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					Knowledge absorption capacity
Knowledge absorption capacity
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MBA from a think tank Wikipedia (http://wiki.mbalib.com/)
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Knowledge absorptive capacity of the proposed
"Absorptive capacity" concept first by Cohen and Levinthal role
in the analysis of R & D proposed. In Cohen and Levinthal, economists
from the business point of view of the absorptive capacity of advanced technology
FDI spillovers to local firms, they think that the learning ability of local enterprises or
the promotion of technological absorptive capacity of knowledge spillover effects of
the main factors. The emerging process of industrialization in developing countries,
through external technology introduction, FDI Dengfangshilai realize the technology
to catch up on Fadaguojia, namely the introduction, digestion, absorption, from
imitation to innovation. Research shows that Japan and South Korea Industrial
Technology one of the major fast-growing, is the Korean and Japanese companies on
new knowledge and strong absorption of new technologies, able to imitate, improve,
innovative trilogy to create competitive advantage.
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The definition of absorptive capacity of knowledge
The definition of absorptive capacity for knowledge, Cohen cited the knowledge
absorption capacity for the enterprise concept. Knowledge absorptive capacity refers
to the external information, corporate awareness of its value, and absorption and the
ability for commercial terminal. According to the few successful industrialization of
backward countries experience, enterprises absorb knowledge from outside the
process can be divided into four stages: acquisition, absorption, transformation and
exploitation.
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Knowledge absorptive capacity of the composition
Can be seen from the definition of enterprise knowledge absorptive capacity consists
of four: knowledge acquisition ability, knowledge absorptive capacity, knowledge
transfer and knowledge utilization capacity. Among them,
1. Knowledge acquisition capacity is generated on the outside of the enterprise of
knowledge critical to the ability to determine and access;
2. Knowledge and ability to absorb external knowledge are emphasized within the
enterprise effectively be explained and understood, can not be understood knowledge
is difficult to re-use development;
3. Knowledge is the ability to transform knowledge to new external and internal
integration of existing knowledge effectively;
4. Knowledge development and utilization of capacity is shared by the use of internal
and external knowledge and to develop new knowledge.
Capacity of more than four could be classified into two categories: potential
absorptive capacity of knowledge (including knowledge acquisition and absorption)
and the absorptive capacity of practical knowledge (including knowledge transfer and
exploitation).
Potential absorptive capacity of knowledge is the premise of corporate use of external
knowledge, practical knowledge absorption capacity of the enterprise through the use
of external knowledge, innovation and maintain a key competitive advantage. From
the above discussion can be seen, the potential of knowledge and absorptive capacity
depends more Qing Xiang Yu Enterprise Zishenziyuan Yiji external knowledge source
characteristic, but to the knowledge absorption capacity by the Qian Zai Zhuan Hua
Wei Shi Ji knowledge absorptive capacity and business activities of real Fahui role of
创新, you need the enterprise in the communication, cooperation efforts.
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Knowledge absorptive capacity factors
Based on the above understanding of absorptive capacity of enterprises, we see that
the absorptive capacity of enterprises subject to corporate knowledge base, corporate
learning effort and learning, R & D investment, the impact of organizational
learning mechanisms.
1. Enterprise knowledge base
The enterprise knowledge base of individuals and organizations from the division of
two levels, including business knowledge and a priori knowledge of the internal staff.
Cohen and LevintIlal stressed the absorptive capacity of individual staff
organizational absorptive capacity is proposed based on their past knowledge,
experiences and knowledge absorptive capacity of their own closely related. Level of
knowledge of internal staff decision to the enterprise to respond to the sensitivity of
knowledge and accuracy. Organization of personal or technical team Chengyuan of
the more extensive knowledge and experience, knowledge Leibieyueduo, Xiang Ying
Di, the information that they can explain the more diverse, the more able to solve
more difficult problems.
Cohen and LevintIlal enterprise knowledge in discussion determinants of absorptive
capacity, they made a priori knowledge of the enterprise. Prior knowledge that
possessed their own level of knowledge and knowledge content, that is, the level of
business knowledge itself and knowledge of content knowledge for the enterprise,
absorption, application of external new knowledge has an important role. Knowledge
absorptive capacity of enterprises is largely a function of their prior knowledge. Priori
knowledge of the breadth of enterprise business valuation determines the scope of the
capacity of external knowledge; business impact of prior knowledge of the depth of
absorptive capacity to improve the speed of business.
2. Enterprise learning effort and learning methods
To enhance the business potential absorptive capacity of enterprises, the enterprise
members only access to knowledge is not enough, also depends on the intensity of
their efforts. If only the emphasis on corporate knowledge base knowledge may be too
passive, in fact, whether personal or organizational knowledge absorption efficiency
in the short term to rely more on their own knowledge base, but in the long term on
the desire to acquire knowledge, enthusiasm is even more critical This is Japan, Korea
and Taiwan enterprises in the fast technological progress, or even ahead of some
Western countries one of the reasons companies. Korean companies tend to take to
create a crisis strategy to enhance their learning effort, technology transfer, the effect
will be particularly significant. That the manufacturing crisis, the strategy is to create
an enterprise must be fully engaged in learning new technology was able to relieve the
crisis situation, to enhance enterprise learning initiative.
Absorb new knowledge not only of memory and recitation, to new knowledge into
existing knowledge systems and make full use of this requires an effective learning
methods and through a lot of practice. Doing so is important to absorb new
knowledge and learning tools and necessary process. Some industries such as textile
industry, only emphasize the introduction of technology, ignoring the digestion and
absorption, which led to quick success and learning practices into the
"technology catch-up" trap, from the introduction of backward
to re-introduce, but also behind the vicious circle of state.
3. The dual role of R & D
Cohen and Levinthal believes that the role of corporate R & D, not only to
solve problems and create new knowledge, but also enhance the company's
technological absorptive capacity. R & D scale to enhance the absorptive
capacity of enterprises is closely related, so when the absorptive capacity affect
competitive advantage, companies will take a more active R & D strategy,
the relative size of the R & D investment will be larger. In Japan, use more
members of the consortium through several financial capital to a large input into
fostering cooperation Development cooperation Xiangmu achieve Di Yan Jiu.
However, the absorptive capacity and improve industrial technology often requires
significant investment of resources, then simply rely on the enterprise-based R
& D approach is clearly not conducive to the upgrading of industrial
technology absorptive capacity. Here that the Government R & D,
government R & D help to improve the industrial maturity, the maturity of
the different industries would affect the business of technology learning, absorbing.
Maturity of different industries, resulting in the accumulation of industrial technology,
knowledge base different. Government R & D activities related to basic,
time-consuming, risky, high cost of research. MITI interviews support the view, the
main purpose of government R & D is to maintain a high standard of
research and development investment and increase technological capabilities.
4. Organizational learning mechanism is an important factor affecting absorption
capacity
Up to the potential absorption capacity of knowledge into practical knowledge
absorptive capacity and innovation activities of enterprises in real play, in addition to
corporate R & D activities of the inputs to the 指标 for the organization
learning mechanisms play a crucial role. Organizational learning, including external
learning and internal learning. External study refers to the so-called technical
imitation, transfer and introduction of external technology and to seek, skills transfer
mechanism of the external learning organization plays an important role. Learning
refers to the internal organization of knowledge diffusion and knowledge innovation
activities, among various departments within the enterprise, knowledge exchange and
sharing among members of the internal learning mechanisms play an important role.
To maintain and improve the enterprise's technological learning, and
enhance technical capacity, more effectively and quickly absorb new knowledge, new
technology, we must foster the establishment of organizational learning capacity of
the external mechanism. This mechanism can improve the conduct of organizational
learning and good security conditions and the driving force, so that employees have to
stay in school, good at learning and enjoy learning atmosphere and environment to
continue to effectively nurture and improve their organizational ability to learn.
In-house study, explained the knowledge within the enterprise, sharing,
transformation and use of the learning organization to rely on internal mechanisms. If
the knowledge outside the firm can not meet the organization's values or
interests, it will be difficult in the internal transfer, proliferation or use of: the
organizational structure is too closed, rigid and not conducive to internal members
and external sources of knowledge exchange, and intersectoral ties will be restrained,
bound to the capacity of enterprise knowledge absorption have a negative impact.
Activation of technical knowledge, technical innovation is the external environment
and changes in market demand to stimulate the result will be so effective technology
opportunities, market opportunities and technical reserves of the organic combination
of the existing technical capacity, could raise the key is from the Potential Absorptive
Capacityof Xiang the key to changing the actual absorption capacity, the only way to
truly achieve its technology into corporate profits. By the potential absorption
capacity into actual absorptive capacity depends on the internal learning mechanisms.
From the above analysis, the absorptive capacity of enterprises will be knowledge
based enterprise knowledge, learning effort and learning, R & D investment
level, organizational learning mechanisms influence the four factors, the relationship
shown in Figure 1. Knowledge absorption capacity of judge, may obtain, from the
four elements of Nu Li in the degree of operational performance to Zuochu
comprehensive judgments.

Enhance the absorptive capacity of the proposed knowledge
Through the above discussion, for the factors put forward the following suggestions to
enhance the absorptive capacity of knowledge-based enterprises:
1. Focus on talent, a talent training mechanism
Level of knowledge and experience in the recruitment of power is much more
abundant staff, 特别 is to emphasize the diversity of background, in order to
encourage enterprises to increase the digestive capacity and the knowledge level of
the Xin. Vigorously into education and training, attention to personnel training,
regular staff training, organizational learning, by changing of the guard exchange,
cross-sectoral regional mobile office to train fully engaged in technical and
management capabilities. Can also form a cross-sectoral learning enterprise team, to
promote knowledge diffusion and sharing within the organization to increase the stock
of basic knowledge of business and breadth.
2. To improve the degree of learning to match the strategy of independent innovation
Starting from the enterprise technology strategy for technology development to set a
higher benchmark, to increase the enterprise must learn new knowledge and new
technology strength. According to technical characteristics of its own evolution,
companies can use technology introduction, joint ventures and mergers and
acquisitions, etc. and the method of combining independent research and development
to ensure the company's technological leadership, to reduce the cost of
absorbing and timely to promote business growth.
3. Emphasis on R & D
Through a large number of government and corporate R & D investment,
scientific and technological research to improve the enterprise hardware and software
facilities, enhance the level of technological innovation and ability to enhance the
knowledge and ability. Enterprises to combine two independent R & D and
technology transfer strategies to enhance R & D input by the introduction of
technology level. Enterprises can be with the University, particularly that research
Daxue of Hezuo, Bici Jianlizhanlue the alliance relationship between, continuously
enhance the knowledge and absorptive capacity, will 新 product development and
promotion play a significant role in promoting.
4. To establish a learning organization and the combination of enterprise culture
In an atmosphere filled with learning, forge ahead in an atmosphere more conducive
to the construction of enterprise culture and better knowledge management, learning
organization should be established and combined with the building of enterprise
culture.
5. The establishment of enterprise communication network external knowledge
Search on the technology, build their own IT networks to collect and transfer the latest
research and development information can also be sent personnel to learn from
leading technology companies. The transfer of skills, the company should pay
attention to the establishment of strategic alliances and to find partners, set up with
the advanced enterprises, especially research universities and research institutes and
cooperative relations.

				
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