education the spontaneous proliferation of initiatives aiming at
content renewal was confined by the development of pedagogical programmes and local
curricula pursuant to regulations of the National Core Curricula (Nemzeti Alaptanterv,
NAT) published in a 1995 government decree and introduced in 1998. The 1999
amendment of the Act on Public education introduced a new tool of regulation, the
framework curricula. These supplemented the NAT and also corrected it to certain extent;
and although originally they were intended to be mandatory, since 2002 they provide
guidelines only as recommendations to teachers to achieve the development objectives,
requirements defined in the NAT. This was all supplemented by the review of the NAT:
the new NAT introduced from 1 September 2004 functions as a strategic background
focusing on competence development and providing guidelines to curriculum
development rather than specifying detailed requirements.

In the 1990s developments ongoing within the framework of the World Bank loan
programme (for more details, see sub-section Tradition of innovative pedagogies in
Hungary) inserted significant influence on both the National Core Curriculum and the OKJ
which together with the related professional and examination requirements by the end of
the 1990s became the most important tool of content regulation in the field of VET. The
OKJ has been renewed recently within the framework of the I. National Development Plan
coordinating the use of EU Structural Funds assistance; the competence-based
modularized OKJ was published in 2006 (for more details, see section 0702).

 070301     POLICY DEVELOPMENT ON INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES

 The priorities and directions of the content development of public education and of
 initial and continuing vocational education and training are defined in strategic
 documents related to the objectives specified in the I. National Development Plan (NDP
 I, 2004) governing the use of Structural Funds assistance: the Strategy of the
 Development of Vocational education and training until 2013 (2005), the Strategy of
 the Government of the Hungarian Republic for lifelong learning (2005), and the
 1069/2004. (VII.9.) government resolution on the objectives and action plan of the
 development of adult training. A major goal of the operational programmes of NDP I.
 was to link EU goals and rules regarding the use of community sources and the national
 development needs, and these programmes could also immediately assign substantial
 resources to the objectives defined in the strategies. The development objectives of the
 period 2007-2013 are identified in the New Hungary Development Plan (NHDP) and its
 operational programmes as the continuation of NDP I.

 These strategies and programmes were antedated as well as influenced by the
 development strategy of public education which inserted considerable influence also on
 VET provided within the school system (for more details, please refer to section 0703).

 Measures of the Strategy of VET development (and the related 1057/2005. (V.31.)
 government decree) related to the renewal of the content of IVET, some of which have
 already been implemented, include developing framework curricula of the catching-up
 grades of vocational schools (szakiskola), skills and competence developing framework
 curricula for the 9th-10th grades of vocational schools, and digital learning material, and
 disseminating the results of the national Vocational School Development Programme
 (see below). The government resolution aims to improve the methodological further
 training of vocational school teachers, develop digital training materials and realize the
 technical and human resources conditions of their application until 2010.

 Objectives of the strategy concerning the introduction of innovative pedagogies in CVET
 are: developing and disseminating modular, competence-based curricula for adult
 training provided outside the school system, and creating the development concept of
 school-based adult education.


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The following measures of the Lifelong Learning Strategy promote innovative
pedagogies

in IVET:

   developing modular and competence-oriented methods and curricula, designing
   (e.g. distance learning and e-learning) programme systems, methods and training
   materials which enable individual and open learning paths;
   adapting assessment and examination requirements to the new types of learning
   methods;

in CVET:

   enhancing practice-oriented instruction in postgraduate specialized programmes
   and higher level VET provided in higher education;
   promoting informal learning opportunities, alternative delivery modes (distance
   learning, community learning, courses provided by public cultural institutions) which
   can facilitate the success of competence-oriented learning.

Concerning the introduction of innovative pedagogies in CVET, the 1069/2004. (VII.9.)
government resolution specifying the objectives of the development of adult training
supports, among others, the development of training programmes adapted to users’
needs, the improvement and extension of practical training opportunities, the
realization of the information technological conditions of learning at home, and the
improvement and promotion of distance learning methodology.

In the past years an increasing number of central programmes have supported the
promotion of innovative pedagogies and the appropriate development of curricula in the
field of VET. In IVET, the Vocational School Development Programme (Szakiskolai
Fejlesztési Program, SZFP) coordinated by the National Institute of Vocational and Adult
Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI) involved content
development of curricula, training materials, as well as teaching and learning aids
between 2003 and 2006. The measures of the programme included:

   the renewal of the content of training in the 9th-10th grades, development of the
   necessary modern framework curricula;
   provision of more practical-oriented training, transformation of the content of
   training, and
   development of curricula, programmes and methods for providing special, catching-
   up training.

This process continues with the identification of new objectives (activity-oriented
curricula development, introduction of programmes and methods increasing efficiency,
skills development based on a uniform system of measurement) within the framework
of SZFP II. launched in 2006 with the participation of 70 schools, planned for the period
until 2011.

In addition to SZFP, the improvement of the content and system of VET defined in the
strategic documents discussed above is currently supported primarily by the Human
Resources Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the National Development
Plan I. Regarding the content development of VET, the most important measures of this
complex programme encompassing the fields of employment, education and training,
and social and health services are:

   Measure 3.2.1. aiming to renew the National Qualifications Register (Országos
   Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) through developing a flexible, modularized qualification

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   structure (for more details, please refer to sections 070201 and 070203), which
   promotes also the application of innovative pedagogical methods by introducing
   modular, competence-based training;
   Measure 3.4. supporting the provision of training programmes related to job
   creation and the development of entrepreneurship skills;
   Measure 3.5. aiming to develop the system of adult training, among others, by
   developing and introducing new (modular and distance education) methods and
   curricula, within the framework of Measure 3.5.1. (Development and application of
   up-to-date adult training methods) through developing curricula and training
   materials to be used in the state regional training centres and a model of the
   further training of adult training instructors, and creating an adult training database
   involving also curricula.

In addition, HRD OP Measure 3.1. (Promoting the development of skills and
competencies necessary for lifelong learning) supports the development of basic skills
and key competences, which involves the development of new teaching aids for the
development of basic skills, foreign language communication skills, ICT-skills and
career-building competencies to be used in the labour market in secondary (ISCED 3)
education. Skills development is an important part also of state supported training
programmes provided to disadvantaged adults. Several central state programmes and
HRD OP measures support financially the provision of catching-up courses organized in
adult training outside the school system, which aim to prepare adults without basic
skills to obtain the primary school graduation certificate (általános iskolai bizonyítvány)
or to develop their skills and competences necessary for entering VET or integrating
into the labour market. Development of ICT skills is often part of state supported
training programmes targeting employees of small and medium enterprises.

The most important goal of the New Hungary Development Plan (NHDP) defining the
development objectives of the period 2007-2013 is to increase employment and realize
the conditions of permanent growth. Developments are implemented within the
framework of 15 operational programmes among which this section presents the
priorities and initiatives of the Social Renewal Operational Programme (SR OP) and the
Social Infrastructure Operational Programme (SI OP). These two operational
programmes were developed based on the principles of the Programme of Educational
Development (2007-2013) designed with the involvement of social organisations
involved in education.

The most important objectives of the Programme of Educational Development related
to the introduction of innovative pedagogies can be grouped around the support of
competence-based education, digital content development and the development of
language skills. The priorities of the programme involve the development objectives of
CVET as well, including the support of the methodological research, curriculum
development and prioritized promotion of the provision of ICT-supported distance
education, of skills and competence and community developing training programmes,
and the development and support of learning at the workplace, in the community or in
networks.

The Social Renewal Operational Programme (SR OP) accepted in 2006 contributes to
the introduction of innovative pedagogies in IVET through, among others, developing
and introducing programmes of competence-based education and disseminating
learning opportunities and delivery modes necessary for the realization of the
conditions of lifelong learning. Pursuant to the programme, in CVET a means of
achieving these objectives is strengthening the participation of cultural institutions and
of the formal, non-formal and informal opportunities of competence and creative skills
development in the process of lifelong learning.




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The Social Infrastructure Operational Programme (SI OP) serves the development of
competences required in lifelong learning and success in the labour market through
realizing the infrastructural conditions of public education.

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF NATIONAL POLICY ON INTRODUCING INNOVATIVE
PEDAGOGIES AND REFORMING VET CURRICULA ACCORDINGLY


Main strengths of national policy on pedagogical and curriculum development involve
the legal framework permitting innovations (see section 070302), the development
approach developing the whole of the institutions which characterizes the school and
quality improvement components of SZFP I., and the complex approach which links to
these national further training – often focusing on innovation and development -,
national mobility (peer learning) and study visits abroad.

As an outcome of the Vocational School Development Programme framework curricula
were developed to support the general education and pre-vocational training provided
in the 9th-10th grades of vocational schools. However, it is also necessary to prepare
teachers for this task which should result in a kind of change of approach without which
these subjects introduced originally to develop competences and motivate students will
not be able to serve their goal, but they may even increase early school leaving
resulting from a sense of failure and disinterest.

The development, management and evaluation of the I. National Development Plan
were accompanied by continuous discussions with the EU. This resulted not only in the
application of new methods adapted to community standards, but also the development
policy approach has changed: among others, the educational policy attitude that
education and training is not the final goal but a means to implement economic-social
objectives has become more conscious. During the adaptation process launched due to
the accession to the European Union some goals of key importance have been
essentially successfully integrated in the existing training system. Such were, for
example, the development of competence-based and modular VET curricula and the
National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ), launch of catching-up
programmes, and the creation of a national digital curricula database system
supporting competence-based education, involving the general education curricula of
the 12 grades and VET curricula of 8 occupational groups (Jelentés, 2006). However,
the support of local, institutional or class innovations is often less prioritized than the
extension of central developments. The application of innovative pedagogies – in VET,
such is typically the project method – is limited by several factors: difficulties relating
to the organization of education, lack of extra financing, and the underdeveloped state
of incentives which inhibits rewarding innovative teachers.

Although in the field of CVET the development of training programmes adapting flexibly
to labour market needs is facilitated by the fact that even courses awarding an OKJ
qualification should observe only the professional and qualifications requirements
(szakmai és vizsgakövetelmény) of the given vocation, in both IVET and CVET there
should be more programmes reacting fast and flexibly to labour market needs
developed, by taking employers’ interests increasingly into account.

Participation rate in CVET is rather low in Hungary compared to the EU average,
therefore the extension of more flexible training opportunities and strengthening of
informal learning environments are important tasks. In addition, a national portfolio of
short-term training programmes serving directly the needs of small and medium
enterprises to increase their competitiveness should also be developed.

POLICY INITIATIVES FOCUSED ON SPECIFIC TARGET GROUPS




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National policy measures on introducing innovative pedagogies in VET focused
specifically on certain (disadvantaged) target groups are implemented through
legislation and central programmes providing complex solutions. In addition, several
state and EU financed tenders are also announced with this objective.

The framework curriculum of the general education grades of vocational schools
permits the differentiated training of students with learning difficulties and students
who can take more workload and can catch up faster: schools can choose between two
– “A” and “B” – versions of the framework curriculum according to students’ needs.
Vocational training of students with more serious – physical, mental or social –
disadvantages and in need of special education is provided in so-called special
vocational schools (speciális szakiskola).

The first priority of the Strategy of Lifelong Learning is to enhance the equal
opportunity promoting role of education and training. The 1069/2004. (VII.9.)
government resolution on the objectives and action plan of the development of adult
training aims to assist to solve employment crises by training programmes and to
provide complex programmes facilitating the employment of disadvantaged people,
with the participation of civil organisations. The Programme of Educational
Development related to the New Hungary Development Plan (NHDP) highlights the
provision of target programmes to assist the social integration of students who live in
state care and are socially disadvantaged and the involvement of students with special
education needs in distance learning and ICT education. One of the most important
measures of the Social Renewal Operational Programme of NHDP in IVET is the
development and introduction of programmes aiming to decrease segregation in
education in order to ensure equal opportunities for those in a multiple disadvantaged
situation and Roma students. In the field of CVET, the programme facilitates the
prevention of the exclusion from the labour market of certain target groups (older
generations, Roma population, people with a changed working capacity, women) also
through training and tailor-made services.

The goal of one component of the Vocational School Development Programme I. was to
develop curricula and methodological guidelines for the catching-up grades educating
most disadvantaged students without a primary school graduation certificate, in order
to enable these young people to obtain a vocational qualification and enter the labour
market. Currently about 1000 students participate in such catching-up programmes in
about 50 schools.

The Integration Pedagogical System (Integrációs Pedagógiai Rendszer, IPR) developed
by the Ministry of Education serves the integration of disadvantaged, primarily Roma
students and results in/demands also methodological-pedagogical renewal. The base
institutions of the National Education Integration Network (Országos Oktatási
Integrációs Hálózat) set up in 2003 based on the IPR within the framework of HRD OP
Measure 2.1. ensure the creation of professional, pedagogical partnerships in order to
introduce and extend integrated education. Its encouragement and financing
background is provided by a so-called integration supplementary per capita support
that schools applying the IPR can apply for. The improvement of the labour market
chances of women is aimed by the development of training programmes developing
entrepreneurship skills (Measure 1.3.). Under HRD OP Measure 3.4.1. support is
provided for trainings developing entrepreneurship skills and the adaptability of
employees primarily in order to improve the competitiveness of small and medium
enterprises.

Several measures of the Regional Development Operational Programme serve to
eliminate disadvantages caused by territorial inequalities by the complex training and
employment programmes.


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The objective of the Second Chance Programme developed by the National Institute of
Public Education (Országos Közoktatási Intézet/OKI, predecessor of the Institute of
Educational Research and Development) and operating since 2005 aims to reduce
school failures and early school leaving through ensuring the opportunity to take
individual learning paths and developing learner competences, curricula and teachers’
methodological culture.

An important role in the development of the VET of disadvantaged students has been
played since the first half of the 1990s by the community programmes of the EU
(Socrates/Minerva, Leonardo), within the framework of which employees of several
institutions got acquainted with European models of the rehabilitation, catching-up and
VET of disadvantaged groups. In the field of IVET nearly all programmes and strategies
discussed in this section involve measures concerning specific target groups.

070302     LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

Measures of strategies aiming to renew the content and methodology of initial and
continuing vocational education and training discussed in section 070301 were defined
in the following government resolutions:

   1069/2004. (VII.9.) government resolution on the objectives and action plan of the
   development of adult training;
   1057/2005. (V. 31.) government resolution on the Measures necessary for the
   implementation of the strategy of the development of VET;
   2212/2005. (X.3.) government resolution on Tasks related to the implementation of
   the strategy of lifelong learning.

The Vocational School Development Programme discussed also in section 070301 was
launched by the 2015/2003. (I.30.) government decree on Measures aiming to
modernize school-based VET as required by the labour market.

The 1/2006. (VI.29.) decree of the Minister of Education and Culture on the Order of
publishing and approving framework curricula concerned general education provided in
VET within the school system. Its introduction highlights the changed objectives and
priorities of education and training (creating an open development environment,
motivating students, focusing on activity, individual development and differentiation).
In order to achieve these goals the decree recommends, among others, the
application of modularized organization of education, project education and
cooperative teaching-learning techniques.

The supervision of education and training provided in vocational training schools
(szakképző iskola) is provided jointly by the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour in
charge of the sectoral management of VET and the Minister of Education and Culture
responsible for public education. The Minister of Social Affairs and Labour who
publishes the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) which
includes state recognized vocational qualifications is responsible also for adult training,
thus for VET provided outside the school system. The development of the outcome,
i.e.,   the     professional    and    examination       requirements      (szakmai      és
vizsgakövetelmények, SZVK) and the central programmes (framework curricula) of
OKJ qualifications falls under the authority of the minister of the relevant sector (for
more details, please refer to section 070202).

Curricula of both general education and VET of vocational training schools providing
VET within the school system are defined by a three-level content regulation system
based on Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational education and training and Act LXXIX of
1993 on Public education. Pursuant to the Act on Public education, the


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teachers/trainers have the right to choose the pedagogical methods on the basis of
the pedagogical programme of the school involving its educational programme, the
local curriculum (general education) and vocational programme (VET).

In general education the highest level of regulation is the National Core Curriculum
(Nemzeti Alaptanterv, NAT) published in a government decree which is of a strategic
character, focusing on the development of competences. The middle level of
curriculum regulation is provided by the framework curricula of general education and
pre-vocational training published by the minister of education to give professional-
methodological assistance for the development of local curricula which represent the
third, institutional level of regulation.

The local curricula of VET grades called central programmes are developed also by the
schools on the basis of the SZVKs and uniform central programmes of OKJ
qualifications. The new OKJ facilitating the introduction of modularized and
competence-based training was published in the 1/2006. (II.17.) decree of the
Minister of Education and entered into force on 1 April 2006 (for more information,
please refer to section 070201).

The curricula of higher level VET organized by higher education institutions are also
developed by the institutions in accordance with the SZVK of the given OKJ vocational
qualification published by the minister of the relevant sector.

VET provided outside the school system is regulated by the Act on VET and Act CI of
2001 on Adult training. Pursuant to the latter, adult training providers have to be
registered at the regional labour centre (regionális munkaügyi központ), prepare a
training programme and conclude a training contract with the participants, but
otherwise they are free to develop their own training programme awarding a
qualification (certificate) which may or may not be state recognized. In the case of
OKJ training courses, curricula must be based on the SZVK of the given qualification.
The accreditation of training programmes which is voluntary but a precondition of
applying for public subsidies aims primarily to provide a quality guarantee, its
objective is to validate that the programme is adequate for the training objectives,
realizable, and its content and methodology is in compliance with the pedagogical
requirements.

The National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési és
Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI, set up on 1 January 2007 as the successor of the two
formerly independent institutes of VET and adult training), a central budgetary agency
assisting the activities of the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour, is the national
centre of the professional and methodological research and development of VET and
adult training.

The tasks of the Institute of Educational Research and Development (Oktatáskutató és
Fejlesztő Intézet) set up on 1 January 2007 as the successor of the National Institute
for Public Education (Országos Közoktatási Intézet, OKI) include the development of
programmes serving the content modernization of public education and education
provided by subjects and fields of education, as well as the improvement of the
content and methods of extracurricular education.

Ministers responsible for OKJ qualifications can operate research and development-
service providing institutes to assist their tasks related to VET. Currently there are two
such institutes: the Institute for Basic and Continuing Education of Health Workers
(Egészségügyi Szakképző és Továbbképző Intézet, ETI) and the Ministry of Agriculture
Educational and Advisory Institute (FVM Képzési és Szaktanácsadási Intézet, FVM
KSZI).


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At national level several public foundations and companies of public benefit founded
by the state assist the promotion of innovative pedagogies and the renewal of VET
curricula by implementing central programmes and announcing tenders.

The national agency of the education and training tendering programmes of the EU
(e.g. Leonardo, Socrates, etc.) is the Tempus Public Foundation which in addition also
coordinates national tenders, provides trainings on the subject of using EU support
and acts as a knowledge centre.

The Apertus Public Foundation promotes the spreading of open and distance learning
through tendering projects that develop distance learning training curricula of
programmes to be offered in school-based education or at enterprises, and improve
the methodology and quality assurance of ODL. The public foundation participates also
in the implementation of Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources Development
Operational Programme (HRD OP, see section 070301) in cooperation with the former
National Institute of Vocational Education and the Educatio Kht. Wihtin the framework
of this project it has contributed to the content renewal of VET through developing
digital curricula covering the maturity examination (érettségi vizsga) requirements of
17 occupational groups and the common modules of qualifications in 2 occupational
groups, accessible from the Sulinet Digital Knowledge Base (http://sdt.sulinet.hu).

The Educatio Kht. participating also in the implementation of HRD OP Measure 3.1.
(Promoting the development of skills and competencies necessary for lifelong
learning), was charged within the framework HRD OP Measure 3.2.1. with the tasks
of developing a complex e-learning content management system and digital curricula
to be used in VET and an ICT-based modularized in-service teacher training model.

The SuliNova Agency for Educational Development and In-service Teacher Training
(Sulinova Közoktatás-fejlesztési és Pedagógus-továbbképzési Kht.) promotes
innovative pedagogies primarily in the fields of strategic coordination of public
education development, in-service teacher training and content development related
to HRD OP. The agency has coordinated the development of the educational
programme packages of six prioritized competence fields and the related in-service
trainings within the framework of HRD OP Measure 3.1.1. (Preparing teachers and
educational experts for the tasks of competence-based training and education).

In the field of adult training, the tasks of the National Employment Foundation
(Országos Foglalkoztatási Közalapítvány, OFA) include the development of the
professional content of pilot programmes involving training and employment elements,
labour market and psycho-social support services, and the coordination of tenders, in
order to support the labour market reintegration and employment of disadvantaged
unemployed people.

At local level so-called pedagogical-professional services assist institutions in
performing education-related pedagogical-professional-methodological tasks pursuant
to the Act on Public education. Pedagogical experts support the professional work of
teachers and school managers by providing counselling, disseminating pedagogical
methods and helping the self-training of teachers.

In the field of VET provided outside the school system, the primary task of the nine
regional training centres of the Public Employment Service (Állami Foglalkoztatási
Szolgálat) is to develop and provide training programmes for various disadvantaged
groups supporting employment and job creation and developing key competences. The
development and piloting of new, innovative training programmes and methods
facilitating also the measurement and validation of prior learning in these centres is
currently supported by HRD OP Measure 3.5.1.


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Representatives of the social partners can at national level influence the introduction
of innovative pedagogies and the modernisation of VET curricula through the National
Vocational and Adult Training Council (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Tanács,
NSZFT) which assists the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour by preparing decision-
making, providing advise and evaluation. The NSZFT, among others, participates in
the development of the OKJ and SZVKs (see section 070202), can make proposals
regarding the development of curricula and new procedures and its financing, and
evaluates the application of curricula and professional requirements.

The application of innovative pedagogies at institutional level may be assisted by the
professional consultative bodies involving the social partners set up in vocational
training schools with more than 500 students, in the regional integrated vocational
training centres (térségi integrált szakképző központ, TISZK) and VET partnerships
(szakképzési célú társulások). This body has the right to make proposals in any
questions regarding VET provided in the institution, including the content of the
vocational programme of the vocational training school.

Institutions and bodies involved in the introduction of innovative pedgaogies
in VET and modernizing VET curricula

     INSTITUTIONS, BODIES                       TASKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
 MINISTER OF SOCIAL AFFAIRS AND     Sectoral management of VET and adult training,
             LABOUR                 publication of the OKJ, content regulation of VET
   MINISTER OF EDUCATION AND      Regulation of VET provided within the school system,
            CULTURE                        publication of framework curricula
                                  Publication of the outcome requirements and central
      SECTORAL MINISTERS
                                            programmes of OKJ qualifications
NATIONAL VOCATIONAL AND ADULT         Right to prepare decision-making, advise and
      TRAINING COUNCIL                      evaluate the development of VET
     NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
                                        Content and methodological research and
     VOCATIONAL AND ADULT
                                                  development of VET
          EDUCATION
    INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL       Research and development in the field of public and
   RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT                        higher education
  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT-
                                Assistance to the sectoral minister responsible for OKJ
 SERVICE PROVIDING INSTITUTIONS
                                     qualifications to perform tasks related to VET
     OF SECTORAL MINISTRIES

  NATIONAL PUBLIC FOUNDATIONS
AND COMPANIES OF PUBLIC BENEFIT   Implementation of central programmes, coordination
  (TEMPUS , APERTUS, EDUCATIO,                        of tenders
        SULINOVA, OFA)
   PEDAGOGICAL-PROFESSIONAL       Professional counselling, dissemination of pedagogical
           SERVICES                                      methods
                                         Development of training programmes for
   REGIONAL TRAINING CENTRES
                                              disadvantaged target groups
   PROFESSIONAL CONSULTATIVE        Right to advise the vocational programme of the
            BODIES                             vocational training school



070303    PRACTICES OF INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES IN VET




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IVET

Application of innovative pedagogical methods partly depends on the objectives of the
given institution, but mainly on the pedagogical-methodological approach and the
preparedness of the particular teacher/trainer, thus the frequency of their use is
difficult even to be estimated.

Results of surveys conducted in 2003/2004 and 2005 within the framework of the
Vocational School Development Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program, SZFP) on
a representative sample involving one-third of participating vocational schools (SZFP
Monitoring, 2004) show that the most often used method of knowledge transfer is
frontal explication by teachers. The second and third most frequent teaching methods
were homework-checking and demonstration performed by the teacher. According to
the answers of vocational trainers, frontal explication dominates in vocational practical
lessons as well, this is followed by practice of techniques relating to the given job and
demonstration performed by the teacher. Game-based learning, project method and
computer-supported elaboration of teaching material are relatively rarely applied in
either types of lesson. Cooperative work carried out in small groups plays a slightly
more significant role but only in vocational practical training. It is, however, a
promising sign that respondents considered demonstration as a more effective method
than explication by the teacher; team work and independent problem solving were
judged to be more efficient than homework-checking and oral tests, though
nevertheless these latter are applied more frequently in class.

Still, it is a more and more widely held view in Hungary that pedagogical innovation can
be qualified not according to the technologic standard of applied tools but rather
according to the novelty of the elaborated inner processes (i.e., the education-
organizational and educational-methodological elements), and that the application of
electronic tools in itself is not equal to the application of innovative pedagogies.
However, a survey conducted by the Observatory for Educational Development in 2007
questioning 170 professionals working either in IVET or in CVET confirms that this
approach have not yet become conscious for many teachers/trainers. In this (non-
representative) survey examining the relevance and frequency of the use of innovative
pedagogical methods, ICT supported learning was also present in the list of methods
(problem based learning, learning by discovery, cooperative techniques, project
method, game based learning, and field trip) from among respondents could choose.
Though respondents were given opportunity to express their opinion in writing as well,
none of them indicated that s/he did not consider this a pedagogical-methodological
definition; moreover, the answers show that respondents apply ICT-supported learning
the most frequently of all methods. Application of problem based learning is also
applied relatively often, but it is interesting that teachers/trainers of vocational training
schools – presumably because of financial reasons and other conflicts of interests –
only rarely employ the opportunity of field trips (e.g. visiting professional exhibitions or
companies).

CVET

The effect and the presence of innovative pedagogies in CVET in Hungary can be
observed primarily in the development and application of flexible, practice-oriented
training programmes which can respond quickly to changes of labour market needs.

The above mentioned survey of the Observatory for Educational Development shows
similar results concerning the frequency of use of innovative methods in the case of
CVET as in IVET. However, the relevance and frequency of their application were
judged to be lower by 10% than in the case of IVET. Instructors working (also) in
CVET explained this difference primarily by participants’ different characteristics


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resulting from their age, higher level of experience and knowledge, and stronger
motivation, and by the shorter time frame of teaching in CVET. 20% of the respondents
nevertheless stated that there is no such difference between IVET and CVET in their
teaching practice.

Interpreting the concept of innovative pedagogies broadly to mean also the adaptation
of training programmes to the special needs of target groups, the elaboration of
output-oriented curricula involving personal and competence development, activity-
centred knowledge transfer and counselling offered in order to help planning individual
learning pathways, the conclusion can be drawn that innovative pedagogies are present
in CVET at least to the same extent as in IVET. Differences can be observed mainly in
the forms of appearance of innovative pedagogies.

SPECIFIC SECTORAL APPROACHES TO INTRODUCING INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES AND
MODERNISING  VET CURRICULA

The development of innovative pedagogies and the renewal of VET curricula accordingly
relate to the whole of VET, since modularization of the renewed National Qualification
Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) issued in 2006 and the modernization of the
system and content of VET based on it have a significant effect on the whole of VET.
Content development has been carried out on the basis of the occupational group
system of the OKJ, and the delegates of sectoral associations played a substantial role
in this process. The activities of both sectoral associations and sectoral ministers
responsible for the development of the professional and examination requirements
(szakmai és vizsgakövetelmények, SZVK) of vocational qualifications will remain
decisive further on as well regarding the modernization of VET curricula.

The research and development-service providing institutes of ministries responsible for
certain vocational qualifications provide significant assistance to the given sector in
curricula development and the further training of professionals. Currently the Ministry
of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development operate such
background institutions (Egészségügyi Szakképző és Továbbképző Intézet - Institute
for Basic and Continuing Education of Health Workers; FVM Képzési és Szaktanácsadási
Intézet - MARD Educational and Advisory Institute).

The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Magyar Kereskedelmi és
Iparkamara) and the Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture (Magyar Agrárkamara) perform
significant curricula development and training activities relating to vocational
qualifications of the sectors of industry, commerce and catering, and of agriculture,
fishery and forestry, partly in the field of initial, partly in continuing vocational
education and training (master training)..

In the sectors of technology and information technology the continuous renewal of
curricula and training materials is encouraged by several factors. On the one hand, the
rapid development of these sectors makes the continuous self-training of
teachers/trainers, and thus also the constant modernization of training material
indispensable. On the other hand, this process is facilitated by the fact that many
vocational training schools in this field have built good relationships with large – often
multinational – companies. Besides providing apprenticeship training, these companies
in many cases also take part in the modernization of school workshops and the further
training of teachers and trainers, thus assisting instructors to follow up the
international developments in their professional field and graduates of vocational
training schools to gain up-to-date expertise.

THE IMPACT OF INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES ON CURRICULUM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT IN                  VET



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The extensive content development reforms and systemic innovations launched in the
course of the past years were the results of a continuous change of approach discussed
in section 0703. These changes were catalyzed by developments implemented within
the framework of the World Bank programme, the results of the PISA survey, the strict
adaptation requirements relating to the EU-accession, as well as by the considerable
financial support to be allocated for VET development provided by the ESF.

Currently the new, competence-based maturity examination (érettségi vizsga)
introduced in 2005 plays an important role in the redefinition and modernization of
curricula of general education provided in the first four grades of secondary vocational
schools (szakközépiskola); its output-regulating function is enhanced by the fact that it
is the uniform entrance examination to tertiary education as well. Maturity examination
will certainly take a dynamic effect on the transformation of curricula, however, this
process – partly due to the need to transform teacher training and the content and
methodology of textbooks – will take several years.

A process built on a learning-outcomes approach have started even sooner in school-
based IVET and CVET, since already the previous version of the OKJ and the related
SZVKs have regulated VET as strong output requirement systems. The new OKJ
enhances the effectiveness of VET through its modular structure and competence-based
content elements, providing a basis for the ongoing renewal of the central programmes
of vocational qualifications obtainable within the school system.

THE IMPACT OF INTRODUCING INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES ON THE LEARNING CULTURE AND THE
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN VET


Changes taking place regarding the learning culture are substantial, but not spectacular
and difficult to measure. One of these changes is the transforming role of teachers:
programmes and initiatives assisting their preparation for the altered requirements are
discussed in sections 070301 and 07030102.

In CVET the innovative elements of learning culture are primarily the expansion of
flexible training forms, practice-oriented trainings building on previous (formal and
informal) learning, personalized assessment; the modern approach to teachers’ role
and the practice of mentors’ activity is often realized faster in this sector than in IVET.

As a result of efforts and measures targeting the renewal of VET, the transformation of
learning environments has begun as well: in the case of IVET within the school system
it means primarily the increasing use of ITC tools and digital learning materials. In the
framework of the World Bank programme and the Sulinet Express programme many
vocational training schools have been equipped with ICT tools and modern classrooms
(see also section 07030301). Continuous development of the learning environment is
supported by the first component of Measure 4.1 (Infrastructural development of
education and training) of the Human Resource Development Programme
(Humánerőforrás-fejlesztési Operatív Program, HEFOP) as well, which promotes the
infrastructural development of regional integrated training centres, ensuring
appropriate physical environment for the implementation of practice-oriented, modular
trainings.

However, a substantial prerequisite of the effective application of ICT tools in IVET is to
ensure vocational teachers’ adequate ICT skills which is served by several programmes
financed by national and community grants. This goal was promoted by component “B”
of the Vocational School Development Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program,
SZFP) through modernizing practical training places, and by another project of the
same programme called “Information technology in the vocational school”, through



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providing in-service teacher trainings in the field of IT and multimedia as well as by
digital, interactive methodological support materials and IT development plans.

Practice-oriented and activity-centred IVET is enhanced by the recently changed per
capita financing system of vocational training schools which encourages schools to
favour apprenticeship training (for more details, please refer to sections 0404 and 1002
of Thematic Overview 2006).

Mobility pedagogy in the form of study visits or foreign professional practice supported
in the framework of several national and community programmes (e.g. Leonardo da
Vinci, Comenius, Grundtvig, SZFP) constitutes a typically new, diverse and rich learning
environment in IVET and CVET.

Transformation of learning environments in CVET furthermore involves the expansion of
open and flexible learning opportunities as well. Regional training centres operating as
part of the Public Employment Service provide for disadvantaged target groups and for
those excluded from the labour market a special environment where besides knowledge
transfer various services (competence development, career orientation and guidance)
are offered to enhance the effectiveness of training.

 07030301          E-LEARNING IN   VET (INCL. STATISTICS)

 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE

 The equipment of vocational training schools (szakképző iskolák) with ICT tools has
 begun already in the 1980s in Hungary, but spectacular changes in this respect took
 place only in course of the second half of the 1990s. These changes were encouraged
 by the labour market expectations of the information society, and its expenses were
 covered by the VET development programmes of the World Bank, the central budget
 and by Sulinet programme. By the millennium a subsequent wave of development
 has reached VET in Hungary which was financed primarily by funds for tendering and
 the contributions of VET stakeholders (school maintainers, parents, employers;
 Jelentés, 2006).

 As a result of the Sulinet Express programme launched in 2002 by the government
 and of several other, large scale tenders, during the past years the computers of
 educational institutions has been replaced, equipments have been functionally
 enriched, and within the framework of the Public network (Közháló) programme of
 the former Ministry of Informatics and Communication every public institution (thus
 every vocational training school) received broadband Internet connection.

 In respect of participation in CVET based on e-learning, it is decisive whether
 participants have a home computer. According to the survey of the World Internet
 Project conducted in 2005, about 42.6% of Hungarian population had a computer, but
 only 20.8% had also an Internet connection (Jelentés, 2006). As part of the Sulinet
 Express programme, by the programme supporting the purchase of computers with
 personal income tax allowances launched through the amendment of laws on taxes,
 since 2003 around 150 thousand new PCs were bought by households, 500 thousand
 PCs were updated, and 600 thousand families got in possession of an information
 technological device.

 During the second phase of the Sulinet Express programme launched on 1 July 2003,
 more than a thousand secondary schools received “digital tea trolleys” (digitalis
 zsúrkocsi) consisting of a notebooks, a projector, a DVD and video player, an
 amplifier and loudspeakers, or a “multimedia suitcase” (multimédiás bőrönd)
 involving a notebook and a projector. Besides, VET institutions got 1000 interactive


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tables (a combination of table, monitor and projector) in 2004 and 2005 within the
framework of the Vocational School Development Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési
Program, SZFP) and decentralized tenders. The above processes have also
contributed to the fact that students of VET institutions using the computer increased
by 2.6% from school year 2003/2004 to 2005/2006, and the number of teachers
using the Internet for educational purposes increased by 21% (survey of the Ministry
of Education, OKI, 2006).

Access to ICT infrastructure is provided also in community houses, libraries, cultural
centres, and the extending network of “telehouses” (teleház). Telehouses operating
as non profit organisations provide computer and Internet access, information and
counselling services, and organize education and training opportunities to everyone,
irrespective of age, sex or any other aspects. Currently there are 539 telehouses
operating throughout the country at various localities, including very small villages.

DEVELOPMENT OF E-LEARNING CURRICULA AND METHODOLOGY

In the past decade the development of the methodology and training materials of
distance education and e-learning as well as the further training of instructors were
supported by various European Union and national programmes. The Apertus Public
Foundation was established by the government specifically to facilitate the
development of distance learning curricula of programmes to be offered in school-
based education or company training and the improvement of the methodology and
quality assurance of distance learning. According to the statistical analysis of the
supported projects (Nógrádi, Mendöly, 2005), most funding was provided to the
development of VET, then to higher education, and least support was given to public
education. Distance education can by today be considered as an established mode of
delivery primarily in higher education, but there are several distance learning
vocational programmes offered also in adult training outside the school system.

The development of e-learning as a form of distance learning has gained major
impetus around 2000, supported by various EU and national development
programmes related to the eEurope+ initiative, but it still cannot be considered as an
established and widespread form of IVET or CVET in Hungary. It is currently used
most often in higher education (mostly incorporated into distance or traditional
training programmes), and in the internal training of large enterprises and public
administration, but of course, some e-learning courses are offered also by private
enterprises or non-profit organizations to individual learners. Training programmes of
individual learning available on the Intranet created and continuously developed by
the majority of large companies aim to develop partly foreign language skills, partly
job-related    competences.       In    informational   technological     industry   and
telecommunication, already around 60% of internal trainings are provided in the form
of electronic distance education (Papp, 2005.). In public administration, e-learning
serves also the internal (IT, foreign language, EU studies, etc.) training of employees.

The development of e-learning training materials and programmes are supported
primarily by national state or EU funds (e.g. the Apertus Public Foundation, the
Leonardo community programme, Human Resources Development Operational
Programme/HRD OP, Regional Development Operational Programme/RD OP, etc.),
since the private, corporate sector still has insufficient sources for financing e-
learning programme development on a large scale. It is also increasingly realized that
the application of up-to-date ICT technology does not bring about automatic change
in the teaching methods of teachers and trainers, which is manifested in programmes
developed to implement the various development objectives (Komenczi, 2006.;
Szűcs-Zarka, 2006., Kőrösné, 2000.). All the programmes presented below therefore
involve methodological teacher/trainer in-service training elements as well.


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Measure 3.1. of the Human Resources Development Operational Programme (HRD
OP) of the I. National Development Plan coordinating the use of Structural Funds
assistance supports the development of skills and competences required for lifelong
learning. It provides preferential support, among others, to teacher/trainer in-service
training, information content and software development, increase of interactive and
multimedia contents, development and dissemination of e-learning curricula,
methodological researches, and the provision of infrastructure in IVET and CVET.

Within the framework of HRD OP central measure 3.2.1. (Developing the content,
methodology and structure of vocational training), the Apertus Public Foundation
developed the digital curricula of the maturity examination (érettségi vizsga) subjects
of 17 occupational groups and of qualifications of two prioritized occupational groups,
and it made these curricula available also from the Sulinet Digital Knowledge Base
(http://sdt.sulinet.hu/Default.aspx?cid=133362a4-dab9-4046-9b1f-6779fe2c2fbc).
Nearly 90% of students pursue a qualficiation in one of these 17 occupational groups.
In addition to whole training materials, these digital curricula involve also multimedia
supplements and excercises for students and teachers.

HRD OP central measure 3.5.1. titled „Development and application of up-to-date
adult training methods” supports the development and piloting of 25 e-learning
programmes to be used in adult training provided in the network of regional training
centres. Each of these e-learning programmes will be uploaded into the networked
programme database of regional training centres, thus starting the development of an
up-to-date, expandable programme database which in the future in addition to
members of the consortium network also adult training institutions will be able to use,
and which later will contribute to the modernization and accessibility of training
programmes as a comprehensive adult training database involving accredited training
programmes, training materials, e-learning programmes which can be used in
distance education, as well as all legal documents related to adult training.

Currently there is no national database which would include a complete list of
institutions providing distance education and e-learning opportunities, though the
Oktupusz (http://www.oktopusz.hu), a Hungarian Internet portal including the most
extensive information about e-learning, maintained by the Oktupusz Foundation, was
launched with this mission. Useful information regarding e-learning is available from
the Hungarian e-learning guide (Magyar e-learning kalauz) of the Hungarian Gallup
Institute (Magyar Gallup Intézet, http://ip.gallup.hu/elearning/magyar/mint.htm),
the “Tréningkereső” (Training search) portal (http://www.treningkereso.hu), and the
collections of links available at the http://tavoktatas.lap.hu/ and http://e-
learning.lap.hu/ websites.

One of the main activities of the Centre of Educational Innovation and Adult Training
of the Technical University of Budapest (Budapesti Műszaki Egyetem
Oktatásinnovációs és Felnőttképzési Központja) is to initiate, support and coordinate
projects aiming at the provision of open and distance learning courses and trainings
applying non-conventional methods. The Centre hosts also the secretariat of the most
extensive European organization of distance learning, the European Distance and e-
Learning Network (EDEN; http://www.eden-online.org/).

The SZÁMALK Education and Information Technology Ltd. contributes to the
dissemination of flexible and distance education opportunities in VET by providing full
time, correspondence, distance education and e-learning courses and developing e-
learning curricula.

THE ROLE OF   ICT AND E-LEARNING IN ENHANCING INNOVATION AND MODERNISING VET



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Although the cutting edge technological innovation in education is presently the
application of information and communication technological tools, the recognition that
the use of innovative pedagogies means much more than the use of these tools
becomes more and more common (Komenczi, 2006; Szűcs-Zarka, 2006). A national
research targeting teachers/trainers and educational experts actively using ICT tools
in teaching conducted in 2000 (Kőrösné, 2000) sheds light on the relations and
differences of innovative pedagogical methods and the application of up-to-date ICT
tools. The main question of the questionnaire-based survey was: “Presupposing also
the use of new technology, when would you consider the pedagogical practice as
innovative?”. According to the answers, the definition of innovative pedagogical
practice using information technology cannot be given in a few lines; based on the
attempts at circumscribing the concept, innovative pedagogical practice can be
characterized by the following traits:

   1. Innovation is not merely the application of new types of technical tools.
   2. Innovative pedagogical practice using ICT:

               • provides something new compared to the existing educational
                 practice,
               • results in the improvement of the efficiency of the personality
                 development process and of competences,
               • adaptable: it is not linked to one individual, student group or school,
                 but can be realized also elsewhere,
               • is related to the change of learning methods, the application of
                 project type, cooperative learning,
               • is accompanied by the transformation of the role of the teacher: the
                 teacher plays the role of a tutor and a mentor, her/his important
                 task is to motivate and create the preconditions of the individual
                 learning of the student.

The concept of innovative pedagogies therefore means not only the application of new
learning forms or teaching aids, but also a change of approach concerning the role of
the student and the teacher and the objective of learning. Nevertheless, education
methodologically well-grounded ICT programmes, tools and training materials can
provide significant assistance to quality and up-to-date education and training serving
the many-sided development of students.

The OECD launched its projects called “ICT and the Quality of Education” in 1999. As
a result of this research, teacher handbooks have been prepared in six subjects,
supplemented by CD appendices.

Within the framework of the Sulinet programme started in 1997 and its extension
launched in 2002 called Sulinet Express a huge amount of electronic training
materials and teaching aids became available on the Internet to teachers/trainers and
students by creating the Sulinet Digital Knowledge Base (Sulinet Digitális
Tudásbázis/SDT, http://sdt.sulinet.hu) electronic curricular database and learning
content management tool.

In the past years several e-learning training materials and programmes which can be
used in both IVET and CVET have been developed also within the framework of the
second phase of the Leonardo da Vinci programme of the European Commission
(2000-2006), by the joint work of international consortia of VET and higher education
institutions, enterprises, research institutes and social partner organizations. (Project
descriptions are available on the Internet at the following address:
http://www.tpf.hu/upload/docs//palyazatok/leonardo/Segedanyagok/2007_02_06_sz
eminarium/e-learning_kompendium.pdf).


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More and more ICT based projects have been launched in the past years in schools,
higher education institutions, and many teachers/trainers get in a closer relationship
with digital training materials. While the stimuli of developing e-learning were
formerly the facilitation of accessibility and flexibility, and these factors remain
significant in adult training, developments place increasing emphasis on the education
methodological grounding and quality of e-learning curricula.

Due to increasing opportunities to access the Internet, professional databases,
homepages, publications and newsletters reporting about international and national
innovations, best practices and opportunities in VET become available to more and
teachers/trainers and experts. For more detailed information on the activities of
national organizations playing such a role in VET development, please refer to sub-
section Raising awareness and disseminating information of section 070304.

THE ROLE OF   ICT AND E-LEARNING IN INCREASING ACCESS TO VET AND DECREASING DROP
OUT RATES


Strengthening the role of ICT and e-learning in order to increase access to VET and
decrease drop out rates is currently present among the objectives of several
strategies and complex programmes. In the case of projects presented below this
process has already started, but its extension to national level has not yet been
realized.

Since the reasons for dropping out can differ by region and target groups, to meet
these special needs there are several projects operated at institutional level,
supported by various national and EU sources (Labour Market Fund, Munkaerő-piaci
Alap, EQUAL programme, National Employment Foundation, Országos Foglalkoztatási
Közalapítvány, see Detailed Thematic Overview: Initial vocational education and
training, section 0405). These initiatives usually develop complex solutions to prevent
early school leaving or facilitate the reintegration of young people, which in addition
to personality and competence development, counselling and provision of individual
learning pathways include also the development of ICT competences or the provision
of e-learning opportunities. Since in working with disadvantaged students the
application of elements of cooperative learning, among them computer-based
opportunities can be applied very effectively, the use of digital materials based on
innovative methods plays an important role in these institutions both in changing the
negative attitude toward learning and in personality development.

The goal of the Roma Information Technology Project (Roma Informatikai Program)
operating since 2003 is to renew the methodology of the teaching practice of teachers
of sub-regional schools, and as a part of this, to apply the tools and pedagogical
elements of ICT in everyday teaching practice. The target of cooperation is a
pedagogical, methodological and content development model which by the complex
tool system of ICT contributes to bridging the digital gap separating Roma
communities of the more backward part of the North-Hungarian region from labour
market integration and to assisting disadvantaged students to become adults
competitive in the labour market.

An interesting initiative in the field of IT-based general adult education is the Digital
Secondary                   School                 (Digitális               Középiskola,
http://www.digitaliskozepiskola.hu/intro/index_en.html) operating since 2003 which
offers computer based correspondence training and the opportunity to obtain the
maturity examination certificate (érettségi bizonyítvány, the prerequisite of higher
level education) for disadvantaged groups, in particular for Roma people. The Digital
Secondary School ensures access to computers and the Internet for students near
their place of residence by maintaining Regional Consultation Centres.


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Based on the results of the Digital Secondary School gained so far and as its
extension, within the framework of HRD OP Measure 3.5.2. (Digital VET) the Apertus
Public Foundation, using SDT digital training material elements developed earlier by
its coordination, is also developing digital courses for training in two occupational
groups in secondary vocational schools (szakközépiskola), which it supplements also
with the digital training materials of each vocation. Applying digital courses, pilot
secondary school education begins from the autumn of 2007, for which participating
instructors are prepared at further trainings. By the end of the programme closing in
the end of 2007, the objective is to finalize a model of an institutional system
providing network education of a mixed system which offers opportunities for dropped
out, disadvantaged adults to obtain a secondary level vocational qualification and the
maturity certificate, or also a basic level vocational qualification.

STATISTICS

The international statistical data of Table 1 presented in the annex on the percentage
of enterprises using e-learning applications for the training and education of
employees by size of enterprise are in line with the indicators of the economic
development of Hungary. However, data of Table 2 on the percentage of individuals
having used the Internet in relation to training and education within the last 3 months
by purpose and age groups show that although the number of people using the
Internet for learning purposes is increasing, this happens in a slightly different
direction than the EU average: it is more dynamic in the case of school-based
learning and less significant in the field of training provided outside the school system
and CVET. Measures aiming at the equipment of schools with computers, connecting
them to the Internet, and digitalizing training materials have not been ineffective, but
at the same time the level of Internet penetration and digital literacy in the whole of
society is still very low. While there have been relatively successful steps taken in
education to improve digital literacy, this component has not played a sufficiently
important role in labour market integration.

Tables 3 and 4 on the percentage of individuals having accessed the Internet in the
last 3 months by place of access and by age groups, and of those having obtained IT
skills by way/place of education/training also shed light on the differences between
school-based education and the world of work: the Internet penetration among
educational institutions can be considered good, while it is very low at workplaces.
This latter fact can also be explained by the structure of the development of the
economy: the majority of employees of export-capable multinational companies
generally do not work in front of computers. The low level of competitiveness of the
extremely numerous, not very competitive, usually Hungarian-owned small and
medium enterprises is partly caused by, partly results in the low level of use of the
Internet at the workplace; especially in the countryside, and there in the case of
certain (e.g. the agricultural) sectors. Jobs requiring and/or using digital literacy at a
high level are present in the structure of Hungarian economy only in small numbers,
and these in part also conserve the low level of digital literacy in the society.

07030302          BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION

Infrastructure required for the introduction of e-learning and ICT-based learning in
IVET is ensured by the state in vocational training schools. However, according to a
survey on the equipment of Hungarian households with ICT tools (Central Statistical
Office, 2006), only 32.3% of households have internet connection, 68.2% of which is
a broadband connection. The availability of ICT tools in users’ homes was supported
by the 2004-2007 phase of the Sulinet Express programme within the framework of
which under a certain amount of income anyone falling under the effect of the Act in




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Personal Income Tax could take advantage of the maximum HUF 60 000 (EUR 240)
tax allowance per year.

While infrastructure which is a precondition of e-learning is developing at a fast pace,
development of content is lagging behind: there appear products, training
programmes of rather varying standards of methodology and technology on the
market among which users can orientate themselves only with difficulty due to lack of
state quality assurance system and benchmarks.

Besides, another barrier of the spreading of e-learning is that the coordination of
electronic content provision is not ensured even in programmes aiming at the
establishment of a national database of digital data: the structure of collected data is
not uniform at national level, and the registration system of training materials in a
national database should be developed as well as uniform concepts, quality criteria
accredited by the professional community should be defined in this field. For more
detail on programmes, strategies and institutions developing the methodology of e-
learning, linked to the registration of training materials and programmes, please refer
to section 07030301.

Although both the development of infrastructure and the content and methodological
improvement of digital training materials are important preconditions of the spreading
of innovative, ICT-supported learning, the key to change would be a change of
attitude on the part of instructors, participants and decision-makers alike, so that
they would realize: they are all interested in the achievement of the objectives
mentioned above. In pre-service teachers training, ICT studies do not currently
receive sufficient emphasis, and the pedagogical, methodological aspects are even
less in the focus. Since a significant part of vocational school students struggle with
learning difficulties and the lack of basic skills, preparation for skill and competence
development should play a highlighted role in the further training of teachers/trainers
of these schools.

According to the 170 IVET and CVET practitioners replying the questions of the survey
of the Observatory of Educational Development conducted in 2007, the two most
important obstacles to applying innovative pedagogical methods in VET are the lack
of time in class and the amount of time necessary to prepare for applying these
methods. Lack of tools which was named as the third most significant obstructing
factor is also related to time expenditure: although textbooks, content storage
devices containing exercises of an innovative approach and other educational support
materials could shorten the time of teachers/trainers’ preparation, many of the
textbooks which largely define the teaching process in practice have not yet been
revised in line with the content and methodological changes of VET. Many of the
respondents considered traditional pedagogical methods more effective than
innovative pedagogies; a reason for such attitude could be the lack of experiences
gained in further trainings on the subject. In spite of all this, according to the survey
the majority of respondents apply many different types of innovative methods in
teaching, even if only relatively infrequently.

Surveys conducted in 2003/2004 within the framework of the Vocational School
Development Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program, SZFP; SZFP Monitoring,
2004, Expanzió Kft.) examined, among others, also factors impeding the efficiency of
the education activities of teachers/trainers. About half of the participating
teachers/trainers considered the lack of motivation on the part of students as the
major obstacle. Besides this, many vocational teachers mentioned the deficiencies of
the basic education of students and the high class numbers and vocational trainers
the lack of up-to-date equipments as obstructing factors.




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 Several central programmes aim to change the attitude of and prepare
 teachers/trainers. Component “C” of the SZFP based on project pedagogy involves
 not only the development of the competence-based access requirement system of
 certain vocational qualifications, but also the creation of materials assisting the self-
 learning of teachers and the provision of further training programmes promoting the
 application of effective methods of learning organization. Component “B” of SZFP
 aiming to improve the in-service training system and develop the methodological and
 pedagogical-professional competences of vocational school teachers and trainers was
 continued within the framework of Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources
 Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) financed by EU Structural Funds
 assistance. The objective of this programme is to prepare the management of
 vocational schools for the introduction of competence-based, modularized VET, and to
 prepare vocational school teachers for the adaptation, introduction of modular
 training materials developed within the framework of the National Development Plan
 and the development, modification of vocational content in line with labour market
 needs.

 The methodological further training of CVET instructors is promoted by the “Training
 of trainers” sub-programme of HRD OP Measure 3.5.1. which aims to ensure the
 application of – also e-learning - training materials and programmes developed within
 the framework of the same programme, in a methodologically professional and in
 every regional training centre uniform way.

070304    BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS AND RAISING AWARENESS

 At local level, primarily professional consultative boards can be mentioned as
 partnerships facilitating the introduction of innovative pedagogies and the renewal of
 VET curricula, which through their rights and duties may influence the local practice
 of vocational education and training. In school-based VET, the 2006 amendment of
 Act LXXVI of 1993 on Vocational education and training ordered to set up a
 professional consultative board in every vocational training school (szakképző iskola)
 training more than 500 students and in the regional integrated vocational training
 centres (térségi integrált szakképző központ, TISZK). This board involving
 representatives of the teaching staff, the relevant chamber of economy, employer
 and employee associations, the school maintainer and enterprises in a training
 relation with the institution, has a right to make recommendations in every question
 related to VET provided in the institution, thus also concerning the vocational
 programme of the vocational training school.

 In the case of adult training institutions providing VET outside the school system, a
 precondition of obtaining the institutional accreditation certificate is also employing a
 professional consultative board whose members can be professional organisations
 active in the fields of training defined in the training plan, organizations interested in
 the training, and respected adult training experts. Since one of the tasks of these
 boards is to approve the annual training plan of the adult training institution, through
 their recommendations they may participate in the modernization of training plans
 and thus indirectly also of training programmes.

 Institutions of regional authority can be distinguished by three further levels: those of
 the sub-region (kistérség), county (megye) and region (regió). Currently there are
 168 sub-regions operating as statistical and development units, covering the whole
 territory of the country. Act CVII of 2004 on Sub-regional partnerships with multiple
 objectives of settlement self-governments ensures considerable state budgetary
 support for the so-called sub-regional partnerships with multiple objectives (többcélú
 kistérségi társulás) made up of the self-governments of smaller settlements, which by
 today operate in the majority of the statistical sub-regions. These partnerships in


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many cases contribute to the introduction of innovative pedagogies in public
education through organizing and providing pedagogical and professional services.

The objective of the Region and Sub-region in Pedagogical Service (Régió és
Kistérség a Pedagógiai Szolgáltatásban, RKPSZ) national sub-regional model
programme operated with the support of the Ministry of Education and Culture and
the cooperation of county pedagogical institutes is to develop a system of the
provision of regional and sub-regional services (among others, pedagogical
counselling for vocational schools) and to organize these services. The goal of the
sub-regional programme implemented with the participation of 18 pedagogical
institutes and 32 base institutions is to ensure that the most fundamental services be
available directly also at sub-regional level, with the cooperation of the county
pedagogical institute and the so-called base institutions providing vocational services
in the county.

The dissemination of innovative pedagogies and the modernization of VET curricula at
county level is supported also by the so-called employment pact of regional actors
(e.g., economic organizations, institutions, non-profit organizations, training
providers) created to improve employment in the given region. The pact promotes
the modernization of the curricula of IVET and CVET by collecting and reporting to
training institutions information about the economic and human resources
development concepts, objectives of the county actors, and they develop and launch
training programmes which facilitate the creation of new jobs. The establishment and
activities of such partnerships are supported by Measure 3.2.1. of the Regional
Development Operational Programme of the I. National Development Plan.

The regional cooperation of vocational training schools and the modernization of
practical training are supported by Measures 3.2.2. and 4.1.1. of the Human
Resources Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National
Development Plan. To obtain subsidies to establish regional integrated vocational
training centres (Térségi Integrált Szakképző Központ, TISZK), proposals could be
submitted by consortia which in this way create a framework of cooperation between
different institutions operating in the same settlement or region. Training in these
integrated, practice-oriented institutions operating with a rational distribution of tasks
is expected to contribute to the change of the immediate environment, of the
approach of the sub-region and region concerning VET development by applying
innovative pedagogical techniques, exemplary practical solutions.

In addition to making the cooperation within these centres even stronger, the most
recent policy objective is to create so-called VET-organization partnerships
(szakképzés-szervezési társulások) which would promote the cooperation of the local
government and other maintainers of VET institutions (including higher education
institutions providing higher level VET, felsőfokú szakképzés). TISZKs and VET-
organization partnerships may thus together form a network of institution maintainers
and institutions providing VET coordinated at regional level.

The dissemination of innovative pedagogies and up-to-date training materials is
promoted in adult training by adult training base centres (felnőttképzési
bázisközpont) established with the support of the adult training section of 2004 of the
employment sub-fund of the Labour Market Fund (Munkaerő-piaci Alap). This support
encouraged the creation of cooperating networks of accredited adult training
institutions with diverse activities, based on common principles and partly common
practices, in order to develop a common system of customer services, adult training
services, programme and training material development, course organization,
examination, quality improvement, staff accreditation and prior learning assessment
of the institutions participating in the consortium. Currently there are 7 regional adult


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 training base centres in whose consortia regional training centres cooperate with,
 among others, training private companies, state VET institutions, higher education
 institutions, folk high schools, professional interest representative organizations and
 civil organizations.

 Development of programmes and training materials to be used in the regional
 training centres of the Public Employment Service (Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat) is
 supported by HRD OP central measure 3.5.1. titled “Development and application of
 up-to-date adult training methods”, whose 5th sub-component aims to:

   strengthen the network cooperation between the centres through coordinating
   developments, mutually publishing the results of professional developments and
   organizing programmes preparing for their application, and
   widen the partner network of the centres through the experts participating in the
   programme and methodological development and disseminating the results.

 Within the framework of HRD OP 3.5.4. tender programme aiming at the
 development of flexible training opportunities and programmes and the participation
 of public cultural institutions in adult training, there are altogether 31 adult training
 projects being implemented with the partnership of public cultural institutions (mainly
 cultural centres, libraries, professional counselling institutions) and regional training
 centres. The objectives of these partnerships related to the introduction of innovative
 pedagogies are:

   changing the attitude toward learning in the immediate environment of public
   cultural institutions and organizations;
   creating learning communities;
   promoting up-to-date methods which can be in adult training and strengthen
   related professional attitudes (e.g. application of activity-based learning, problem-
   based learning, cooperative learning, student self-assessment, etc.).

Among the social partners, chambers of economy play a significant role in the renewal
of VET curricula, among other things by developing – in cooperation with national
economic interest representative organizations – the professional and examination
requirements (szakmai és vizsgakövetelmények) of certain vocational qualifications.
The social partners participate in the national dissemination of innovative pedagogies
and the modernization of VET curricula also through participating in the work of various
bodies operating pursuant to legislation, thus:

   in the National Public Education Council (Országos Köznevelés Tanácsban, OKNT)
   which has a right to form opinions on important questions related to the content
   and quality of education and a right to accord in curricula matters concerning
   general education provided in school-based VET, and
   in the National Vocational and Adult Training Council (Nemzeti Szakképzési és
   Felnőttképzési Tanácsban, NSZFT) which performs reviewing, advising and decision-
   preparing tasks in the field of IVET and CVET. (For more detailed information,
   please refer to section 070204.)

Professional organizations and networks participating in the promotion of innovative
pedagogies and the modernization of VET curricula include:

   the Hungarian Association of Vocational Education and Training (Magyar
   Szakképzési Társaság), a national association supporting VET researches and one of
   the most influential organization in regard to the dissemination of innovative
   pedagogies, involving teachers/trainers as well as VET institutions;



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   the Alliance of Teachers’ Trainers (Tanárképzők Szövetsége), which supports the
   renewal of teacher training through, among others, reviewing relevant draft
   legislation, curricula, developing training programmes and promoting the
   cooperation of national and foreign teacher training institutions and associations;
   the Hungarian Higher Education Network for Lifelong Learning (Magyar Egyetemi
   Lifelong Learning Hálózat, MELLearn), an important, Debrecen-based network of
   higher education institutions dedicated to lifelong learning in Hungary, which
   supports the renewal of the content and methodology of training provided in adult
   training institutions;
   the Association of Adult Training Providers (Felnőttképzők Szövetsége), the largest
   Hungarian professional interest representative organization of adult training with
   enterprises, schools, universities and non-profit organizations as members,
   considers - in addition to interest representation – as its important task also the
   continuous improvement of the professional standard of adult training, which it
   serves by developing training materials, assisting professional work, conducting
   education and training related researches, and developing and applying its own
   ethical codex and a voluntary qualification system.

Partnerships disseminating innovative pedagogies in IVET and CVET at international
level include the international consortia of the Leonardo da Vinci programmes of the
European Commission, cooperation with international VET development networks and
agencies (e.g. Cedefop, ETF, Unevoc, Eullearn, CERI, INES, CIDREE, CRELL), and direct
bilateral relations between Hungarian and foreign VET schools (e.g. student exchange
programmes).

RAISING AWARENESS AND DISSEMINATING INFORMATION

There are several organizations involved in VET development which operate to promote
innovative pedagogical methods and disseminate best practices and research results in
a wide circle. All institutions mentioned below operate their own homepage publishing
topical news and scientific results, and many of them contribute to raising awareness
also through newsletters and organizing various events.

The National Institute of Vocational and Adult Institution (Nemzeti Szakképzési és
Felnőttképzési Intézet) supports the dissemination of innovative pedagogies by VET
databases available on its homepage, in-service teacher/trainer training, competitions
and seminars, as well as by publishing the Szakoktatás (Vocational education),
Szakképzési Szemle (Vocational Education and Training Review) and Felnőttképzés
(Adult training) journals.

An important role in the promotion of innovative pedagogies is played also by the
Institute of Educational Research and Development (Oktatáskutató és –fejlesztő
Intézet), the legal successor of the National Institute for Public Education (Országos
Közoktatási Intézet, OKI), and the interactive website it operates, its Új Pedagógiai
Szemle (New Pedagogical Review) journal, and its detailed report on public education
published every three years.

The Hungarian Association of Vocational Education and Training contributes to the
exchange of information in the field of VET by organizing forums, seminars, trainings
and further training, and the annual National Forum of Vocational Training School
Principles, and it is also a co-publisher of the Szakképzési Szemle, one of the most
influential journal of VET.

The Hungarian Higher Education Network for Lifelong Learning organizes meetings,
conferences and provides counselling specifically related to the field of adult training,



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and besides it publishes a newsletter and maintains a homepage in order to
disseminate information and support cooperation.

The Association of Adult Training Providers contributes to informing users by organizing
exhibitions, shows, publishing information bulletins, and organizing professional events.

In addition to those mentioned above, the National Education Science Conference
(Országos Neveléstudományi Konferencia) organized annually by the Education Science
Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Pedagógiai Bizottsága), the national management development conferences, the Kiss
Árpád memorial conference, events organized by the Tempus Public Foundation and the
Pedagogical Institute of Budapest (Fővárosi Pedagógiai Intézet), and the various
information services of the PALLÓ project coordinated by the Cultural Centre of
Budapest (Budapesti Művelődési Központ) with the support of HRD OP also play an
important role in disseminating information.

The target groups and users of the information channels and initiatives discussed above
include policy decision-makers, experts involved in VET teacher training, directors of
vocational training schools, training centres and other training providers, experts
responsible for public authority trainings, research and development-service providing
agencies of the ministries, and teachers/trainers and experts participating in lifelong
learning and self-learning.

070305     FINANCING INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES (INCL. STATISTICS)

The most important source of financing innovative pedagogies and curricula
development is the central state budget. In addition to the budgetary funding of
institutions participating in the promotion of innovative pedagogies and curricula
development (e.g., the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Institution Nemzeti
Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, the Institute of Educational Research and
Development, Oktatáskutató és –fejlesztő Intézet, the Education Science Committee of
the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Pedagógiai
Bizottsága, ministries and their agencies), the major public source of financing
innovative pedagogies is the training sub-fund of the Labour Market Fund (Munkaerő-
piaci Alap, MPA) which receives its income primarily from the vocational training
contribution paid by economic organizations in the amount of 1.5% of their annual total
labour costs. Regarding the allocation of these sources of the MPA, decisions based on
the recommendations of the National Vocational and Adult Training Council (Nemzeti
Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Tanács, NSZFT) and the regional development and
training committees (regionális fejlesztési és képzési bizottságok) are made by the
minister responsible for VET and, concerning a certain section, by the minister
responsible for education. The NSZFT organizes and evaluates tenders of sources of the
central section of the training sub-fund of the MPA, while the regional development and
training committees participate in the tendering of sources from its decentralized
section.

The training sub-fund of the MPA provides funding for the curricula and training
material development and methodological in-service trainings implemented within the
framework of the Vocational School Development Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési
Program, SZFP) coordinated by the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Institution
(for more information, please refer to section 070301).

The adult training section of the employment sub-fund of the MPA provided financial
support for researches conducted within the framework of Adult Training Research
Studies (Felnőttképzési Kutatási Füzetek) coordinated by the former National Institute
of Adult Education. Some of these presented innovative methodological approaches


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which can be applied in adult training and operate successfully in other countries and
included recommendations concerning their adaptation in Hungary. The adult training
section (whose income also derived from the vocational training contribution) was
merged with the training sub-fund of the MPA from 1 January 2007, while ensuring the
differentiation of VET and adult training support objectives.

Institutes, higher education institutions or civil organizations conducting research and
development can finance their activities also through various national and EU tender
programmes. In addition to SZFP, the most important developments of the past years
in relation to the renewal of VET were executed within the framework of the Human
Resources Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National
Development Plan. The programme was implemented by the financing of the EU
Structural Funds (EUR 386 million from the European Social Fund and EUR 177 million
from the European Regional Development Fund) and the supplementary support of the
central budget and the MPA (EUR 187 million). In relation with innovative pedagogies
and curricula development, the biggest impact concerning IVET was made by Measures
3.1 (Promoting the development of skills and competencies necessary for lifelong
learning) and 3.2.1. (Developing the content, methodology and structure of vocational
training: The new vocational training structure), and concerning CVET by Measure
3.5.1. (Development and application of up-to-date adult training methods). (For more
details, please refer to section 070301).

The implementation of the Social Renewal Operational Programme of the New Hungary
Development Plan will in the period of 2007-2013 be financed by approximately EUR
3.9 billion from the cohesion policy section of the European Union budget and the
Hungarian state budget.

Besides the tenders of the National Development Plan, research and development
related to innovative pedagogies is supported also by calls for proposals announced
within the framework of the Nationally Prioritized Social Science Research (Országos
Kiemelésű Társadalomkutatási Kutatások) programme coordinated by the Public
Foundation for Education (Oktatásért Közalapítvány) or the Hungarian Scientific
Research Fund programmes (Országos Tudományos Kutatási Alapprogramok, OTKA).
The Leonardo da Vinci programme of the European Commission supporting also VET
curricula development – within the framework of which support worth more than EUR
27 million was provided for mobility and development between 2000 and 2006 in
Hungary – is coordinated at national level by the Tempus Public Foundation.

The private financing of innovative pedagogies cannot on the whole be considered
significant. Since the majority of CVET providers outside the school system develop and
improve their own curricula and in adult training innovative contents and methods are
used frequently, the activities of these institutions can be considered as mechanisms
promoting innovative pedagogies and curricula development. After all, the vocational
training contribution paid into the MPA by economic organizations and the activities of
private enterprises providing pedagogical professional services can also be classified
into this category.

Among the partnerships and forms of cooperation of state and privately financed
organizations discussed in section 070304, especially the adult training base centres
and networks supported from the MPA, and in international relation the consortia of
private and state institutions and organizations of projects financed within the
framework of the Leonardo da Vinci programme of the European Commission assist
effectively the introduction and promotion of innovative pedagogies in VET.

Further measures and legislation encouraging the establishment of partnerships on
innovative pedagogies and curricula development include:


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HRD OP Measures 3.2.2. and 4.1.1. aiming to create regional integrated vocational
training centres (térségi integrált szakképző központ, TISZK);
HRD OP Measure 3.5.1. aiming to develop programmes and training materials to be
used in the regional training centres;
HRD OP Measure 3.5.4. tender programme aiming to ensure flexible training
opportunities and develop programmes, and to involve public cultural institutions in
adult training;
Measure 3.2.1. of the Regional Development Operational Programme supporting
county employment plans, and finally
Act CVII of 2004 on Sub-regional partnerships with multiple objectives of
settlement self-governments ensuring considerable central budgetary support for
partnerships of the local governments of smaller settlements and providing
opportunities for them to, among others, increase the role of innovative pedagogies
in VET, for example, by organizing and providing pedagogical professional services
and vocational services.




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0704 INNOVATIONS IN TEACHER TRAINING

REFORMS AND CHANGES IN VET TEACHER/TRAINER TRAINING

Pre-service training of IVET teachers/trainers

There are significant changes currently on-going in the pre-service training of teachers
and trainers working in VET provided within the school system, urged by several factors:
on the one hand, the transformation of the structure of Hungarian higher education
between 2006 and 2010, and on the other hand, the deficiencies of the former system of
teacher training. Prior to Act CXXXIX of 2005 on Higher education coming into effect,
there were several teacher training programmes of varying types and structures which
made teacher training rather fragmented and non-transparent, and it precluded transfer
between various fields. Though in teacher training students did get theoretical knowledge
about innovative pedagogical methods, but the application of these was rather limited in
the course of their training. The successful work performance of graduates of vocational
teacher training was complicated also by lack of practice.

Teacher/trainer training in the renewed system is provided in two cycles. VET trainers
instructing practical training (agricultural, technical and business vocational trainers) are
trained at undergraduate level. The training of engineer, agricultural engineer,
economics, medical and art teacher is master level and will be launched in higher
education institutions with new programmes in 2008-2010. The extension of career
choice until the second cycle serves the foundation of the decision of choosing a teacher
career. In the new higher education system, the development of competences, primarily
of ICT competences and lifelong learning skills, gets an important role. In addition, the
extended time provided for practice teaching in the master level teacher programme
allows far more time than before for the mastering and practicing of teacher
competences.

The content improvement of VET teacher and trainer training is defined by the training
and outcome requirements (képzési és kimeneti követelmények) and the description of
required vocational competences, accepted in 2007. The lists of knowledge, skills,
competences and attitudes expected from fresh graduate teachers/trainers have
generally been developed through the consensus of a wide circle of those involved
(teacher professional organizations, employers, parent and student interest
representative organizations, training providers, educational policy makers, experts,
etc.). (For more detail, see sub-section New skills and competences to be mastered by
VET teachers and trainers). The general and special – professional field-specific – training
outcome requirements make it possible to develop teacher training based on uniform
principles but with methodological training varying in accordance with the specific
features of the professional field.

Besides, the training outcome requirements enforce the development of a new
methodological culture in which making continuing training one’s lifestyle, activity-
oriented training built on active learning, the promotion of mobility, learning
opportunities made available by new learning environments ensured by ICT tools, work-
based learning, and the need to develop local competences gain increased significance.

Besides legislative changes, programmes assisting the transformation of training have
also been launched. The objective of Measure 3.1.1. of the Human Resources
Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the National Development Plan is to
prepare teachers and educational experts for the tasks of competence-based training and
education. Its implementation is ensured by the development of educational programme
packages of competence-based training, and of various, including digital training
materials and training tools adapted to them. These educational programmes published


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continuously and applied in practice in 2007 involve, in addition to various training tools,
also instruments assisting the planning, organization and evaluation of the process.

In-service training of IVET teachers/trainers

The law prescribes the mandatory further training of teachers/trainers employed in public
education institutions at least once in every seven years. A part of practitioners working
in school-based VET participate in in-service training very actively, but many of them are
not sufficiently motivated to change the ordinary teaching methods and teacher role. The
reasons for this include, among others, the relatively high average age in the profession,
and the insufficient financial reward by institutions, combined with a lack of expectations
of up-to-date professional and methodological knowledge.

Under HRD OP Measure 3.1.1., further trainings are currently being provided to prepare
teachers of general education, heads of institutions and educational experts for the tasks
of competence-based education and training.

Between 2003 and 2006 component “B” of the Vocational School Development
Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program) served to improve the in-service training
system and develop the pedagogical-professional competences of teachers and trainers
working in vocational schools, which work is continued within the framework of HRD OP
Measure 3.2.1., by using European Union sources. The objective of the latter programme
is to prepare the management of vocational schools for the introduction of competence-
based, modularized VET, and to prepare vocational school teachers for the adaptation,
introduction of modular training materials developed within the framework of the
National Development Plan and the development, modification of vocational content in
line with labour market needs.

In addition, several conferences aim to contribute to the change of approach, further
training of teachers of VET institutions, such as the 2006 National Education Science
Conference (Országos Neveléstudományi Konferencia) organized by the Education
Science Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos
Akadémia Pedagógiai Bizottsága), which focused on the redefinition of the subject of
competence development and didactics.

Pre-service training of CVET teachers/trainers

The pre-service training of teachers and trainers working in CVET provided within the
school system corresponds to what is described above.

In the case of vocational training programmes offered in adult training, legislation
permits the employment of instructors with merely a relevant higher education degree or
even a secondary level vocational qualification (of at least the same level as that of the
training) in case they have professional experience of a definite time. Nevertheless, more
and more higher education institutions and training companies offer special, adult
training methodological training programmes.

In-service training of CVET teachers/trainers

The in-service training of teachers/trainers employed in VET provided outside the school
system is rather varied. The law does not prescribe their continuing training, but, in
order to plan their training activities, accredited adult training institution must have a
human resources-plan which includes also regulations concerning the in-service training
of instructors. In addition, since many adult training institutions do not have permanent
teaching staff but employ instructors with up-to-date professional skills who are also
better paid than instructors of vocational training schools are, teachers and trainers

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participating in adult training do - also for their own benefit - continuously further train
themselves in their professional field.

Regional training centres (regionális képző központok) also regularly offer organized in-
service training for their employees based on an internal training plan. Educational
institutions and enterprises with an International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
certification develop internal training plans, and they offer their employees internal
further training or purchase programmes offered by another enterprise. One of the two-
year-long postgraduate specialization programmes (szakirányú továbbképzési szakok,
ISCED 5A) providing a new qualification in higher education, the adult education expert
(felnőttoktatási szakértő) training programme offered in 8 higher education institutions
prepares participants for planning, organizing, managing and evaluating adult education
processes.

Within the framework of Measure 3.5.1. of the Human Resources Operational
Programme, the development of a model of an organized further training system of adult
training practitioners began in 2005 with the coordination of the former National Institute
for Adult Education. This programme involved the development of up-to-date distance
learning materials which were piloted in the spring of 2007 in three locations in the
country. The three-day-long conferences provided an opportunity to train about 700
practitioners. Following this, the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Institution
(Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet) intends to operate continuously the
online further training system based on distance education for instructors involved in
adult training outside the school system.

The continuing training of practitioners working in CVET is supported also by national
cooperation networks such as the Association of Adult Training Providers (Felnőttképzők
Szövetsége) and the Hungarian Higher Education Network for Lifelong Learning (Magyar
Egyetemi Lifelong Learning Hálózat, MELLearn).

INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES USED FOR THE TRAINING OF         VET TEACHERS AND TRAINERS

The use of innovative pedagogical methods in pre-service teacher training currently
varies depending on the institution and instructor. A promising change concerning in-
service training is that in the new higher education system the time provided for practice
teaching is extended, and the development of competences, especially of ICT
competences and lifelong learning skills, is expected to get an important role.

A part of the currently available further training programmes aim to deepen ICT skills
and prepare participants to apply or develop digital training materials. Such trainings
were provided within the “Information in vocational schools” project of the Vocational
School Development Programme, and the various e-learning projects of the Leonardo da
Vinci programme of the European Commission.

In a survey conducted in 2003 commissioned by the Ministry of Education, 500 school
principles and in 500 schools 1930 teachers/trainers were asked about their opinion on
in-service training. According to the study presenting the results of the research, the
majority of further trainings are of the development type (linked to educational policy
priorities) or aim at compensation (supplying the missing qualifications, competences of
teachers/trainers), and participation in programmes intending to contribute to the
solution of the real problems of the school (those identified by the principal) is rather low
(Liskó, 2004).

Pursuant to an international research on the in-service training of teachers of upper
secondary education (Imre, 2005), compared to the international average, Hungarian
teachers participate in further trainings which facilitate their professional development


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through experiences (class visits in other schools, participation in professional networks,
research and development activities, visiting external partners) in a lower proportion.
Although experts believe that these have the largest impact on the everyday practice of
teachers and encourage them to implement effective innovations, the number of in-
service trainings of this type is very low (Jelentés, 2006).

Regarding the in-service training of teachers, trainers and other learning facilitators
working in CVET provided outside the school system, there have been no representative
surveys made concerning the innovative pedagogies used in their training. HRD OP
project 3.5.1. serves the further training of the instructors and learning facilitators of
various types of training institutions through developing in-service training materials and
providing further training programmes.

NEW SKILLS AND COMPETENCES TO BE MASTERED BY VET TEACHERS AND TRAINERS

In order to use innovative pedagogies in IVET, teachers and trainers have to master
several new competences which were formerly not considered important. Professional
competences expected from practitioners can vary depending on the institution and the
professional field, but the most important competences are defined also in the 15/2006.
(IV.3.) decree of the minister of education on the training and outcome requirements of
undergraduate and master level training programmes. Pursuant to this, the teacher has
to be able to:

     develop the personality of the student;
     assist, improve the development of student groups, communities;
     plan the pedagogical process;
     develop the knowledge, skills and competences of students using her/his
     professional knowledge;
     effectively develop competences making the foundation for lifelong learning;
     organize and manage the learning process;
     apply the various tools of pedagogical assessment;
     engage in professional cooperation and communication; and
     be devoted to professional development and self-education.

This decree has summarized also the training and outcome requirements of (BSc level)
vocational trainer training programmes preparing for instructing practical training and the
educational activity. This training programme is an important operational element of that
innovative approach which moves secondary level VET and thus the training of trainers in
a competence- and activity-oriented direction. That is, its objective on the one hand is to
develop practical professional knowledge and competences which can be made to match
well the vocations listed in the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési
Jegyzék, OKJ), and besides, to deliver basic pedagogical-psychological and
methodological knowledge necessary to conduct vocational practical training, and also to
prepare vocational trainers to be able to obtain the teacher qualification, based on their
professional and pedagogical studies.

The following list of competences to be mastered by CVET teachers and trainers has been
made on the basis of interviews with directors of regional training centres and teacher
training department heads of higher education institutions, conducted by the Observatory
of Educational Development. Although the presence of these competences would be
desirable also in the case of IVET instructors, in the work of CVET teachers and trainers
there is highlighted need for:

     lifelong learning skills to maintain up-to-date practical knowledge;
     ability to build on prior knowledge and experience;
     adaptation skill;


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     ability to develop a partner relationship.

Based on national expert studies, this list can be supplemented with the following
competences:

     preserve and improve the ability to develop in professional activity;
     serendipity: the ability to find valuable things where they do not seem feasible
     (Kálmán, 2005);
     skills to plan training programmes on the basis of the survey of training needs;
     to select and develop training materials;
     to apply educational methods adequately;
     to assess and develop the individual participating in the training (Antalovits, 2005).

CHANGES IN THE ROLE OF VET TEACHERS AND TRAINERS DUE TO THE INTRODUCTION OF
INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES


In the past two decades, but especially since the change of the political system,
relations of teachers/trainers-students-parents, of instructors with each other and with
the educational administration have changed fundamentally. In the period preceding the
change of the system, teachers and trainers had to meet a role expectation including a
classical authoritarian teacher model that can provide a moral-professional example for
students. Since the 1990s, however, the autonomy, responsibility and range of tasks of
teachers/trainers have widened – without getting preparation for meeting the various
expectations. This was combined with gradual decrease in the level of financial and
social respect, which concerns mainly teachers of vocational schools training the most
disadvantaged students with the weakest abilities.

In addition to the tasks of education, career counselling and administration,
teachers/trainers also play increasingly varied expert and manager roles due to their
tasks related to the development of vocational and subject programmes and the
operation of the quality management and improvement system.

Hungarian VET is currently characterized by the gradual transformation of the general
pedagogical approach: however, replacing concepts focusing in the delivery of
knowledge, the dominance of the teacher and passive learning by new alternatives is a
long process. The new objectives and methods of education and training offer new roles
also for teachers/trainers: depending on the situation, these can be skills developing,
mentor, mediator, trainer or tutor roles. The application of information technological
tools in education can extend to information technological, digital training material
development activities as well. The changed atmosphere and objectives of education
can also make it easier for the teacher/trainer to play a counselling role, occasionally
that of a psychologist, which has increasingly been pushed in the background due to the
many different expectations, but which is in many cases an indispensable condition of
effective teaching.

The roles listed above are very complex, involving many different challenges and
opportunities, but at the same time they also put an extra burden on the teachers and
trainers of vocational training schools. An area of intervention of priority 5 (Adaptation
of a new teaching/learning culture) of the Lifelong Learning Strategy accepted in 2005 is
the creation of new teacher roles, and in order to achieve it, the strategy sets as an
objective to implement the following steps:

     enhance the ability of teachers for self-development;
     transform groups of teachers/trainers into real “learning organizations”;
     improve professional-methodological further trainings, paying special attention to
     the needs of vocational trainers and adult trainers.


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0705 INNOVATIONS IN ASSESSMENT

There have been significant developments concerning the renewal of the professional
(outcome) requirements and curricula of vocational education and training in the past
years, aiming at the introduction of modularized and competence-based training (see
sections 0702 and 0703). The renewal and adaptation to reformed content of the
methods of student assessment and the system of vocational examination are as well
important policy objectives, addressed in several state financed development
programmes.

State recognized vocational qualifications listed in the National Qualifications Register
(Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) can be obtained upon passing a uniformly regulated
state vocational examination (szakmai vizsga) in VET both within and outside the school
system. The rules of the vocational examination are specified in the professional and
examination requirements of the vocational qualification published in ministerial decrees
which define the parts (written, practical, oral), duration, content and mode of
assessment of the examination. However, the written and oral parts of the examination
are currently knowledge-oriented, mostly expecting the reproduction of knowledge from
the participant. In the case of some vocational qualifications (e.g. hairdresser) the
preparedness of students is assessed also in concrete examination situations at the
professional practical exam which is thus indeed complex and suitable to measure
practical competences as well. Preparing an ‘examination piece’ (vizsgaremek) – which
has a long tradition in Hungarian VET – also appears in the examination regulations of
some vocational qualifications (e.g. carpenter), and with its complexity it testifies the
attainment of the student. The examination piece is assessed as a project work.

In the general practice of school-based VET the various functions of assessment:
diagnostic (status analysing), formative (developing) and summative (finalizing-
qualifying) assessment are often mixed up, and its qualifying function dominates. Due to
Hungarian educational traditions, the widespread and prevailing form of student
assessment is giving marks (on a five-graded scale). The primary function of giving
marks during the school year and awarding final grades at the end of the term and of the
school year is to motivate students, report about progress. In continuing vocational
education and training (in adult training) this function is less important since the
participants are more motivated here. In this training form the developing function of
assessment, supporting preparation for the examination, is already more significant.

In recent years innovative measurement-assessment methods and tools have begun to
spread in VET as a consequence of internal professional innovation, the extension of the
use of innovative pedagogies. In some vocational training schools (szakképző iskolák)
and even more frequently in adult training the application of self-assessment, softwares
for electronic assessment linked to the use of e-learning and digital syllabi, assessment
of projects suitable for group assessment, or the assessment of individual work
(performance of complex tasks: short presentations, research, independent problem
solving, individual projects, practical tasks, portfolios) have already appeared. In
practical training provided at the workplace, complex assessment of professional
competences, and the organisation of intermediary or ‘level’ exams to measure students’
attainment upon completing grounding training in school-based VET are becoming more
common. (The procedural regulations of level exams and a related database of
examination exercises have been developed by the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce
and Industry, Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara, MKIK, in those 16 vocations whose
professional and examination requirements, szakmai és vizsgakövetelmények, were
reviewed by the chamber in 2004, see section 0702).

The need of developing the methodology of student measurement-assessment in line
with the introduction of modular and competence-developing training prioritized by


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education policy is emphasized by the Strategy of the Development of Vocational
Education and Training 2005-2013: “focusing on the development of key competences
presupposes the comprehensive renewal of the methodological culture of institutions and
the teaching staff, which will serve among others: […] the further development of
student assessment and in general of the system of assessment and measurement”. The
Strategy furthermore states that “in order to increase learner activity, innovative
learning-teaching methods, techniques have to be applied (project, following up student
attainment by a portfolio, by various forms of self-assessment, etc.)”.

The improvement of assessment and examination requirements is urged by the Strategy
of the Government of the Hungarian Republic for lifelong learning (2005), according to
which “an important pillar of strengthening learning bases is the consistent use of new
learning methods as part of assessment and examination requirements, and the setting
up of independent examination centres” which may induce real change in shifting
priorities of educational content and methodology towards novel competences. The LLL
Strategy states that “in the past decades examination requirements (school leaving and
vocational related) primarily targeted acquired knowledge with less emphasis on skills
and competences”, therefore, ”as part of the latter, more effort should be exerted in
measuring learning skills and key competences”.

The development of a new system and institutional structure of vocational examination is
prescribed by the 1057/2005. (V. 31.) government resolution on the Measures necessary
for the implementation of the strategy of the development of VET since “the official
recognition of prior learning of whatever form must be ensured, and furthermore it must
be guaranteed that competences certified by the certificate issued at the vocational
examination mirror real attainment”. In order to achieve this goal, pursuant to the
governmental resolution, a regional institutional network ensuring the operation of a
system of vocational examination independent from the training providers must be
established, and as a first step, “in order to increase the independence of examination,
the right of the organizer of the examination to propose the president of the examination
must be abolished” and “the president’s role in the examination and monitoring process
must be strengthened”. The proposal of the conceptual restructuring of the system of
vocational examination has been developed by the National Institute of Vocational and
Adult Education with the cooperation of external experts (see Regionális szakmai
vizsgaközpont hálózat …, 2007).

Achieving the goals defined in the above strategies has in the past years been supported
also by two large-scale central development programmes. In the 1st phase of the
Vocational School Development Programme (2003-2006) the “measurement-evaluation
project” was one of the thematic projects supporting the general components of the
programme, offering assistance for institutions providing school-based VET. The 90
vocational schools (szakiskola) participating in the programme received expert and
training support through which they learnt and used up-to-date measuring, assessment
methods, learnt about the method of curriculum analysis, designing measuring tools,
various assessment methods, and received professional assistance to apply narrative
assessment in VET. The programme has founded the system of test question banks and
an inventory of measuring tools in these institutions. In order to measure competences,
measuring tools were created and a concept of examination developed which instead of
former knowledge-oriented measurement put the emphasis on assessing competences at
the end of the 10th grade. The test sheets of the basic examination have been developed
for 10 general and 19 pre-vocational subjects. In addition, measurement-assessment
groups (mérési-értékelési csoportok, MÉCS) have been set up which became the
methodological basis of institutional evaluation.

Within the framework of Vocational School Development Programme II, 70 schools could
start the work in 2006. The importance of measurement-assessment is testified by the
fact that in this phase it appeared as an independent field in the programme, along with

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the general components. A call for tenders to create measuring tools was announced in
order to support the development of measurement-assessment databases created in the
schools which received training and expert support for the implementation. Within the
framework of the programme, in September 2006 an input competence measurement
was organized among vocational school students in areas important also in VET but
usually inadequately measured:

    communication (reading, comprehension, wording, framing, phrasing);
    social competences (self-drive, sense of reality, rationality, sensitivity, social
    extensivity, legitimacy, conflict resolution, empathy, initiative, self-management,
    self-esteem, problem sensitivity, taking responsibility)
    problem solving (understanding, describing, solving the problem, presenting the
    solution)
    rule observation (recognition of rules, observing rules, rule selection, making rules).

To assess competences, a piece of software has been developed which permits entering
and recording data in schools, supports subsequent analysis and the comparison and
even the national processing of data. The computer programme provides a personal
narrative report concerning a given competence of the student on the basis of entered
data and makes suggestions regarding her/his development.

The comprehensive modernisation of the structure, content and methodology of
vocational education and training is the goal of Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources
Development Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National Development Plan
governing the use of EU Structural Funds assistance. Through the introduction of the new
structure of the National Qualifications Register (OKJ) and the renewed professional and
examination requirements of state recognized vocational qualifications developed within
the framework of the development programme, knowledge-based content regulation will
be replaced by a modular, competence-based regulation in VET both within the outside
the school system (see section 0702), and as a consequence, the system of examination
and students assessment will as well be transformed.

Competence based education to be introduced on the basis of the new OKJ and outcome
requirements requires new, innovative pedagogical and related assessment methods to
be used by VET teachers, trainers. Competence based education emphasizes the role of
the teacher/instructor as facilitator: the requirements are not based on knowledge but
specify competences, the participants make progress at their own pace, individual
learning paths can be planned, ensuring transferability becomes easier, frequent
feedbacks are built in the process, the improvement of students’ competences is
assessed by tests.

The professional and examination requirements of vocational qualifications listed in the
OKJ define the outcome requirements of training, i.e., the professional, method, social
and personal competences to be mastered by the participants (see 070203 section), and
the requirements of examination the most important elements of which are:

    Preconditions of taking the vocational examination (certificate attesting completion
    of the last grade in IVET, module closing exams, completion of practical training,
    etc.).
    Parts of the vocational examination linked to professional requirement modules
    (examination activities, their form - written, oral, practical, complex, interactive
    (computer-based) -, duration and proportion).
    Weight of each examination part in the whole of the exam.
    Rules of exemption from a part of the examination.
    Rules of assessment of the vocational examination different from those defined in
    the vocational examination regulations (szakmai vizsgaszabályzat).


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New vocational examination regulations will also be developed in the near future adapted
to the new structure and content of VET.

The structure of state recognized vocational qualifications in Hungary is determined by
the OKJ, and the most important element of learning outcome based regulation is that
defined in the professional and examination requirements and the related uniform
examination regulations of the 26/2001. (VII. 27.) decree of the Minister of Education on
the general rules and procedure of the vocational examination, effective in VET both
within and outside the school system. These documents defining the qualifications
standards have been renewed through defining learning outcomes in competences in
each vocational qualifications of the OKJ within the framework of the above mentioned
HRD OP 3.2.1. central programme. The renewal of the OKJ was based on the analysis of
the current employment structure and occupations/jobs (see section 070203), thus the
new OKJ includes some formerly missing vocational qualifications providing access to
new occupations which have emerged in the past years due to innovation, scientific and
technological progress, such as ‘CAD-CAM programmer’, ‘Web programmer’, ‘CT, MRI
special assistant’ or ‘Rehabilitation activities therapeutist’.

The methodological guidelines of developing OKJ qualifications are developed by the
National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési és
Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI), and the uniform formal requirements of developing the
professional and examination requirements are defined in the 1/2006. (VII.5.) decree of
the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour. The process of developing these vocational
qualifications is regulated by the 1/2006. (II.17.) decree of the Minister of Education
which specifies the documents to be presented as attesting the relevance of the content
of the proposed qualification as well as the professional and interest representative
organisations (including the social partners) participating in the review process of the
proposals (see section 070202).

Although continuing vocational education and training (adult training) does not
necessarily award a state recognized OKJ qualification, this sector is as well mainly
learning outcome-regulated. In the case of accredited training programmes, learning
outcome based regulation is ensured by the accreditation process (see section 070501).

 070501     INNOVATIONS IN EVALUATION AND QUALITY MONITORING

 QUALITY MONITORING     OF THE PROCESSES OF ANTICIPATING SKILL NEEDS AND DEVELOPING
 QUALIFICATIONS


 The currently only regularly conducted anticipation of skill needs activity in Hungary is
 preparing short-term labour market prognoses by the Public Employment Service
 (Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat, ÁFSZ), the quality assurance of which is provided by
 the internal regulations of the Employment and Social Office (Foglalkoztatási és
 Szociális Hivatal, see section 070102).

 The development of state recognized vocational qualifications (those listed in the
 National Qualifications Register, Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) and job profiles is
 assisted by the methodological guidelines developed by the National Institute of
 Vocational and Adult Education (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet, NSZFI),
 and the process of creating a new, modifying or deleting a current vocational
 qualification, including the specification of the professional and interest representative
 organisations participating in it, is regulated by the 1/2006. (II.17.) decree of the
 Minister of Education (see section 070202). This process has been considerably
 simplified and shortened recently as part of the OKJ development implemented within
 the framework of Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources Development Operational
 Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National Development Plan governing the use of EU


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Structural Funds assistance. As a consequence and due to the new modular structure of
the OKJ the prompt reaction of the qualification structure to the changes in labour
market needs can be ensured without violating the stability and transparency of the
system.

EVALUATION   OF INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES APPLIED IN            VET –     QUALITY ASSURANCE AND
EVALUATION OF PROGRAMMES AND INSTITUTIONS


VET within the school system

The quality assurance system of initial vocational education and training provided within
the school system is regulated by Act LXXIX of 1993 on Public Education in the case of
vocational training schools being part of public education, while the framework of the
quality assurance of higher educations providing higher level VET is defined by Act
CXXXIX of 2005 on Higher Education.

Higher education

The quality of training provided in higher education institutions is assessed by the
Hungarian Higher Education Accreditation Committee (Magyar Felsőoktatási
Akkreditációs Bizottság, MAB). The MAB, however, checks only compliance with
regulations concerning the human resources, organisational and infrastructural
conditions of training provision, and the accomplishment of the quality development
programme (based on a field visit by a Visiting Board and the preparation of a self-
evaluation report by the higher education institution) during its monitoring process
conducted at least once in every 8 years. In addition, some institutions follow up the
labour market status of their graduates on an ad hoc or a more regular basis, and the
Ministry of Education has several times surveyed the career path of young graduates
within the framework of a national project (FIDÉV, see also section 070103), in order to
evaluate the relation between training and labour market needs.

Public education

Pursuant to the Act on Public education, in vocational training schools being part of
public education the teacher/trainer has the right to choose the methodology of
teaching based on the pedagogical programme. The law provides for developing a
quality management system in every public education institution, which defines its
quality policy and quality improvement systems, its work processes and the
implementation of tasks related to management, planning, controlling, measurement
and evaluation. The programme has to be made public, and its execution is assessed
annually by the teachers and parents whose report is sent to the maintainer of the
institution. In implementing the quality management programme, the results of
national measurements and evaluations relating to the institution have to be taken into
account. In their regular self-evaluations, several VET schools survey the satisfaction of
their partners with their education services, labour market needs and the satisfaction of
employers with VET graduates. Many institutions also follow up the career path of their
graduates as part of their self-evaluation.

In public education the school principal is responsible for the professional and lawful
operation of the institution, the quality of pedagogical work, and the implementation of
the controlling, measurement, evaluation and quality assurance programme. Pursuant
to the 2003 amendment of the Act on Public education, the maintainer of the school has
to evaluate the efficiency and quality of education provided in the institution at least
once in every four years, but the professional work may be assessed only by experts
listed in the National Register of Experts (Országos szakértői névjegyzék) or in the
National Register of Vocational Experts (Országos szakmai szakértői névjegyzék). Due


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to the highly decentralised structure of public education, however, reliable general
methods and procedures for assuring and continuously monitoring the quality of
education have not been developed, and as surveys show, school maintainers tend to
focus on evaluating compliance with the legal, financial and administrative regulations,
and professional evaluations are conducted only on an ad hoc basis.

The supervision (checking compliance with legal requirements) of practical training
provided at an enterprise in VET within the school system is the duty of the relevant
local chamber of economy (in cooperation with the vocational training school,
szakképző iskola). In case the enterprise wants to apply for the reimbursement of its
costs related to training provision from the training sub-fund of the Labour Market Fund
(Munkaerő-piaci Alap), it must have the certificate of the chamber which can be
obtained through a deeper accreditation process examining also the organisation and
methodology of the training (for more information, see Detailed Thematic Analysis:
Initial vocational education and training, section 04040203).

VET within the school system

In continuing vocational education and training, in adult training, participants can
obtain not state-recognised qualifications, certificates as well, in addition to OKJ
qualifications. In the case of these qualifications, a quality assurance mechanism is
provided by the voluntary accreditation of adult training programmes regulated by the
22/2004. (II.16.) governmental decree and the 24/2004. (VI.22.) decree of the Minister
of Employment and Labour. Programme accreditation can be obtained for 3-5 years
depending on the peculiarities of the programme, and its possession is a precondition of
applying for state subsidies (and is increasingly a marketing asset as well). During the
accreditation of a training programme, the Adult Training Accreditation Body
(Felnőttképzési Akreditációs Testület, FAT) examines with the help of an expert group
whether the programme is adequate for the training objectives and requirements, is
realizable, and whether its content and methodology are adequate to the pedagogical
requirements.

The likewise voluntary accreditation of adult training institutions regulated by the above
mentioned decrees aims to check and validate the quality of training provision and
other adult training services of the institution, and regulations concerning its
management and decision-making processes. Accreditation of institutions thus means
ultimately a quality assurance system based on self-assessment that includes the
definition of quality targets and the elaboration and operation of an evaluation system.
Accredited providers have to prepare a self-assessment report every year prior to the
approval of annual training plans, based on a self-assessment system approved by their
professional advisory board (involving representatives of professional and other
organisations involved in training), and they have to define their quality targets based
on this report. In their self-assessment, institutions assess the effectiveness of the work
of   their    instructors    and    of  the     training,  the    efficiency   of    applied
pedagogical/andragogical methods, as well as the satistfaction of the participants and
organisations involved in the training.

Development initiatives

In order to improve the quality of school-based VET, in the 1st and 2nd phase of the
national Development Programme for Vocational Training Schools (Szakiskolai
Fejlesztési Program, SZFP) launched in 2003 altogether 160 VET schools started to
apply the EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) Model based Self-
assessment Model for VET Schools (Szakképzési Önértékelési Modell, SZÖM) and
initiated developments based on the results of self-assessment. A system of 40 key
indicators has been developed including the most important indicators of IVET which


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were incorporated in the results criteria of the self-assessment model (SZÖM).
Expanding the group of key indicators with further indicators, an Internet-based
Benchmarking database was established which institutions can use on a voluntary and
anonymous basis to compare their performance with others, support their
improvements, and share best practices. In order to make the results comparable and
comparative analysis possible, an interpretation-calculation guideline has also been
developed for the benchmarking database which ensures the uniform interpretation and
calculation of the indicators. Data are important not only to the institutions but can be
employed for substantiating education policy decision-making as well. Within the
framework of the programme a uniform follow-up and career tracking system will also
be developed, based on the best practices of the institutions.

The working group for the quality development of vocational education and training at
European level set up by the Eureopan Committee developed in 2003-2004 the
Common Quality Assurance Framework (CQAF) to be applied in VET at European level,
the adaptation of which was prescribed by the 1057/2005. (V. 31.) government
resolution on the Measures necessary for the implementation of the strategy of the
development of VET. As a result of national quality development work, Hungarian
experts participated in the EU working group and are members of the European
Network on Quality Assurance in VET continuing the work of this working group. Within
the framework of SZFP II – in line with the objectives of the Strategy of the
Development of VET – a Hungarian VET Quality Assurance Framework (Szakképzési
Minőségbiztosítási Keretrendszer, MSZBK) is being developed based on the CQAF. The
MSZBK is planned to be gradually adaptated for each school type of VET provided
within the school system, for adult training as well as for higher level VET (felsőfokú
szakképzés). In 2007, among the first in Europe, the MSZBK model will be piloted in a
large number of vocational schools which will receive methodological support for its
implementation.




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0706   INNOVATIONS IN GUIDANCE AND COUNCELLING


INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGIES USED IN THE TRAINING OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
PRACTITIONERS


Career guidance and counselling may currently be provided in Hungary in various fields
and institutions (public education, higher education, adult training, institutions of the
Public Employment Service, Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat/ÁFSZ, etc.). The
qualifications required from the practitioners of these different institutions providing
career counselling are regulated in varying ways, and having a specific career counselling
qualification is not in every case required (see Thematic Overview, section 0903).

The training of employment counsellors is available in Hungary only from the beginning
of the 1990s. Training was launched in Spetember 1992 by World Bank support at the
Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences of the Gödöllő University of Agricultural
Sciences (Gödöllői Agrártudományi Egyetem/GATE, predecessor of present-day Szent
István University) as a college-level training programme of six semesters which issued
the first employment counsellor BA degree in 1995. The aim of the programme is to train
practitioners capable of providing appropriate information and assistance tailored to
individual needs in career choice and job search, thus assisting the individual professional
socialization process.

The training of employer counsellors is built on a requirement system the completion of
which ensures that graduates will have interdisciplinary knowledge, a complex approach
and good counselling skills. The training focuses on preparing students for problem
solving and mastering professional competences which build on the individual’s
commitment, trustworthiness and clarified values more than usual. That is, the training
ultimately provides experience based personality development which offers a model for
subsequent counselling work.

During the six semesters of the training programme theoretical and practical classes are
roughly distributed evenly, practical training covering about one third of the duration of
training. There are more practical lessons primarily in the subjects of information
technology, counselling and career description. The training involves on-the-job training,
students spend several weeks at the labour organisation or at nonprofit organisations
from the first semester.

The training is closed by a final examination where both practical skills and theoretical
knowledge are assessed. The exam involves the presentation of a tape record of an
individual counselling session and its documentation, as well as the defense of the
diploma work.

In 1996 PhD training was launched in the field of counselling in the cooperation of Szent
István University and Eötvös Loránd Science University. Pursuant to Hungarian
regulations, however, the precondition of entering PhD training is having a master
degree, but employment counsellor training currently awards only a bachelor degree.

Besides employment counsellor training, the Ministry of Education established the career
orientation teacher training in 1999 upon the initiation of GATE. Currently career
orientation teacher training programmes are offered at several teacher training colleges,
and since 2000 this qualification can also be obtained in postgraduate training at the
Szent István University. The methodology of training is similar to that of counsellor
training, but its aim is primarily to train professionals assisting the career choice of
students studying in public education (the National Core Curriculum ensures about one
hour per week to provide career guidance from the 7th grade, and a part of the form-
master’s classes can also be dedicated to support career choice from the 5th grade).


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In addition to the above training programmes, career counselling specialisation can be
obtained in psychologist training. These professionals deal with similar matters as
employer counsellors and career orientation teachers, but they are also entitled to handle
cases when the individual needs psychological assistance besides counselling to solve
her/his problem. Furthermore, consultant psychologists apply methods in problem
solving different than those used by counsellors.

In the recent years several career guidance and counselling projects (e.g. of the career
orientation project of the Vocational School Development Programme, see below)
involved practitioner training with varying content, target group and duration. However,
the common features of all these projects were that they developed their own curricula
for the training programmes, the duration of which was considerably shorter than that of
higher education training programmes, and which focused much more exclusively on the
subject of counselling.

THE PRACTICE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN HUNGARY IN TERMS OF NEW LEARNING
OPPORTUNITIES AND NEW QUALIFICATIONS AND JOB PROFILES


Self-information systems gain an increasing role in ensuring the accessibility of
information in the practice of Hungarian career guidance in both public education and
adult training. Several such self-information systems have been launched recently and
others are currently being developed. Such systems include among others:

     In three Eastern-Hungarian regions, within the framework of PHARE projects
     entitled „Supporting transition from training into the world of work” coordinated by
     the labour centres, the training databases and labour market information of the
     region as well as a self-awareness development programme, programme package
     assisting the planning of career and choosing a training field have become available
     on     the   Internet    (see   http://www.epalya.hu/,     http://www.palyainfo.hu/,
     http://www.palyatars.hu).
     Within the framework of Measure 3.5.1. of the Human Resources Development
     Operational Programme (HRD OP) of the I. National Development Plan (NDP)
     governing the use of EU Structural Funds assistance in the period of 2004-2006
     (Development and application of up-to-date adult training methods) a
     comprehensive information system is currently being developed which will contain
     up-to-date information on training providers and programmes of adult training and
     will offer various services to training participants and those planning to enter
     training.
     The establishment of information databanks and an open self-information system
     have begun within the framework of the modernisation of Public Employment
     Service (see below).
     Other Internet based self-information systems are also being developed such as the
     National    Career    Information   Centre    (http://www.npk.hu/public/index.php),
     TANINFO (http://www.taninfo.hu/), or SULINET (http://www.sulinet.hu/tart/kat/R).
     These systems aim to create databases that contain nationwide information, but the
     quality of elaboration and extent of uploaded data is varying and often there are
     overlaps between these developments. Resources for the development and
     maintenance of these information systems are not in every case available.

INNOVATIVE METHODS USED FOR DEVELOPING GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING MECHANISMS/
PRACTICES


Improvement of the services of the Public Employment Service within the framework of
HRD OP Measure 1.2.




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The modernisation of the employment service supported by EU Structural Funds
assistance involves the further development of the service model developed in a former
PHARE project and introduced in 20 labour centre branches (munkaügyi központ
kirendeltség) based on the model of the Danish and Swedish modernisation process, and
the introduction of this model in 60 further branches. A fundamental feature of the new
system is the creation of highly developed information systems and databases at the
labour centre branches, which are made easily accessible and open to jobseekers,
unemployed people and employers alike.

This open information system requires the structural reform of the labour centres as self-
service and self-information areas have to be built at most of the branches. When an
unemployed person or a jobseeker visits the branch, the first step will be to record
her/his curriculum vitae by her/himself (the registration of those entitled for
unemployment benefits is also based on this curriculum vitae). The CVs will be uploaded
into a CV database following a general review. The online available CV programme
consists of a huge database, is user-friendly, and provides an opportunity to upload data
also from home. Employers will be able to record data in the database of jobs (unfilled
positions, jobs, job advertisements), some parts of which will be controlled by the
branches before data are uploaded into the database. A similar open database is planned
to be created of the training programmes. Clients would spend 5-10 minutes at the
“standing”, and 25-30 minutes at the “sitting” computers.

Another element of the branch structure is case management, i.e., the creation of a
cooperation plan with motivated clients, job mediation, interviewing, directing into
training and active labour market tools. The third step is counselling during which the
counsellor provides assistance for those who are less active and in a more problematic
position, among others on the basis of information derived from the short term labour
market prognoses.

Development of career guidance and counselling provided in public education

Career-building competence development within the framework of HRD OP Measure 3.1.

The first comprehensive development in Hungary concerning the institutional system
aiming at the improvement of key competences in general education in order to make
the foundation for lifelong learning was launched within the framework of HRD OP
Measure 3.1. The 6 competence fields to be developed includes career building
competence (besides reading-comprehension, mathematical logic, foreign language, ICT,
and social-environment-lifestyle). In the present stage of implementation, about 10% of
the institutions get involved through tendering and the grounding, development of this
competence field in the whole period of public education is introduced on a manadatory
basis in these institutions. Currently new educational programme packages are being
tested in 120 schools, in 497 study groups, with the involvement of 12.500 students. In
the remaining time of this tendering period, until 2008 more than 1000 public education
institutions, 15.000 teachers, and around 250.000 children, students, are planned to be
involved in the programme. Within the framework of HRD OP 3.1.1. central programme a
professional concept has been developed to be piloted which may serve as the basis of
providing education in the career building competence field in the 1st-6th grades as well
as of the preparation of teachers for this task.

In the period of NDP 2 (2007-2013) dissemination will continue and a student follow-up
system will also be created which will provide further data concerning career guidance as
well. The plan will involve a proposal supporting the realization of lifelong guidance which
urges the construction of a comprehensive career information system. The objective is to
harmonize it with the existing and successfully operating systems of the labour



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organisation. In order to achieve this, inter-ministerial consultation has started to get
prepared for the planning period and develop the documentation.

Developing career orientation within the framework of Vocational School Development
Programme (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program, SZFP) I

Within the framework of SZFP I. implemented in the period of 2003-2006 supported from
national funds, important innovative developments took place in order to improve career
orientation provided in vocational schools (szakiskola). The framework curriculum of
vocational school effective from 2000 permits providing career orientation in two forms in
the 9th (general education) grade: as an independent subject in 74 study hours per year,
or linked to vocational orientation in 198 study hours. The various activities of SZFP I –
competence based curriculum development, in-service teacher trainings, presentation of
vocations available in the schools of the target group from various aspects, providing
opportunity for the exchange of experiences at regional conferences – aimed at
increasing students’ level of motivation in career guidance activities, so that they would
enter vocational education and training in the 11th grade based on better grounding, self-
awareness and career information training, as a result of conscious career choice. The
development activities of the project paid special attention to the demonstrated
motivation deficit, the prevalence of school failure experiences, and the high number of
drop-outs among vocational school students.

The objective of curriculum development implemented within the framework of the
project was to deepen the self-awareness and develop the social and key competences
and career awareness of students. In order to achieve this, the following tools have been
developed:

     Students workbook and a related teacher handbook: Curriculum development
     (available in electronic – on the Internet and CD – and printed forms) for providing
     training in the subject of career orientation in the 9th grade in 74 study hours per
     year granted by version „A” of the framework curriculum of vocational school of
     2000, with students and teacher versions, as well as educational background
     materials, syllabuses and methodological recommendations. In the student
     workbook, the subjects of career guidance such as the history of the school and
     career choice, competences, interest, or work style, have been developed with an
     educational organisation and methodological approach different from those applied
     before. The curriculum makes students analyse personality traits that are of
     outstanding importance in the world of work, and due to learning, text
     comprehension problems often experienced in vocational schools, it involves a topic
     entitled “Where and how do I learn?”, linked to the subject matter examining work
     styles. Strenghts of this activity include the multiple aspect based approach of
     career orientation, such as drawing a parallel between and linking subjects “How I
     learn, how I work” through which the outlook of students can be widened, their
     consciousness developed, as thus more conscious career choice can be ensured. A
     further opportunity in curriculum development is compiling vocations, occupations
     mentioned or mentionable in various general education subjects which can be used
     to improve the career awareness of students as well as to increase cooperation
     between the teachers of the school.
     Career information films: 9-10 minutes long films have been made presenting
     altogether 34 vocations and 1 occupational group (szakmacsoport), together with a
     methodological handbook assisting the provision of sessions.
     Multimedia CD: The objective of the development of the CD was to support
     vocational school students in various ways through multimedia tools to get a better
     picture about themselves: their partial skills, key competences, psychological traits
     related to the world of work, in order to choose a vocation or an occupation. Results
     obtained by using the CD can be recorded and compared with the results of
     subsequent use. The multimedia CD can be used in career orientation activities with

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   teacher guidance, individual results may be analysed in small groups (and the
   groups profile can also be composed), but students can also use it independently.
   All these activities develop the self-definition and cooperations skills of students and
   comtribute to community building. The content of the electronic curriculum involves
   three large structural elements: self-assessment tools, training and occupation
   parts. (As its antecedent, a so-called Vocation map CD was developed to be piloted
   which presented some vocational qualifications of the commercial-marketing
   occupation group and the related occupations with diverse content on a graphical
   face, with hyperlinks, competence based vocation presentations, activity
   descriptions as well as the presentation of competences required by these
   vocations, making also the comparison of vocational qualifications possible.)
   Framework curriculum of career orientation: Further development of the framework
   curriculum of the 9th grade of vocational schools, supplemented with a proposal of
   competence development. The development approach aimed to relate to the
   competence development demands of general education subjects, the incorporation
   of new methods with project ideas/topics (in cooperation with other subject fields in
   the implementation), as well as the creation of inter-subject modules. In its
   structure the framework curricula developed assigns an important role to an
   evaluation system based on three pillars of the assessment of the individual by
   her/himself, the fellow students and the teacher. The results of student activity in
   the topics of each module are recorded in a so-called individual portfolio. By the end
   of the period a personal portfolio is created independently by every student. To
   work out the topics, individual, small group and teacher moderation aided activities:
   comparison and discussion in a smaller/larger circle of the results of collections,
   self-assessment procedures and questionnaire-based surveys are recommended.
   The framework curriculum proposes the continuation of training in these subject
   matters also in the 10th grade as entitled ‘career building skills’, within the
   framework of the subject of career grounding (in 72 study hours per year).

An important precondition of successfully implementing the enhanced framework
curriculum of career orientation is changing the attitude and methodology of teachers
providing career orientation; providing moderation, feedback and individual consultation
beyond classes. Accordingly, SZFP I paid special emphasis on the further training of
teachers. A three-day-long workshop, then a 30-hour accredited in-service teacher
training programme awarding a ‘career orientation consultant’ certificate aimed to
increase awareness concerning the content of career orientation, present the curriculum
and teaching aids developed in the project, and develop the methodology used by
teachers through applying group work based on individual experiences. Furthermore, in
order to improve presentation skills and moderation techniques, four moderation and
presentation trainings were also organised.




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0707   THE EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION


Since the mid-1990s Hungary as an associate member of the European Union has
actively participated in the system of cooperation which aimed to reform the main
directions of community educational policy, and it took a number of practical steps to
take over or adapt to the national framework its principles. In law making and strategic
planning the sectoral administration becoming more familiar with European processes
has used the knowledge accumulated in the think tanks of the EU and the OECD.
Educational policy planning related to the Lisbon process was ongoing already in parallel
in member states and Hungary which was only an associate member in 2001-2002. In
2004 Hungary became a member of full rights of the Union which, in addition to
increasing the influence of community policy making, also made the substantial sources
of the Structural Funds available. A not insignificant part of these sources have been and
will also in the near future be allocated for the skill and competence development of the
population and the promotion of pedagogical innovations.

The so-called Copenhagen process, then the launch of Education and Training 2010 Work
programme have given new impetus to initiatives aiming to modernise Hungarian
education and training with a competence-based approach. The Hungarian ministerial
representatives and experts of the VET sector are represented in the Education and
Training Coordination Group (ETCG) and participate in the national expert groups of the
clusters of learning outcomes, ICT, key competences and lifelong learning.

In 2005 two comprehensive strategic documents were enacted which demonstrated the
commitment of Hungary to the education and training priorities of the Community and its
intention to transplant those priorities in the practice of national policy. These strategies
harmonized also with each other have furthermore specified the framework of
participation in the community and national level implementation of these policies as well
as the policy and practical (legal, financial-budgetary) regulation conditions required for
their execution.

The Strategy of the Development of Vocational Education and Training 2005-2013
prescribes the implementation of concrete tasks by defined deadlines, in line with the
most important VET, employment and cohesion policy objectives of the European Union.
The action plan involved in this strategy (1057/2005. (V.31.) governmental resolution)
defines the concrete tasks of implementing the ultimate objectives of European VET
policy – primarily those stated in the Coppenhagen Declaration of 2002 and the
Maastricht Communique: transparency, transferability, quality assurance, recognition of
vocational qualifications, information and guidance, the European dimension.

The Strategy of the Government of the Hungarian Republic for lifelong learning
(September 2005) defines the main principles, objectives and development directions of
the strategy of the development of lifelong learning adapted to Hungarian social and
economic needs, based on the European paradigm of LLL and the national conditions,
development needs. Point 8 of the action plan (2212/2005. (X.13.) government
resolution) of this strategy which specifies the guidelines of government policy regarding
human resources development in the period up to 2013 aims to enhance more flexible
transfer between vocational programmes and their better building on each other through
modularisation, developing a competence card system, and moving towards a credit
system. Point 10 aims to spread effective educational methods and learning management
systems through promoting ICT. Point 12 highlights the improvement of teachers’
methodological culture to support the development of key competences. Priorities and
measures related to these elements appear in the major policy documents of the 2007-
2013 planning period, in the New Hungary Development Plan and the Social Renewal
Operational Programme, allocating substantial resources from the Structural Funds for
the realization of these objectives.


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Already within the framework of the I. National Development Plan governing the use of
Structural Funds assistance in the period of 2004-2006 considerable sources were
allocated for the above objectives. The principles, content, structure and composition of
the National Qualifications Framework (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) renewed under
Measure 3.2.1. of the Human Resources Development Operational Programme (HRD OP)
are adequate to principles defined in the Coppenhagen Declaration and to European
initiatives concerning the development of the content and methodology of VET (see
section 070203). Within the framework of the same measure the widescale digitalization
of VET learning materials and the development of a complex e-learning content
management system and a related ICT based modular in-service teacher training system
are also under way. In developing these programmes experts have made use of the
procedures of the European ICT skills framework and e-competence framework. Within
the framework of HRD OP there was also significant competence-based development of
content in public education and specifically in programmes facilitating the integration of
disadvantaged groups.

During the development of the Lisbon National Action (reform) Plan (NAP) concerning the
implementation of the objectives of the renewed Lisbon strategy, accepted in June 2005,
and also during its review process in the autumn of 2006, the government took account
of the medium and long term plans regarding the modernisation of VET already in the
phase of implementation. The NAP composed in line with the guidelines of the Integrated
Directives - which since 2005 involves as an integral part the Employment Guidelines -
has clearly confirmed that measures aiming to modernize the content and structure of
VET improve the employability of the labour force, contribute to the better
correspondence between VET and labour market needs, and help the reintegration of low
skilled people excluded from the labour market.

A wide national consultation process about the European Qualifications Framework (EQF)
began in Hungary in the autumn of 2005 with the participation of respresentatives of
public education, VET and higher education, experts, interest representative
organisations, professional associations, developers, social partners, ministries
responsible for qualifications and their partner organisations, as well as civil
organisations. The major challenge to developing a national qualification framework is
the fact that an outcome-oriented approach is rather foreign to the decisive traditions of
the Hungarian education and training system.

Comments made during the national consultation referred to the good comprehensibility
of the reference levels but underlined the serious difficulties of relating them to the levels
and programme types of the Hungarian education and training system since those may
not necessarily be defined in terms of learning outcomes applied by the EQF. This
problem of correspondence is insignificant in regard to “Knowledge” and “Skills”, but
considerable in relation to “Personal and vocational competences” since these are missing
from or are of a significantly different level in current qualification requirements. This
difficulty is, however, less important in the field of VET since in this sector a decisive role
is played by the National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) which
is closer to outcome-oriented regulation and in its renewed form (see section 070201)
the definition of competences is in focus.

Still, a part of experts believe that since international references have a very significant
impact on thinking about education in Hungary, the EQF may play the role of a catalyst in
discourses within the various sub-sectors.

The Ministry of Education initiated in April 2006 the development of a concept about
creating a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) which is currently under social and
expert review. The prepared concept paper emphasizes that the framework should be
considered a strategic tool capable of supporting individual learning and career path


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planning on the one hand, on the other hand assisting as a reference tool training
providers in programme development, thus enhancing the better coordination of the
various sub-sectors (public education, VET, higher education) and learning outcomes.
The development and introduction of an NQF would also provide an opportunity to spread
and make the practice of recognizing non-formal and informal learning more conscious.
Based on the joint work of the ministries of labour and education the creation and
introduction of NQF begins in 2007. This task has been integrated also in the II. National
Development Plan which defines the allocation of EU Structural Funds assistance in the
period of 2007-2013. However, the creation of an NQF is ultimately a government
initiative and a relatively small group of experts is involved in its development, its wider
support is currently missing.

Under European impulses Hungarian experts were researching questions in connection
with introducing a credit system in VET already in 2002. Based on the European Credit
Transfer for VET (ECVET) working document published by the European Committee in
November 2006 the National Institute of Vocational Education (predecessor of NSZFI)
organized a national consultation with the primary coordination of the Ministry of Social
Affairs and Labour at the end of the last year. The experiences and outcomes of the
consultation were synthesized at the beginning of March 2007. Credit-based training is a
prioritized issue in strategic policy thinking and its introduction will be enhanced by the
recent significant move towards modularisation and competence-based training.

Hungary has particularly intensively participated in international educational-VET
development cooperations since the second half of the 1990s. It could join community
programmes (Socrates, Leonardo) as a full right participant in 1997. Prior and parallel to
this, national VET administration paid much attention to the international exchange of
experiences also by financing it exclusively from national sources. Mobility, study visits,
further trainings abroad of a large scale – with the participation of developers, heads of
institutions, innovators – were linked to all major central development programmes, and
the renewal of the approach of practitioners as a consequence is considered especially
important in respect of the development of the system.

In the 2nd phase of the Leonardo da Vinci programme (2000-2006) more than EUR 27
million was allocated for the implementation of the programme in Hungary. About half of
this amount was used in 653 mobility projects which involved the professional practice or
study visits of nearly 9000 beneficiaries. It is important to remark and it confirms the
commitment of national VET administration and the social partners that in the past years
national extra sources provided funding for more projects than initially planned and for
the professional practice abroad of at least 1000 more young people. Mobility pedagogy
is especially highly developed in Hungary. This is confirmed by the fact that Hungary has
ranked the first among member states in respect of both nominations and awards at the
non-official competition of the European Quality in Mobility Award. The Tempus Public
Foundation hosting the Leonardo National Agency has for five years been organizing the
tender of the mobility award which is very popular and mere nomination is highly
respected by applying institutions. The award is given at large mobility pedagogical
dissemination conferences.

About the same amount as allocated for mobility (EUR 14 million) provided support for
47 pilot development projects, but Hungarian partners in fact participated in several
hundreds of Leonardo development projects. Particularly many of the pedagogical
innovations in Hungary involved e-learning development which was supported also by
national sources and Structural Funds assistance. The priority status of the subject and
its professional standard is indicated by the fact that the European level e-learning
thematic monitoring was coordinated by a Hungarian expert. A weakness in regard to
pedagogical innovations is that from among the Leonardo priorities already mapping the
Coppenhagen process, the development of teacher/trainer training and methodology was
the central theme of rather few projects.

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070701     EUROPEANISATION OF VET CURRICULA

The European and international dimension is present in the curricula of Hungarian
vocational education and training primarily in school-based VET, in the general
education provided by vocational training schools (szakképző iskola), although
European references appear also in the topics of several continuing vocational training
programmes (e.g., the subject “Adult training in the European Union” is part of the in-
service teacher training programme and training material system developed under
Measure 3.5.1. of the Human Resources Development Operational Programme/ HRD OP
implemented with EU Structural Funds assistance). VET preparing participants for
obtaining a state recognized vocational qualification listed in the National Qualifications
Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék, OKJ) provided either within or outside the school
system focuses primarily on providing and developing vocational knowledge and skills,
although the VET curricula based on the new OKJ developed under HRD OP Measure
3.2.1. already refer to so-called methods, social and personal competences as well
which are required for the performance of the given vocation (see section 070203). In
the future, the vocational and other competences to be developed through the training
will involve also such formerly less stressed requirements which have recently become
important due to innovation and technological progress (e.g. general learning ability,
initiative, creativity, etc.).

Following the change of the political system, in the beginning of the 1990s, in the
context of preparing for becoming a member of the European Union, the Hungarian
educational administration has paid particular attention on ensuring that European
contents and European political, moral values be built into school curricula with a
modern approach and become a part of daily pedagogical work. In the field of VET the
major objective in this respect was to harmonize and make comparable the content,
structure and outcomes of school-based VET with the gradually articulated principles of
VET policy and policy frameworks of the European Union, as well as the VET systems of
European partners especially important for Hungary from economic-commercial and
employment aspects.

The National Framework Curriculum (Nemzeti Alaptanterv, NAT) introduced in 1998
states as a uniform requirements at every level and in each institution type of public
education (közoktatás), thus also in school-based VET, that in students „a positive
attitude towards common European values has to be formed. Students should
appreciate the achievements created during the European development, including the
role and contribution of Hungary. They should be inquiring, open towards the European
culture, lifestyle, customs, traditions, with special regard to countries and nations
neigbouring Hungary. They should get to know the importance, contradictions and role
of the strengthening of European union in the life of the country and its inhabitants.”
These requirements were met by the centrally developed framework curricula and the
local curricula of primary and secondary schools based on them in the provision of
education in general subjects.

The new NAT effective from September 2004, prescribing development tasks instead of
detailed requirements, identifies as a development task highlighted in line with the
concept of European dimension laid down in community documents the development of
European identity in students and that they should “become a European citizen while
preserving their Hungarian identity”. It considers as important also that “students
should learn about the history, constitution, institutional system and policies of the
European Union. As a student and as an adult they should be able to take adventage of
increased opportunities”. In the case of secondary vocational schools (szakközépiskola)
and vocational schools (szakiskola) the European dimension appears primarily in
general education subjects, typically in history, social studies and geography. The
European Union, the EU membership of Hungary and European citizenship are topics of



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general subjects in the 12th grade of secondary vocational schools and the 10th grade of
vocational schools.

In order to ensure complience with the requirements of the NAT, the educational
administration provides assistance in pre- and in-service teacher training as well as in
textbook and school pedagogical programme development – through the publisment of
framework curricula, methodological guidelines and various dissemination activities – to
make the provision of European contents a part of daily pedagogical work in the
education of general subjects. The financial, professional and methodological aid
provided for participation in the Comenius and Leonardo da Vinci community action
programme coordinated by the Tempus Public Foundation at national level also
contributes to strengthening the European dimension at school level.




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0708 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE AND WEB SITES

Antalovits, Miklós: Továbbképzési modell kidolgozása vállalati oktatók tanári
kompetenciáinak fejlesztésére (Development of an in-service model to develop the
teaching competences of in-company trainers). Felnőttképzési Kutatási Füzetek (Adult
Training Research Studies) 2005/14. Budapest: Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, 2005.

Bajka, Györgyi: Innovations in career counselling. Background study for the
Cedefop/ReferNet report. Unpublished. Budapest: 2006.

Benedek, András: Változó szakképzés. Budapest: OKKER, 2003.

Berde, Éva et al.: Diplomával a munkaerőpiacon. Budapest: PH Felsőoktatási
Kutatóintézet, 2006. Available from Internet:
http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/kutatas_reszletes.php?id=73

Berde, Éva – Morvay, Endre: A bolognai folyamat és munkaerőpiaci kihatása három
országban. (The Bologna process and its impact on the labour market in three countries).
In: Berde, Éva et al.: Diplomával a munkaerőpiacon. Budapest: PH Felsőoktatási
Kutatóintézet, 2006. pp. 39-72. Available from Internet:
http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/kutatas_reszletes.php?id=73

Csákó, Mihály: Report about the survey undertaken in the framework of the joint
CEDEFOP/ETF project in Hungary. Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Education and
Training in Europe. Budapest: 1999. Available from Internet:
http://www.trainingvillage.gr/etv/Upload/Projects_Networks/ScenariosStrategies/hungar
y_nat_report.doc

Czenky, Klára: Diploma, munkaerőpiac, munkanélküliség a hazai sajtó tükrében.
(Degree, labour market and unemployment in the mirror of the national press). In:
Berde, Éva et al.: Diplomával a munkaerőpiacon. Budapest: PH Felsőoktatási
Kutatóintézet, 2006. pp. 115-128. Available from Internet:
http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/kutatas_reszletes.php?id=73

Dancsó, Tünde: Az információs és kommunikációs technológia fejlesztésének irányvonalai
a hazai oktatási stratégiákban (Directions of the development of information and
communication technologies in the national educational strategies). In: Új Pedagógiai
Szemle, 2005/11. Available from Internet:
http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=2005-11-ta-dancso-informacios

Report of the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Hungary to the 2006 Joint Interim
Report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the EU Work
Programme on Education and Training. Available from Internet:
http://www.okm.gov.hu/doc/upload/200511/hu_nationalreport_final_101105_en.pdf

A magyarországi háztartások infokommunikációs (IKT) eszközellátottsága és az egyéni
használat jellemzői, 2006 (Equipment of Hungarian households with information and
communication technological (ICT) devices and characteristics of individual use).
Budapest: Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 2007. Available from Internet:
http://portal.ksh.hu/pls/ksh/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/ikt/ikt06.pdf

Fehér, Péter: Az OECD Roma Informatikai Projektjének néhány eredménye. In: Új
Pedagógiai Szemle, 2004/6. Available from Internet:
http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=2004-06-in-Feher-OECD




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Forgács, András: Az európai dimenzió a magyarországi szakmai képzésben. Összefoglaló.
(The European dimension in Hungarian vocational education and training. Summary.)
Background study for the Cedefop/ReferNet report. Unpublished. Budapest: 2007.

Györgyi, Zoltán: Diplomások és a munkaerőpiac – kutatói megközelítés. (Graduates and
the labour market – the researchers’ viewpoint). In: Berde, Éva et al.: Diplomával a
munkaerőpiacon. Budapest: PH Felsőoktatási Kutatóintézet, 2006. pp. 21-38. Available
from Internet: http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/kutatas_reszletes.php?id=73

Halász, Gábor; Lannert, Judit (eds.): Jelentés a magyar közoktatásról 2003 (Report on
Hungarian public education 2003). Budapest: Országos Közoktatási Intézet, 2003.
Available from Internet: http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=kiadvany&kod=Jelentes2003

Halász Gábor; Lannert, Judit (eds.): Jelentés a magyar közoktatásról 2006 (Report on
Hungarian public education 2006). Budapest: Országos Közoktatási Intézet, 2006.
Available from Internet: http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=kiadvany&kod=Jelentes2006

A HEF OP 1. 2. komponens - szolgálatfejlesztés, stratégiai tervezés, kutatás - keretében
készülő munkaerő-piaci előrejelzési munkálatok bemutatása (Presentation of labour
market forecasting projects within the framework of HRD OP 1.2. component -
development of services, strategic planning and research)/ Secretariat of Planning and
Development of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour. March 2007. Summary
prepared for the Cedefop/ReferNet report.

Hideg, Éva et al.: Hungarian educational foresight: “Vocational training and future” –
case study. Final draft prepared for COST A22 WG3. 24 August 2006.

Híves, Tamás: Munkaadói elvárások megjelenése az álláshirdetésekben (Employers’
demands in job advertisements). In: Berde, Éva et al.: Diplomával a munkaerőpiacon.
Budapest: PH Felsőoktatási Kutatóintézet, 2006. pp. 73-87. Available from Internet:
http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/kutatas_reszletes.php?id=73

Imre, Anna: Az élethosszig tartó tanulás megalapozása a hazai középfokú iskolákban. In:
Imre, Anna (szerk.): A középfokú oktatás nemzetközi tükörben. Budapest: Országos
Közoktatási Intézet, 2005.

dr. Kadocsa, László: A kreditrendszer szakképzésbe való bevezetésének feltételeiről. (On
the conditions of introducing the credit system in VET.) Dunaújváros, 2005.

Kálmán, Anikó: A felnőttoktatásban és –képzésben alkalmazható kompetenciaelvű
módszerek és azok alkalmazhatósága (Competence-based methods that can be used in
adult education and training and their applicability). Felnőttképzési Kutatási Füzetek
2005/13. Budapest: Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, 2005.

Kálmán, Anikó: Nemzetközi összehasonlító elemzés a tanárképzési és felnőttoktatók
képzési rendszereinek állapotáról, működéséről, fejlesztéséről. Felnőttoktatók
professzionális kompetenciái (Study on the international comparison of the state,
operation and development of the training systems of teachers and adult training
instructors. The professional competences of adult training instructors). Budapest:
Nemzeti Szakképzési Intézet, 2006.

Komenczi, Bertalan. Az E-learning lehetséges szerepe a magyarországi felnőttképzésben
(The possible role of e-learning in Hungarian adult training). Felnőttképzési Kutatási
Füzetek 2006, 3. Budapest: Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, 2006.




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Kőrösné Mikis, Márta: Az innovatív pedagógiai gyakorlat definíciója (Definition of
innovative pedagogical practice). In: Új Pedagógiai Szemle, 2000/11. Available from
Internet: http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=2000-11-in-Korosne-Innovativ

Lakos, Endre: A kompetencia-kártya, avagy paradigmaváltás a gyakorlatban. (The
competence-card, or change of paradigm in practice). Budapest, 2005.

Lannert, Judit; Vágó, Irén; Kőrösné Mikis, Márta: A felnőttek digitális írás- és
idegennyelv-tudása (Digital literacy and foreign language skills of adults). Felnőttképzési
Kutatási Füzetek 2006/7. Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, 2006.

Liskó, Ilona: A pedagógus-továbbképzés hatékonysága (Effeciency of in-service
teacher/trainer training). In: Educatio, 2004/3.

Mártonfi, György: Szociális és tanulási kompetenciák. Az alacsony képzettséggel
rendelkezők munkaerő-piaci integrációjához nélkülözhetetlen kompetenciákról egy
felmérés alapján. (Social and learning competences. On competences indispensable for
the labour market integration of low skilled people on the basis of a survey.). In:
Szakképzési Szemle, to be published soon.

Molnárné Stadler, Katalin: Innovations in evaluation. Background study for the
Cedefop/ReferNet report. Unpublished. Budapest: 2007.

Munkaerőpiaci előrejelzés a 2005. évre (Labour Market Forecast on Year 2005)/Ministry
of Employment and Labour. Employment Office. Budapest, 2004. Available from
Internet: http://www.afsz.hu/engine.aspx?page=afsz_rovidtavu_prognozisok_oldal

Munkaerőpiaci előrejelzés a 2006. évre (Labour Market Forecast on Year 2006)/Ministry
of Employment and Labour. Employment Office. Available from Internet:
http://www.afsz.hu/engine.aspx?page=afsz_rovidtavu_prognozisok_oldal

Murányi Lajos: Számítógéppel támogatott tanulás (elearning) Magyarországon
(Computer-supported learning [e-learning] in Hungary). Available from Internet:
http://www.mke.oszk.hu/

Nováky, Erzsébet: Oktatási-szakképzési jövőalternatívák új szemléletben (Educational-
VET future alternatives with a new approach). In: Szakképzési Szemle XXI, 2005/3. pp.
290-316. Available from Internet:
http://novaky.jovokutatas.hu/download/Tanulmanymagyar/NovakyOktSzakkepzes2005.d
oc

NQR 2006. A competency-based modular structure of vocational education. Compiled by
Modláné Görgényi, Ildikó. Ed. Papp, Ágnes. Budapest: National Institute of Vocational
Education, 2006.

Oktatásfejlesztési program az NFT II-ben (2007-2013). Az Oktatási Minisztérium és a
szakmai, társadalmi szervezetek javaslatai (Educational development programme in
National Development Plan II [2007-2013]. Recommendations of the Ministry of
Education and or professinal, social organizations). Budapest: April 2006. Available from
Internet: http://www.om.hu/letolt/nft2/oktatas_fejlesztes.pdf

Összefoglaló a HEFOP 3.5.1. jelű, „Korszerű felnőttképzési módszerek kifejlesztése és
alkalmazása” című központi intézkedés fő tartalmáról/Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet.
Interneten elérhető az alábbi címen:
http://www.nfi.hu/hefop/dok/hefop_351_osszegzo.doc


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Papp, Ágnes (ed.): Vocational Training and Education in Hungary 2005. Study
commissioned by the Ministry of Education. Budapest: Nemzeti Szakképzési Intézet,
2005.

Papp, Lajos: Az e-learning a felnőttképzésben (trendek, perspektívák, európai környezet)
(E-learning in adult training [trends, perspectives, European environment]). Final
research report. Budapest, Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, 2005.

Presentation about the development of qualifications by the Hungarian Chamber of
Commerce and Industry in 2004/Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
Unpublished.

Regional strategies of the development of VET/Regional development and training
committees (regionális fejlesztési és képzési bizottságok). Available from Internet:
http://www.okm.gov.hu/main.php?folderID=905

Regionális szakmai vizsgaközpont hálózat létrehozhatósága Magyarországon. Szerk.
Bartus, Zsolt – Hideg, Éva. Budapest: Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet,
2007. Összefoglalója elérhető angol nyelven: Bartus, Zsolt et al.: Proposal for the
establishment of a regional vocational examination network in Hungary. Budapest:
National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education, 2007.

Revised National Lisbon Action Programme for Growth and Employment. Hungary.
Budapes: October 2006. Available from Internet:
http://www.nfu.gov.hu/index.nfh?r=&v=&l=&d=&mf=&p=ci_202

dr. Sediviné Balassa, Ildikó et al.: Új tanulói teljesítmény-értékelési módszerek a
szakképzésben (New methods of evaluating student’s performance in the vocational
training system). Budapest: SZÁMALK, 2005. Available from Internet: http://www.e-
methods.hu/tw/tiki-index.php?page=Termékek,hu

Strategy of the Government of the Hungarian Republic for lifelong learning/ Government
of the Republic of Hungary. September 2005. Available from Internet:
http://www.okm.gov.hu/doc/upload/200604/angol_strategia.pdf,
http://www.okm.gov.hu/main.php?folderID=1027

A Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program I. „B” komponens: Szakképzés-módszertani fejlesztés.
Compiled by Zoltánné Pádár. Ed. Gyöngyi Szellő. Budapest: Nemzeti Szakképzési
Intézet, 2006.

A Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program I. „G” projekt: Pályaorientáció. Compiled by Judit
Kaszás. Ed. Gyöngyi Szellő. Budapest: Nemzeti Szakképzési Intézet, 2006.

Szakképzés-fejlesztési Stratégia 2013-ig (Strategy for the development of vocational
education and training until 2013)/ Government of the Republic of Hungary. Budapest:
Ministry of Education; Ministry of Employment and Labour, 2005. Available from
Internet: http://www.om.hu/letolt/szakke/szakkepzesi_strategia_050414.pdf

Szakmastruktúra és szakmatartalom változások a gazdasági fejlődés tükrében (Changes
of qualification structure and the content of vocations in view of economic development)/
MKIK Gazdaság és Vállalkozáselemzési Intézet. Készült a Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet
megbízásából NFI/K-49/3/2003. Budapest: 2004. Unpublished.

Szerepi, Anna: Munkaadók és fejvadászok a munkaerőpiacról és az oktatási rendszerről
(Employers’ and personnel consultants’ views about the labour market and the



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educational system). In: Berde, Éva et al.: Diplomával a munkaerőpiacon. Budapest: PH
Felsőoktatási Kutatóintézet, 2006. pp. 89-114. Available from Internet:
http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/kutatas_reszletes.php?id=73

dr. Szilágyi, Klára: Employment and Career Counselling as a Profession. Budapest:
Kollégium Ltd., 2000.

Szűcs, András; Zarka, Dénes: A távoktatás módszertanának fejlesztése (Development of
the methodology of distance education). Felnőttképzési Kutatási Füzetek 2006/6.
Budapest: Nemzeti Felnőttképzési Intézet, 2006.

Social Infrastructure Operational Programme/ The Government of the Republic of
Hungary. Budapest: 2007. Available from Internet:
http://www.nfu.hu/umft_operativ_programok

Társadalmi Megújulás Operatív Program 2007-2013 (Social Renewal Operational
Programme 2007-2013)/ The Government of the Republic of Hungary. Budapest: 8
December 2006. Available from Internet:
http://www.kdrfu.hu/doc/tamop_061220_beadott.pdf

Tordai, Péter; Mártonfi, György: „Az oktatás és munkaerőpiac kapcsolódása” című, a
Nemzeti Fejlesztési Terv II. előkészítését szolgáló, az oktatási szektor fejlesztési
szükségleteiről szóló szakértői vita strukturált összefoglalója (Structured summary of the
“Relationship of education and the labour market” expert discussion on the development
needs of the educational sector, aimed to assist in the preparation of the II. National
Development Plan). Available from Internet:
http://www.oki.hu/oldal.php?tipus=cikk&kod=egyeb-munkaeropiac#cim11

Tóth, Etelka: Oktatásfejlesztés a HEFOP-ban. Szakoktatás 2006/2.

Varga, Júlia: Oktatás-gazdaságtan (Economics of education). Budapest: Közgazdasági
Szemle Alapítvány, 1998. Available from Internet (upon registration):
http://www.kszemle.hu/kiadvany/

Useful websites:

3K Alapítvány (3K Foundation). Homepage. Available from Internet:
http://www.klaszter.hu

3K Consens Iroda (3K Consens Office). Homepage. Available from Internet:
http://www.3kconsens.hu/

American Chamber of Commerce in Hungary. Homepage. Available from Internet:
http://www.amcham.hu/

Állami Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat (Public Employment Service). Homepage. Available from
Internet: http://www.afsz.hu

Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Emberi Erőforrások Tanszék (Human Resources
Department of Corvinus University of Budapest). Homepage. Available from Internet:
http://www.bke.hu/munkaero/

German-Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Homepage. Available from
Internet: http://www.duihk.hu/index.php?id=82&L=24



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                          Skills and competences development and innovative pedagogies - FIRST DRAFT
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GKI Gazdaságkutató Zrt. (GKI Economic Research Co.). Homepage. Available from
Internet: http://www.gki.hu/

Magyar Agrárkamara (Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture). Homepage. Available from
Internet: http://www.agrarkamara.hu

Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara (Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry).
Homepage. Available from Internet: http://www.mkik.hu

Magyar Munkaerőpiaci Prognózis (Hungarian Labour Market Prognosis). Database.
Available from Internet: http://www.mmpp.hu/

MKIK Gazdaság és Vállalkozáselemzési Intézet (HCCI Research Institute of Economics
and Enterprises). Homepage. Available from Internet: http://www.gvi.hu/

MTA Közgazdaságtudományi Intézet (Institute of Economics of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences). Homepage. Available from Internet: http://econ.core.hu/

Nemzeti Fejlesztési Terv – Programiroda. Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet.
(National Development Plan – Programme Coordinating Office. National Institute of
Vocational and Adult Education). Homepage. Available from Internet:
https://www.nive.hu/nft/

Nemzeti Kutatási és Technológiai Hivatal (National Office for Research and Technology).
Homepage. Available from Internet: http://www.nkth.gov.hu/

Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Intézet (National Institute of Vocational and Adult
Education). Homepage. Available from Internet: http://www.nive.hu

New Methods of Evaluating Student’s Performance in the Vocational Training System.
Official website of the Leonardo project E-methods. Homepage. Available from Internet:
http://www.e-methods.hu/tw/tiki-index.php

Oktatáskutató és –fejlesztő Intézet (Institute of Educational Research and Development).
Homepages. Available from Internet: http://www.oki.hu,
http://www.hier.iif.hu/hu/index.php

Online Pedagógiai Lexikon (Online Pedagogical Lexicon). Available from Internet:
http://human.kando.hu/pedlex/

Sulinova Közoktatás-fejlesztési és Pedagógus-továbbképzési Kht (Agency for the
Development of Education and In-service Teacher Training). Homepage. Available on
internet: http://www.sulinova.hu

Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program (Vocational School Development Programme).
Homepage. Available from Internet: http://www.szakma.hu/

Szent István Egyetem, Gazdaság és Társadalomtudományi Kar, Munkavállalási
Tanácsadó Szak. (Szent István University, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences,
Department of Employment Counsellor training). Homepage. Available from Internet:
http://www.gtk.gau.hu/mvta/news.htm

Szociális és Munkaügyi Minisztérium (Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour). Homepage.
Available from Internet: http://www.szmm.gov.hu



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