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Specifying And Validating Quality Characteristics For Academic Web-sites – Indian Origin

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					                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                     Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

     Specifying And Validating Quality Characteristics
         For Academic Web-sites – Indian Origin

                     Ritu Shrivastava                                                                  J. L. Rana
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering                            Retired Professor, Department of Computer Science and
     Sagar Institute of Research Technology & Science                                              Engineering
                  Bhopal 462007, India                                            Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
                                                                                               Bhopal 462002, India


                                                                M Kumar
                                   Prof. & Dean, Department of Computer Science and Engineering
                                              Sagar Institute of Research & Technology
                                                       Bhopal 462007, India


Abstract— Every stakeholder of Academic Web-sites is mainly                  Institute Web-sites (Indian Origin) from point of view of
concerned with external quality, viz., usability, functionality, and         usability, and to theoretically validate the proposed model.
reliability. Signore and Olsina have given hierarchical quality
characteristics for measuring quality of Web-sites, especially for
e-commerce and museum domains. In this paper, the authors
                                                                                                 II.   LITRATURE SURVEY
have proposed a hierarchical model of attributes, sub-attributes,                The quality of software being developed has always been
and metrics for measuring external quality of academic Web-                  prime concern of software engineers. Some widely used
sites – Indian origin. The theoretical validation of model has been          software quality models were proposed by Boehm et. al. [8],
carried out using distance measure construction method. The                  and McCall and Covano [9]. Complexity is probably the most
empirical validation is in progress and will be reported soon.               important attribute of software because it influences a number
                                                                             of other attributes such as maintainability, understandability,
   Keywords-component; Web-site Quality, Academic domain,                    modifiability, and testability.
Hierarchical model, Attributes, Metrics
                                                                                 International bodies such as ISO and CEN(European) are
                       I.    INTRODUCTION                                    trying to integrate different approaches to the definition of
                                                                             quality, starting from the awareness that the quality as an
    World Wide Web (WWW) has been the fasted adopted                         attribute which changes developer’s perspective and action
technology. Every day many new Web-sites are uploaded on                     context [10]. The ISO/IEC 9126 model [10] defines three
Web. Often quality of Web-sites is unsatisfactory and basic                  views of quality: user’s view, developer’s view, and manager’s
Web principles like inter-portability and accessibility are                  view. Users are interested in the quality in use (external quality
ignored [1,2]. The main reason for lack of quality is                        attributes), while developers are interested in internal quality
unavailability of trained staff in Web technologies/engineering              attributes such as maintainability, portability, etc.. This model
and orientation of Web towards a more complex XML based                      is hierarchical and contains six major quality attributes each
architecture [1,2,3].                                                        very broad in nature. They are subdivided into 27 sub-attributes
    Web-sites can be categorized as informative or cultural, e-              that contribute to external quality and 21 sub-attributes that
commerce, e-government, museums, tourism, and academic                       contribute to internal quality. The users are interested in
intensive. It is obvious that domains differ significantly, and              external quality, viz., usability, functionality, reliability, and
hence a common yardstick can not be applied to measure                       efficiency of Web-sites. These attributes and sub-attributes in
quality of all Web-sites. Loranca et. al. [4] and Olsina et. al. [5]         ISO 9126 are of very general in nature and can be applied to
have identified attributes, sub-attributes, and metrics for e-               Web-sites as well.
commerce based Web-sites. Olsina et. al. [6] have also                           Olsina et. al.[5,6] have proposed hierarchical model of
specified metrics for Web-sites of museums. Tripathi and                     attributes, sub-attributes and metric for Web-sites of museum
Kumar [7] have specified quality characteristics for e-                      and e-commerce domains. They have also developed a
commerce based Web-sites of Indian origin from external point                technique called QEM to measure quality of these sites [5].
of view.                                                                     Tripathi and Kumar [7] have identified attributes, sub-attributes
    The aim of this research is to identify attributes, sub-                 and metrics for Indian origin e-commerce Web-sites. They
attributes, and metrics for measuring quality of Academic                    have validated the proposed quality characteristic model both
                                                                             theoretically and empirically [11]. In this research we are




                                                                       107                               http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                         ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                  (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                       Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
proposing a hierarchical model of attributes and sub-attributes                 It is necessary that any new model of attributes, sub-
to measure quality of academic institute Web-sites of Indian                attributes and metrics is properly validated before it is put to
origin. The model is also theoretically validated.                          use by professionals and academia. The process of validation is
                                                                            described in the next section.
         III.   PROPOSED QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
    In fact, software artifacts are generally produced to satisfy               IV.    THEORETICAL VALIDATION OF PROPOSED
specific user’s need, and Web-sites are no exception. In                                HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF METRICS
designing Web-sites care should be taken that a user entering                   Recent software engineering literature has shown a concern
for the first time at a given home page should be able to find a            for the quality of methods to validate software product
piece of information quickly. For this, there are attributes like           metrics (e.g., see [12][13][14]). This concern is due to fact
site map, an index, or a table of contents that help in getting             that: (i) common practices for the validation of software
quick global site understanding that facilitates browsing.                  engineering metrics are not acceptable on scientific grounds,
Alternatively, a global searching function on the home page                 and (ii) valid measures are essential          for       effective
could help retrieving required piece of information and avoid               software project management and sound empirical research.
browsing. The site understandability increases if both the                  According to Kitchenham et al. [13] "unless the software
functions are included. The main attributes that enhance the                measurement community                 can      agree on
Web-site external quality are usability, functionality, and                           a         valid,            consistent,       and
reliability. A quality attribute can be decomposed into multiple            comprehensive theory of measurement validation, we have no
levels of sub-attributes and finally a sub-attribute can be                 scientific basis for the discipline of software measurement, a
refined in a set of measurable attributes or metrics. The                   situation potentially disastrous for both practice and research."
proposed hierarchical model of metrics to measure external                  Therefore, to have confidence in the utility of the many metrics
quality of academic Web-sites is given in Fig. 1.                           those are proposed from research labs, it is crucial that they are
                                                                            validated.
                                                                                  The validation of software product metrics means
1       Usability                                                         2.3. Student-Oriented Features
    1.1. Global Site understandability                                         2.3.1 Academic Infrastructure Information
          1.1.1 Site Map(location map)                                                 2.3.1.1    Library Information
          1.1.2 Table of Content                                                       2.3.1.2    Laboratory Information
          1.1.3 Alphabetical Index                                                     2.3.1.3    Research Facility Information
          1.1.4 Campus Image Map                                                       2.3.1.4    Central Computing Facility Information
          1.1.5 Guided Tour                                                    2.3.2 Student Service Information
    1.2. On-line Feedback and Help Features                                            2.3.2.1    Hostel Facility Information
          1.2.1 Student Oriented Help                                                  2.3.2.2    Sport Facilities
          1.2.2 Search Help                                                            2.3.2.3    Canteen Facility Information
          1.2.3 Web-site last Update Indicator                                         2.3.2.4    Scholarship Information
          1.2.4 E-mail Directory                                                       2.3.2.5    Doctor/Medical Facility Information
          1.2.5 Phone Directory                                                2.3.3 Academic Information
          1.2.6 FAQ                                                                    2.3.3.1    Courses Offered Information
          1.2.7 On-line Feedback in form of Questionnaire                              2.3.3.2     Academic Unit (Department) Information
    1.3. Interface and Aesthetic Features                                              2.3.3.3    Academic Unit t Site Map
          1.3.1 Link Color Style Uniformity                                            2.3.3.4    Syllabus Information
          1.3.2 Global Style Uniformity                                                2.3.3.5    Syllabus Search
          1.3.3 What is New Feature                                            2.3.4 Enrollment Information
          1.3.4 Grouping of Main Control Objects                                       2.3.4.1    Notification uploaded
                                                                                       2.3.4.2    Form Fill/Download
2       Functionality                                                          2.3.5 Online Services
    2.1. Search Mechanism                                                              2.3.5.1    Grade/ Result Information
          2.1.1 People Search                                                          2.3.5.2    Fee dues/Deposit Information
          2.1.2 Course Search                                                          2.3.5.3    News Group Services
          2.1.3 Academic Department Search
          2.1.4 Global Search                                         3    Reliability
    2.2. Navigation and Browsing                                       3.1. Link and Other Errors
          2.2.1 Path Indicator                                                       3.1.1    Dangling Links
          2.2.2 Current Position Indicator                                           3.1.2    Invalid Links
          2.2.3 Average Links Per Page                                               3.1.3    Unimplemented Links
          2.2.4 Vertical Scrolling                                                   3.1.4    Browser Difference Error
          2.2.5 Horizontal Scrolling                                                 3.1.5    Unexpected Under Construction Pages
                                                                      4 Efficiency
                                                                      4.1 Performance
                                                                                     4.1.1    Matching of Link Title and Page Information
                                                                                     4.1.2    Support for Text only Version
                                                                                     4.1.3    Global Readability
                                                                                     4.1.4    Multilingual Support

Fig. 1 Quality Characteristics For Academic Institute Web-sites




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                                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                     (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                          Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
  convincingly demonstrating that :                                                     Weyuker and Braind et al.[19]
    1. The product metrics measures what it purports to
measure. For example, that a coupling metrics really measures                     For the theoretical validation DISTANCE framework
coupling.                                                                      proposed by Poels and Dedene[18], is a conceptual
                                                                               framework for software metric validation grounded in
    2. The product metric is associated with some important                    measurement theory. This is briefly described below :
external metric (such as measures of maintainability or
reliability).                                                                   A. The DISTANCE Measure Construction Procedure
    3. The product metric is an improvement over existing
product metrics. An improvement can mean, for example,                             The measure construction procedure prescribes five
that it is easier to collect the metric or that it is a better                 activities. The procedure is triggered by a request to construct
predictor of faults.                                                           a measure for a property that characterizes the element of
                                                                               some set of objects. The activities of the DISTANCE
    According to Fenton [15], there are two types of validation                procedure are given here. For notational convenience, let P
that are recognized: internal and external. Internal validation                be a set of objects that are characterized by some property
is a theoretical exercise that ensures that the metric is a proper             pty for which a measure needs to be constructed.
numerical characterization of the property it claims to
measure. Demonstrating that a metric measures what it                            1) Finding a measurement abstraction: The object
purports to measure is a form of theoretical validation.                       of interest must be modeled in such a way that the property
External validation involves empirically demonstrating points                  for which a measure is needed is emphasized. A suitable
(2) and (3) above. Internal and external validations are also                  representation, called measurement abstraction hereafter,
commonly referred to as theoretical and empirical validation                   should allow to what extent an object is characterized by the
respectively [13].      Both types       of     validation     are             property to be observed. By comparing measurement
necessary. The approaches used in two validations are shown                    abstraction we should be able to tell whether an object is
in Figure 2.                                                                   more, equally or less characterized by the property than other
                                                                               object.
                                                                                 2)     Defining distance between measurement abstraction:
                           METRIC                                              This activity is based on a generic definition of distance that
                          DEFINITION                                           hold for elements in a set. To define distance between
                                                                               elements in a set, the concept of ‘elementary transformation
                                                                               function’ is used.
                                                                                 3) Quantifying           distance     betweenmeasurement
                                                                                 abstraction: This activity requires the definition of a
                                                                                 distance measure for the element of M. Basically this
      THEORETICAL                          EMPIRICAL                             means that the distance defined in the previous activity are
       VALIDATION                         VALIDATION                             now quantified by representing i.e. measuring them as the
                                                                                 number of elementary transformation by representing i.e.
    Property
     Based
                   Measureme
                   nt Theory
                                                                                 measuring them as the number of elementary
                                       Experi        Case     Surv
    Approach         based             ments         Stud      eys               transformations in the shortest sequence of elementary
                                                      ies
                                                                                 transformation between elements. Formally, the activity
                                                                                 results in the definition of a metric MxM→R that can be
                                                                                 used to map the distance between a pair of elements in M
      Fig. 2 Approaches to Software Metrics Validation
                                                                                 to a real number.
     The main goal of theoretical validation is to assess                           4)     Finding a reference abstraction: This activity
 whether a metric actually measures what it purports to                          require a kind of thought experiment. We need to
 measure [15]. In the context of an empirical study, the                         determine what the measurement abstraction for the object
 theoretical validation of metrics establishes their construct                   in P would look like if they were characterized by the
 validity, i.e. it ‘proves’ that they are valid measures for the                 theoretical lowest amount pty. If such a hypothetical
 constructs that are used as variables in the study. There is                    measurement abstraction can be found, then this object is
 not yet a standard, accepted way of theoretically validating                    called the reference abstraction for P with respect to pty.
 software metric. Work on theoretical validation has followed                       5) Defining a measure for the property: The final
 two paths (see Fig 2), viz.
                                                                                 activity consists of defining a measure for pty. Since
      •    Measurment-theory based approach such as                              properties are formally defined as distances, and
           those proposed by Whitmire[16], Zuse[17], and                         these distances are quantified with a metric function,
           Poels and Dedene [18]                                                 the formal outcome of this activity is the definition of a
      •    Property-based     approach               (also      called           function μ:P→R such that p Є P: μ(p)= δ(abs(p), ref(p)).
           axiomatic approaches), such          as      proposed by
                                                                                 B. Metric Validation


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                                                                                                          ISSN 1947-5500
                                                   (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                        Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

   The proposed hierarchical model of metrics given in
Fig 2 is validated using Distance methodology. We have
used the five activities of DISTANCE measure procedure
for metrics of the model and important metrics are
summarized in Table 1




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                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                              Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010


                          TABLE I. DISTANCE BASED VALIDATION CRITERIA FOR METRICS

   Quality      Metrics                                                Validation
                            Measurement     Defining distance         Quantifying         Hypothetical             Determining a
                            Abstraction   between two extreme         distance e in          reference              measure ptv
                                              abstraction               extremes           abstraction
                 1.1.1        Nominal            Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no map        EQ=1, if map available
                 1.1.2        Nominal            Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no table      EQ=1, if table available
                 1.1.3        Nominal            Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}           EQ=0, if no          EQ=1, if alphabetic
                                                                                         alphabetic index           index available
                 1.1.4        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no image        EQ=1, if image map
                                                                                                map                    available
                 1.1.5        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no guided       EQ=1, if guided tour
                                                                                                tour                   available
                 1.2.1        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no student         EQ=1, if student
                                                                                           oriented help       oriented help available
                 1.2.2        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no search       EQ=1, if search help
                                                                                                help                   available
                 1.2.3        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no update           EQ=1, if update
                                                                                             indicator            indicator available
                 1.2.4        Ordinal     Complete/Partial/No        EQ = {1,0.5,0}     EQ=0, if no email         EQ=1, if complete
                                                                                             directory              email directory
  Usability                                                                                                            available
                 1.2.5        Ordinal     Complete/Partial/No        EQ = {1,0.5,0}     EQ=0, if no phone         EQ=1, if complete
                                                                                           directory                phone directory
                                                                                                                       available
                 1.2.6        Ordinal     Exhaustive/Partial/No      EQ = {1,0.5,0}     EQ=0, if no FAQ          EQ=1, if exhaustive
                                                                                                                    FAQs available
                 1.2.7        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no          EQ=1, if feedback
                                                                                             feedback             available available
                 1.3.1        Ordinal      Uniform/Partial/No        EQ = {1,0.5,0}   EQ=0, if no link color   EQ=1, if uniform link
                                                                                                 style           color style available
                 1.3.2        Ordinal      Uniform/Partial/No        EQ = {1,0.5,0}     EQ=0, if no global      EQ=1, if global style
                                                                                         style uniformity       uniformity available
                 1.3.3        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}         EQ=0, if no new        EQ=1, if new feature
                                                                                               feature                 available
                 1.3.4        Ordinal     Complete/Partial/No        EQ = {1,0.5,0}   EQ=0, if no grouping        EQ=1, if complete
                                                                                             of objects          grouping of objects
                 2.1.1        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no people      EQ=1, if people search
                                                                                                search                 available
                 2.1.2        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ=0, if no course      EQ=1, if course search
                                                                                                search                 available
Functionality    2.1.3        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}            EQ=0, if no         EQ=1, if department
                                                                                        department search           search available
                 2.1.4        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}        EQ=0, if no global     EQ=1, if global search
                                                                                                search                 available
                 2.2.1        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}        EQ = 0, if no path     EQ=1, if path indicator
Functionality                                                                                 indicator                available
                 2.2.2        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}      EQ = 0, if no current         EQ=1, if current
                                                                                               position            position available
                 2.2.3        Ordinal      Good/Average/Bad          EQ = {1,0.5,0}   EQ = 0, if no average     EQ=1, if average link
                                                                                           link per page          per page 6 or more
                 2.2.4        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}      EQ = 0, if no vertical       EQ=1, if vertical
                                                                                              scrolling           scrolling available
                 2.2.5        Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no         EQ=1, if horizontal
                                                                                       horizontal scrolling       scrolling available
                2.3.1.1       Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ = 0, if no library    EQ=1, if library Info
                                                                                                 info                  available
                2.3.1.2       Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no         EQ=1, if laboratory
                                                                                          laboratory info            Info available
                2.3.1.3       Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}      EQ = 0, if no research       EQ=1, if research
                                                                                               facility            facility available
                2.3.1.4       Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ = 0, if no central        EQ=1, if central
                                                                                        computing facility        computing facility
                                                                                                                       available
                2.3.2.1       Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ = 0, if no hostel    EQ=1, if hostel facility
                                                                                          facility info              info available
                2.3.2.2       Nominal           Yes/No                EQ = {1,0}       EQ = 0, if no sports    EQ=1, if sports facility




                                                             111                               http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                               ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                     Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
     Quality       Metrics                                                     Validation
                              Measurement         Defining distance           Quantifying              Hypothetical              Determining a
                              Abstraction       between two extreme           distance e in              reference                measure ptv
                                                    abstraction                 extremes                abstraction
                                                                                                        facility info             info available
                   2.3.2.3      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no canteen       EQ=1, if canteen
                                                                                                        facility info         facility info available
                   2.3.2.4      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}              EQ = 0, if no          EQ=1, if scholarship
                                                                                                      scholarship info            info available
                   2.3.2.5      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no medical       EQ=1, if medical
                                                                                                        facility info         facility info available
                   2.3.3.1      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no courses       EQ=1, if courses
                                                                                                        offered info          offered info available
                   2.3.3.2      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}              EQ = 0, if no           EQ=1, if department
                                                                                                      department info             info available
                   2.3.3.3      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}            EQ = 0, if no Dept.     EQ=1, if Dept. site map
                                                                                                          site map                   available
                   2.3.3.4      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no syllabus    EQ=1, if syllabus info
                                                                                                             info                    available
                   2.3.3.5      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no syllabus      EQ=1, if syllabus
                                                                                                           search                search available
                   2.3.4.1      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}              EQ = 0, if no          EQ=1, if notifications
                                                                                                        notifications                available
                   2.3.4.2      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}            EQ = 0, if no form           EQ=1, if form
                                                                                                         download              download available


                   2.3.5.1       Ordinal         Complete/Partial/No         EQ = {1,0.5,0}          EQ = 0, if no result    EQ=1, if all sem result
                                                                                                             info               info available
                   2.3.5.2       Ordinal         Complete/Partial/No         EQ = {1,0.5,0}         EQ = 0, if no fee dues   EQ=1, if full fee dues
 Functionality                                                                                               info               info available
                   2.3.5.3      Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}            EQ = 0, if no news       EQ=1, if news group
                                                                                                           group                  available
                    3.1.1       Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}               EQ = 0, if no        EQ=1, if dangling link
                                                                                                       dangling link              available
                    3.1.2        Ordinal         High /Medium/ Low          EQ={1, if bet 0-         EQ = 0, if invalid      EQ=1, if invalid links
                                                                            2; 0.5, if bet 3-5;       links 6 or more               bet 0-2
                                                                            0, if 6 or more}
                    3.1.3        Ordinal         High /Medium/ Low          EQ={1, if bet 0-              EQ = 0 if                  EQ=1, if
  Reliability                                                               2; 0.5, if bet 3-5;     unimplemented link 6      unimplemented links
                                                                            0, if 6 or more}               or more                    bet 0-2
                    3.1.4       Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0, if no browser       EQ=1, if browser
                                                                                                          difference           difference available
                    3.1.5        Ordinal         High /Medium/ Low          EQ={between 0-                EQ = 0 if                  EQ=1, if
                                                                              2, 3-5, 6 or          unconstructed pages 6     unconstructed bet 0-2
                                                                                 more}                     or more
                    4.1.1        Ordinal         High /Medium/ Low          EQ={between 0-          EQ = 0 if unmatching      EQ=1, if unmatching
                                                                              2, 3-5, 6 or             link 6 or more            link bet 0-2
                                                                                 more}
                    4.1.2       Nominal                Yes/No                 EQ = {1,0}            EQ = 0, if no support     EQ=1, if support for
   Efficiency                                                                                                                   text only version
                    4.1.3       Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}           EQ = 0 if no global         EQ=6, if global
                                                                                                         reliability             reliability good
                    4.1.4       Nominal                Yes/No                  EQ = {1,0}              EQ = 0, if no          EQ=1, if multilingual
                                                                                                    multilingual support       support available

                      V.     CONCLUSION                                                           VI.   ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We have proposed a hierarchical model of attributes, sub-                 Authors sincerely thank Dr R. K. Pandey, Director, Institute of
attributes, and metrics for measuring quality of Indian origin            Technology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal for his constant
academic Web-sites from the point of view of usability, which is          support and expert guidance during preparation of this paper.
of major concern to users (stake holders). The proposed metrics
are theoretically validated using distance measure construction
procedure and results are shown in the Table 1. The empirical
validation is in progress and will be reported soon.

                                                                              REFRENCES
                                                                              [1] O. Signore , “ Towards a quality model for Web-sites” , CMG
                                                                                  Poland Annual Conference, Warsaw, 9-10 May, 2005,
                                                                                  http://www.w3c.it/papers/cmg2005Poland-quality.pdf.



                                                                    112                                      http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                             ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                                  Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
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          Published by Macmillan 2006).                                                  Science at S.I.R.T. , Bhopal. He was Professor and Head
                                                                                         Computer applications at M.A.N.I.T., Bhopal. He has 42 years
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                           AUTHORS PROFILE
Ritu Shrivastava has taught computer science to graduate
students for 17 yrs in institutions like MANIT, Bhopal, Amity
University, Delhi. She is actively involved in research in the
field of object-oriented software engineering/technology.
e-mail ritushrivastava08@gmail.com




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