Simulation Analysis of Node Misbehavior in an Ad-hoc Network using NS2
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010 Simulation Analysis of Node Misbehavior in an Ad-hoc Network using NS2 Rekha Kaushik Dr. Jyoti Singhai Department of Information Technology, MANIT Department of Electronics and Communication Bhopal, M.P, India Engineering email@example.com Bhopal, M.P, India firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract— Proper operation of MANET requires mutual forwarding and routing maintenance according to the routing cooperation of participating nodes. Due to presence of selfish or strategies and routing table. In an Ad hoc network, the routing malicious nodes, performance of network degrades significantly. between nodes is through intermediate nodes because the Selfish nodes drop packets coming from its neighbor nodes to coverage area of the wireless terminal is limited. Therefore, it conserve its energy or push forward their own packets in the buffer is called multi-hop wireless network, self-organizing network, queue. To prevent this misbehavior, selfish nodes need to be detected and isolated from network. This paper, detect selfish nodes not fixed facility network which are created due to nodes conserving their energy. After their detection, performance analysis of networks has done by comparing A. Cooperation of node the ideal network and the network with selfish node using NS2. The successful operation of MANET is totally dependent on the cooperation of participating nodes in communication. The Keywords- MANET, DSR, Selfish node. lack of a fixed infrastructure in ad hoc networks forces ad hoc hosts to rely on each other in order to maintain network I. INTRODUCTION stability and functionality. But sometimes nodes do not work as they are intended due to conservation of their resources A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring such as energy, memory, and bandwidth. Such nodes are network of mobile devices connected by wireless links, in called misbehaving nodes or non cooperative nodes and are of which each device is free to move independently in any following types: direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, Malicious Node: and therefore be a router. Unlike networks using dedicated nodes to support basic functions like packet forwarding, Nodes that perform active attacks with the aim of damaging routing, and network management, in ad hoc networks these other nodes by causing network outage are considered to be functions are carried out by all available nodes. malicious , also referred to as compromised nodes. In addition, a compromised node may use the routing protocol to Applications of mobile ad hoc networks range from military advertise itself as having the shortest path to the node whose tactical operations to civil rapid development such as packets it wants to intercept as in the so called black hole emergency search-and-rescue missions, sensor networks, and attack. instantaneous classroom/meeting room applications. Selfish Node: MANET nodes are equipped with wireless transmitters and receivers. At a given point in time, depending on the nodes' Selfish nodes  work in ad hoc network for their own positions and their transmitter and receiver coverage patterns, benefit. They simply do not forward packets (data packets transmission power levels and co-channel interference levels and/or control packets) of other nodes to conserve their own changes. The ad hoc topology may change with time as the energy, or push their own packets in front of the buffer queue. nodes move or adjust their transmission and reception Selfish nodes disturb the performance of ad hoc network to a parameters. great extent. When a node becomes selfish it does not In Ad hoc network, each mobile terminal has a router, and cooperate in data transmission process and causes a serious host two functions: as host, terminal need to run the affect on network performance. applications of end-users; as a router, terminal need to run the In this paper, simulation analysis of node misbehavior is corresponding routing protocol, participate in Packet carried out only with selfish node. Theses nodes participate 179 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010 correctly in routing but do not forward data packets it receives network affect the end to end delay and lead to congestion in a for other node; so data packets may be dropped instead of low density network. being forwarded to their destination. In COSR (Cooperative On Demand Secure Routing Protocol)  Fei Wang measures node reputation and Route reputation B. Routing Protocols using three parameters: contribution of node, capability of An ad hoc routing protocol  is a convention, or a standard, forwarding and recommendation. by which node decides the way to route packets between computing devices. There are basically three types of routing Zhong et al  propose an incentive based system named protocols. SPRITE, in which selfish nodes are encouraged to cooperate. In this system, a node reports to the Credit Clearance Service, Pro-active (table-driven) routing: This type of protocols the messages that it has received/forwarded by uploading its maintains fresh lists of destinations and their routes by receipts. Intermediate node earns credit when they forward periodically distributing routing tables throughout the message of others’ node. network. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are respective amount of data for maintenance and slow reaction III. SIMULATION SETUP on restructuring and failures. The simulation was done using NS-2 simulator , provides a Reactive (on-demand) routing: This type of protocols finds a scalable simulation environment for wireless network systems. route on demand by flooding the network with Route Request The simulated network consists of 20 nodes placed randomly packets. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are high in 670x670 areas. Each node has a transmission range of 250m latency time in route finding and excessive flooding can lead and moves at a speed of 10m/s. The total sending rate of all to network clogging. the senders of the multi-cast group, i.e. the traffic load is Hybrid routing: This type of protocols combines the 1Mbps. advantages of proactive and of reactive routing. The routing is Every node has initial energy set to 1000 joules. During the initially established with some pro actively prospected routes sending and receiving of packets, node energy gets decreases. and then serves the demand from additionally activated nodes If energy of node is less than threshold, it becomes selfish, and through reactive flooding. The choice for one or the other thus node drop all packets received from neighboring nodes. method requires predetermination for typical cases. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are advantage depends on On simulating the network with given simulation parameter amount of nodes activated and reaction to traffic demand and considering the energy model parameters as discuss above depends on gradient of traffic volume. as shown in table 1, two selfish nodes are detected , node 2 and node 4. Table 1 lists the values of common parameters This paper uses Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR)  used for simulation. which is a reactive routing protocol. The DSR is a simple and efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in Table1. Simulation Parameters multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. Parameter Value DSR is an on-demand routing protocol which is based on source route approach. The protocol is composed of the two main mechanisms of "Route Discovery" and "Route Number of Nodes 20 Maintenance", which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc Routing Protocol DSR network. All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on- demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale Packet size 512 bytes automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the routes currently in use. Traffic model of sources Constant bit rate II. RELATED WORK Marti at  observed increased throughput in MANET by Mobility model Random way point complementing DSR with watchdog (for detection of selfish or malicious misbehavior) and pathrater (for trust management max speed 10 m/s and routing policy, every used path is rated); which enable nodes to avoid malicious nodes in their routes. Initial energy of node 1000 joules In  a simulation study of effects of misbehaving nodes on DSR routing protocol on the basis of countermeasures is Simulation time 25 sec described. This paper shows that selfish node present in the 180 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010 IV. SIMULATION RESULTS The ideal network and the network with selfish nodes are compared on the basis of node throughput, packet delivery ratio and number of packets dropped. Figure 2: Packet Delivery Ratio in ideal condition vs. network with selfish nodes + Figure 1: Throughput of ideal network vs network with selfish nodes Node Throughput is the average rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel. This data may be delivered over a physical or logical link, or pass through a certain network node. The throughput is usually measured in bits per second (bit/s or bps). Figure 1 shows throughput in ideal condition and throughput when there were two selfish nodes in the network. From the figures it is shown that the throughput at node gets degraded by at node 2 and 4 as they become selfish. The overall throughput gets degraded by 80%. Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) is the ratio of total no. of packets sends to total no. of packets received. Figure 2 shows the PDR when there was no selfish node in the Network and PDR when there are selfish nodes in the network.. It can be shown that the PDR increases when there are selfish nodes in the network. PDR increases by 40% when using above simulation scenario. Figure 3: Number of bits dropped of ideal network vs network with selfish nodes Number of bits dropped: From figure 3 it is seen that the number of bits dropped is more when there are a selfish node V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK in the Network. Bit drop increases by 96% when selfish nodes Misbehaving node such as selfish node in MANET can affect are there in the network. the performance of the overall network. This paper is the study of the selfish node impact on MANET performance. First 181 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010 selfish nodes are detected using energy model, and then  Abdelaziz Babakhouya, Yacine challal, “A Simulation comparative analysis has been done between the networks in Analysis of Routing Misbehaviour in Mobile Ad-hoc ideal condition i.e. the network in which there is no selfish Networks”, NGMAST-workshop on mobile security, node and the network with selfish nodes. Europe,2008.  Fei Wang, Yijun Mo, Benxiong Huang, “COSR: It has been concluded from the simulation done in NS2 that Cooperative On-Demand Secure Route Protocol in MANET”, when selfish nodes are present in the network the overall IEEE conference ISCIT, pp. 890 – 893, China,2006. network load increases on remaining nodes, hence node  S. Zhong, J. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Sprite: a simple, cheat- throughput decreases. Packet Delivery Ratio increases as proof, creditbased system for mobile ad-hoc networks,” IEEE nodes also forward packets with in ideal case may be INFOCOM 2003, San Francisco, CA, USA, April 2003. forwarded by nodes which became selfish.  NS2 network Simulator. http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns From the above analysis, it is concluded that either misbehaving node has been isolated from the network or AUTHORS PROFILE some system must be include with the network which enforce cooperation among nodes to improve network performance For future work, simulation study with malicious node is carried out and tries to get a system which motivate misbehaving node to enhance cooperation and improve network performance. Rekha Kaushik holds a Master of Technology(2008) from BarKatullah University , Bhopal, M.P. India and Pursuing Ph.D from MANIT Bhopal REFERENCES , India. She is a member of CSI and IETE (Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers). Her general research interests include wireless communication especially Ad-hoc network, network security.  Matthias Hollick, jens Schmitt, Christian seipl,‘’On the Effect of Node Misbehaviour in Ad hoc Network” IEEE conference ,vol 6, pp 3759 – 3763,2004.  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