Simulation Analysis of Node Misbehavior in an Ad-hoc Network using NS2

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					                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                   Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010

           Simulation Analysis of Node Misbehavior in an
                   Ad-hoc Network using NS2

                      Rekha Kaushik                                                              Dr. Jyoti Singhai
     Department of Information Technology, MANIT                                  Department of Electronics and Communication
                   Bhopal, M.P, India                                                              Engineering
                                                             Bhopal, M.P, India

Abstract— Proper operation of MANET requires mutual                          forwarding and routing maintenance according to the routing
cooperation of participating nodes. Due to presence of selfish or            strategies and routing table. In an Ad hoc network, the routing
malicious nodes, performance of network degrades significantly.              between nodes is through intermediate nodes because the
Selfish nodes drop packets coming from its neighbor nodes to                 coverage area of the wireless terminal is limited. Therefore, it
conserve its energy or push forward their own packets in the buffer
                                                                             is called multi-hop wireless network, self-organizing network,
queue. To prevent this misbehavior, selfish nodes need to be
detected and isolated from network. This paper, detect selfish nodes         not fixed facility network
which are created due to nodes conserving their energy. After their
detection, performance analysis of networks has done by comparing            A. Cooperation of node
the ideal network and the network with selfish node using NS2.               The successful operation of MANET is totally dependent on
                                                                             the cooperation of participating nodes in communication. The
Keywords- MANET, DSR, Selfish node.                                          lack of a fixed infrastructure in ad hoc networks forces ad hoc
                                                                             hosts to rely on each other in order to maintain network
                        I.   INTRODUCTION                                    stability and functionality. But sometimes nodes do not work
                                                                             as they are intended due to conservation of their resources
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring
                                                                             such as energy, memory, and bandwidth. Such nodes are
network of mobile devices connected by wireless links, in
                                                                             called misbehaving nodes or non cooperative nodes and are of
which each device is free to move independently in any
                                                                             following types:
direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices
frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use,              Malicious Node:
and therefore be a router. Unlike networks using dedicated
nodes to support basic functions like packet forwarding,                     Nodes that perform active attacks with the aim of damaging
routing, and network management, in ad hoc networks these                    other nodes by causing network outage are considered to be
functions are carried out by all available nodes.                            malicious [1], also referred to as compromised nodes. In
                                                                             addition, a compromised node may use the routing protocol to
Applications of mobile ad hoc networks range from military                   advertise itself as having the shortest path to the node whose
tactical operations to civil rapid development such as                       packets it wants to intercept as in the so called black hole
emergency search-and-rescue missions, sensor networks, and                   attack.
instantaneous classroom/meeting room applications.
                                                                             Selfish Node:
MANET nodes are equipped with wireless transmitters and
receivers. At a given point in time, depending on the nodes'                 Selfish nodes [1] work in ad hoc network for their own
positions and their transmitter and receiver coverage patterns,              benefit. They simply do not forward packets (data packets
transmission power levels and co-channel interference levels                 and/or control packets) of other nodes to conserve their own
changes. The ad hoc topology may change with time as the                     energy, or push their own packets in front of the buffer queue.
nodes move or adjust their transmission and reception                        Selfish nodes disturb the performance of ad hoc network to a
parameters.                                                                  great extent. When a node becomes selfish it does not
In Ad hoc network, each mobile terminal has a router, and                    cooperate in data transmission process and causes a serious
host two functions: as host, terminal need to run the                        affect on network performance.
applications of end-users; as a router, terminal need to run the             In this paper, simulation analysis of node misbehavior is
corresponding routing protocol, participate in Packet                        carried out only with selfish node. Theses nodes participate

                                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                               Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010
correctly in routing but do not forward data packets it receives         network affect the end to end delay and lead to congestion in a
for other node; so data packets may be dropped instead of                low density network.
being forwarded to their destination.
                                                                         In COSR (Cooperative On Demand Secure Routing Protocol)
                                                                         [6] Fei Wang measures node reputation and Route reputation
B. Routing Protocols
                                                                         using three parameters: contribution of node, capability of
An ad hoc routing protocol [2] is a convention, or a standard,           forwarding and recommendation.
by which node decides the way to route packets between
computing devices. There are basically three types of routing            Zhong et al [7] propose an incentive based system named
protocols.                                                               SPRITE, in which selfish nodes are encouraged to cooperate.
                                                                         In this system, a node reports to the Credit Clearance Service,
Pro-active (table-driven) routing: This type of protocols                the messages that it has received/forwarded by uploading its
maintains fresh lists of destinations and their routes by                receipts. Intermediate node earns credit when they forward
periodically distributing routing tables throughout the                  message of others’ node.
network. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are
respective amount of data for maintenance and slow reaction
                                                                                             III.   SIMULATION SETUP
on restructuring and failures.
                                                                         The simulation was done using NS-2 simulator [8], provides a
Reactive (on-demand) routing: This type of protocols finds a             scalable simulation environment for wireless network systems.
route on demand by flooding the network with Route Request               The simulated network consists of 20 nodes placed randomly
packets. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are high              in 670x670 areas. Each node has a transmission range of 250m
latency time in route finding and excessive flooding can lead            and moves at a speed of 10m/s. The total sending rate of all
to network clogging.                                                     the senders of the multi-cast group, i.e. the traffic load is
Hybrid routing: This type of protocols combines the                      1Mbps.
advantages of proactive and of reactive routing. The routing is          Every node has initial energy set to 1000 joules. During the
initially established with some pro actively prospected routes           sending and receiving of packets, node energy gets decreases.
and then serves the demand from additionally activated nodes             If energy of node is less than threshold, it becomes selfish, and
through reactive flooding. The choice for one or the other               thus node drop all packets received from neighboring nodes.
method requires predetermination for typical cases. The main
disadvantages of such algorithms are advantage depends on                On simulating the network with given simulation parameter
amount of nodes activated and reaction to traffic demand                 and considering the energy model parameters as discuss above
depends on gradient of traffic volume.                                   as shown in table 1, two selfish nodes are detected , node 2
                                                                         and node 4. Table 1 lists the values of common parameters
This paper uses Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) [3]
                                                                         used for simulation.
which is a reactive routing protocol. The DSR is a simple and
efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in                            Table1. Simulation Parameters
multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes.
                                                                                    Parameter                               Value
DSR is an on-demand routing protocol which is based on
source route approach. The protocol is composed of the two
main mechanisms of "Route Discovery" and "Route                                  Number of Nodes                              20
Maintenance", which work together to allow nodes to discover
and maintain routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc                      Routing Protocol                            DSR
network. All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-
demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale                         Packet size                         512 bytes
automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the
routes currently in use.
                                                                             Traffic model of sources                Constant bit rate
                     II.   RELATED WORK
Marti at [4] observed increased throughput in MANET by                            Mobility model                   Random way point
complementing DSR with watchdog (for detection of selfish
or malicious misbehavior) and pathrater (for trust management                        max speed                             10 m/s
and routing policy, every used path is rated); which enable
nodes to avoid malicious nodes in their routes.                                Initial energy of node                   1000 joules
In [5] a simulation study of effects of misbehaving nodes on
DSR routing protocol on the basis of countermeasures is                           Simulation time                           25 sec
described. This paper shows that selfish node present in the

                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                             Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010
               IV.   SIMULATION RESULTS
The ideal network and the network with selfish nodes are
compared on the basis of node throughput, packet delivery
ratio and number of packets dropped.

                                                                      Figure 2: Packet Delivery Ratio in ideal condition vs. network
                                                                                            with selfish nodes

Figure 1: Throughput of ideal network vs network with selfish

Node Throughput is the average rate of successful message
delivery over a communication channel. This data may be
delivered over a physical or logical link, or pass through a
certain network node. The throughput is usually measured in
bits per second (bit/s or bps).
Figure 1 shows throughput in ideal condition and throughput
when there were two selfish nodes in the network.
From the figures it is shown that the throughput at node gets
degraded by at node 2 and 4 as they become selfish. The
overall throughput gets degraded by 80%.
Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) is the ratio of total no. of
packets sends to total no. of packets received.
Figure 2 shows the PDR when there was no selfish node in the
Network and PDR when there are selfish nodes in the
It can be shown that the PDR increases when there are selfish
nodes in the network. PDR increases by 40% when using
above simulation scenario.                                            Figure 3: Number of bits dropped of ideal network vs network
                                                                                           with selfish nodes
Number of bits dropped: From figure 3 it is seen that the
number of bits dropped is more when there are a selfish node                   V.   CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
in the Network. Bit drop increases by 96% when selfish nodes          Misbehaving node such as selfish node in MANET can affect
are there in the network.                                             the performance of the overall network. This paper is the study
                                                                      of the selfish node impact on MANET performance. First

                                                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500
                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                            Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010
selfish nodes are detected using energy model, and then               [5] Abdelaziz Babakhouya, Yacine challal, “A Simulation
comparative analysis has been done between the networks in            Analysis of Routing Misbehaviour in Mobile Ad-hoc
ideal condition i.e. the network in which there is no selfish         Networks”, NGMAST-workshop on mobile security,
node and the network with selfish nodes.                              Europe,2008.
                                                                      [6]     Fei Wang, Yijun Mo, Benxiong Huang, “COSR:
It has been concluded from the simulation done in NS2 that
                                                                      Cooperative On-Demand Secure Route Protocol in MANET”,
when selfish nodes are present in the network the overall
                                                                      IEEE conference ISCIT, pp. 890 – 893, China,2006.
network load increases on remaining nodes, hence node
                                                                      [7] S. Zhong, J. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Sprite: a simple, cheat-
throughput decreases. Packet Delivery Ratio increases as
                                                                      proof, creditbased system for mobile ad-hoc networks,” IEEE
nodes also forward packets with in ideal case may be
                                                                      INFOCOM 2003, San Francisco, CA, USA, April 2003.
forwarded by nodes which became selfish.
                                                                      [8] NS2 network Simulator.
From the above analysis, it is concluded that either
misbehaving node has been isolated from the network or                                         AUTHORS PROFILE
some system must be include with the network which enforce
cooperation among nodes to improve network performance
For future work, simulation study with malicious node is
carried out and tries to get a system which motivate
misbehaving node to enhance cooperation and improve
network performance.
                                                                      Rekha Kaushik holds a Master of Technology(2008) from BarKatullah
                                                                      University , Bhopal, M.P. India and Pursuing Ph.D from MANIT Bhopal
                        REFERENCES                                    , India. She is a member of CSI and IETE (Institution of Electronics and
                                                                       Telecommunication Engineers). Her general research interests include
                                                                      wireless communication especially Ad-hoc network, network security.
[1] Matthias Hollick, jens Schmitt, Christian seipl,‘’On the
Effect of Node Misbehaviour in Ad hoc Network” IEEE
conference ,vol 6, pp 3759 – 3763,2004.
[2] E.Royer and C.K toh,” A Review of Current Routing
Protocols for Ad hoc Networks”, IEEE Personal
Communication Magazine, vol. 6, no 2,pp 46-55, April 1999.
[3] D.Johnson , Y. Hu , D. Maltz,” The Dynamic Source
Routing protocol (DSR) for Mobile Ad hoc network”, RFC                 Dr. Jyoti Singhai is Assistant professor in MANIT, Bhopal, India. She
4728, 2007.                                                            holds Ph.D degree from MANIT, India. Her general research interests
[4] S.Marti, T. Giuli, K.Lai, M.Baker, “Mitigating routing            include wireless communication , image processing , network security.
Misbehaviour in Mobile Ad –hoc Networks”, In Proc of the
Sixth International conference on Mobile Computing and
networking(MOBICOM), Boston,2000.

                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500

Description: The International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security is a monthly periodical on research articles in general computer science and information security which provides a distinctive technical perspective on novel technical research work, whether theoretical, applicable, or related to implementation. Target Audience: IT academics, university IT faculties; and business people concerned with computer science and security; industry IT departments; government departments; the financial industry; the mobile industry and the computing industry. Coverage includes: security infrastructures, network security: Internet security, content protection, cryptography, steganography and formal methods in information security; multimedia systems, software, information systems, intelligent systems, web services, data mining, wireless communication, networking and technologies, innovation technology and management. Thanks for your contributions in July 2010 issue and we are grateful to the reviewers for providing valuable comments. IJCSIS July 2010 Issue (Vol. 8, No. 4) has an acceptance rate of 36 %.