Performance of Hybrid Routing Protocol for Adhoc Network under Bandwidth Constraints by ijcsiseditor


									                                                      (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                           Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

           A K Daniel                           R Singh                                   J P Saini
       Assistant Professor                  Assistant Professor                         Principal
 Computer Sc & Engg Department            Department of CS & I T                 M M M Engineering College
   M M M Engineering College           M J P Rohilkhand University               GORAKHPUR (U P) India
   GORAKHPUR (U P) India                BAREILLY (U P) India                 

ABSTRACT: An Ad hoc network is a collection of                   network technology presents a great potential in
wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a                      application domains where infrastructure deployment is
temporary network without the use of any existing                expensive or not possible, like battlefield environments
network infrastructure or centralized administration.            [1], transportation [2] or ambient intelligence scenarios
Routing protocols used inside ad hoc networks must               [3]. Cornerstones of ad hoc networks are routing
be prepared to automatically adjust to an                        protocols. These protocols are specifically designed to
environment that can vary between the extremes of                promote dissemination of routing information among
high mobility with low band width, and low mobility              network nodes. The goal is to allow the creation of
with high bandwidth. In this paper, a bandwidth-                 communication links between any two network nodes
efficient multicast routing protocol for ad-hoc                  and responsible for enabling network communications.
networks is presented. A hybrid routing protocol                 While exchanging information, the nodes may continue
under bandwidth constraints (HRP-BC) has been                    to move, so the network must be prepared to adapt
proposed. The proposed protocol achieves low                     continually [4][5][6]. The network infrastructure
communication over head, and achieves high                       component such as repeaters or base-stations will
multicast efficiency this protocol has improved                  frequently be either undesirable or not directly
existing routing protocols by creating a mesh and                reachable, the nodes must be prepared to organize
providing multiple alternate routes. The protocol                themselves into a network and establish routes among
considered the following 1) Route setup as routing               themselves without any outside support. In the simplest
Distance of path, 2) Load at the node as traffic and 3)          cases, the nodes may be able to communicate directly
Bandwidth as queue length at the node. The                       with each other. However, ad hoc networks must also
proposed scheme utilizes the path information,                   support communication between nodes that are only
traffic and bandwidth resource information at each               indirectly connected by a series of hops through other
node, for selection of route path, and compared to               nodes. In general, an ad hoc network looks like a
traditional DSR schemes. The simulation results                  network in which every mobile node is potentially a
shows that the proposed         HRP-BC        protocol           router, and all nodes run a routing protocol[7][8].
achieves better performance to the DSR protocol for              Unfortunately, standard routing algorithms work poorly in
the maintenance overhead and the path reliability. It            a mobile environment in which network topology
reduces congestion in network and improves                       changes may be drastic and frequent as the individual
bandwidth utilization. Thus provide efficient use of             mobile nodes move. Such protocols are specifically
bandwidth in the ad hoc network.                                 designed to work in absence of fixed infrastructures. In
                                                                 order to promote dissemination of routing information,
                                                                 nodes must cooperate and rely on each other to provide
Keywords MANET, Proactive, Reactive, Hybrid, bandwidth           routing services. To allow the creation of communication
                                                                 links between any two Network nodes, nodes can
INTRODUCTION                                                     function both as end-hosts within each node’s radio
An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile             range, and as intermediate routers for other network
nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without            nodes far apart[9][10]. A link is a one hop connection
the use of any exiting network infrastructures or                between two nodes. A set of links enabling the
centralized administration. Ad-hoc networks are self-            communication between a source and a destination
configuring and self-maintaining networks that allow             defines as multi-hop route. The applications running
dispensing of fixed infrastructures. The networks rely on        inside network nodes communicate among them through
nodes cooperation for providing packet routing. Ad-hoc           data flows and. exchanging of different types of data

                                                                                           ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                             Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
packets in side the network. In ad hoc mobile networks,             ease the entrance of new nodes. This property is their
routes are mainly multihop because of the limited radio             biggest strength as well as their main security weakness.
propagation range and topology changes frequently and               In this paper, the proposed HRP-BM protocol deals with
unpredictably since each network host moves randomly.               the issue of reliable multicast to reduce the maintenance
The routing protocols can be divided into two types                 overhead increase the path stability, reducing the
reactive and proactive. The Reactive routing protocols              congestion in mobile ad-hoc network and efficient use of
find a route on demand by flooding the network with                 bandwidth. The proposed protocol requires only a small
Route Request packets. Conversely, proactive routing                number of control packets to setup and maintain
protocols maintain fresh lists of destinations and their            multicast routes as well as a small number of packet
routes by periodically distributing routing tables ,                transmissions to deliver multicast packets to the
therefore routing is an integral part of ad hoc                     receivers, and has high multicast efficiency with low
communications, and has received interests from many                communication overhead.
researchers. Furthermore, the wireless channel is also a            The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The
shared-access medium and the available bandwidth also               problem statement is given in section II .The proposed
varies with the number of hosts contending for the                  model and algorithm to solve the problem is given in
channel. Due to its ease of deployment and no                       section III. The comparative results are discussed in
centralized control unit, mobile nodes can connect with             section IV Finally, conclusions and future work are
each other in any form of network topology at                       discussed in Section V and VI respectively.
anytime[11][12]. All mobile nodes serve as routers and
maintain the dynamic time-varying network topology. In              II.PROBLEM STATEMENT: ROUTING AND
MANETs, multicasting service plays an important role in
bandwidth saving for some applications such as
                                                                    BAND WIDTH MANAGEMENT IN ADHOC
emergent events one to- one unicast              transports.        NETWORKS
Without multicast capability, data Stream        must be            Ad hoc network has emerged as one of the most
sent to all receivers by multiple unicast connections.              focused research areas in the field of wireless networks
Several researches deal with this issue       recently. The         and mobile computing. Ad hoc networks consist of hosts
network utilization will become inefficient and much more           communicating one another with portable radios The
transmission and control overheads will be introduced               basic routing problem is that of finding an ordered series
[13]. There are many multicast protocols in traditional             of intermediate nodes that can transport a packet across
wired networks such as Distance Vector Multicast                    a network from its source to its destination by forwarding
Routing     Protocol(DVMRP        [14][15][16],    Multicast        the packet along the series of intermediate nodes. In
extension to the Open Shortest Path First , Core Based              traditional hop-by-hop solutions to the routing problem,
Trees (CBT) [17], Protocol        Independent Multicast,.           each node in the network maintains a routing table. For
Core Based Tree (CBR) is a tree based multicast                     each known destination, the routing table lists the next
protocol.[18] The main idea of this protocol is to find a           node to which a packet for the destination should be
nearest forwarding node to replace with finding the                 sent. The routing table at each node can be thought of
shortest path between the source node and the receiving             as part of a distributed data structure that, taken
node for decreasing the number of packet transmission.              together, represents the topology of the network. The
Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing                  goal of the routing protocol is to ensure that the overall
Protocol (MAODV) [20] is a modified version of AODV                 data structure contains a consistent and correct view of
[19]. In MAODV, each node of MANET must send                        the actual network topology. If the routing tables at some
control packets periodically to maintain the topology.              nodes were to become inconsistent, then packets can
Weight-Based Multicast Protocol is also a tree based                loop in the network. If the routing tables were to contain
multicast protocol Bandwidth-Efficient Multicast Routing            incorrect information, then packets can be dropped. The
Protocol (BEMRP) [21]. However, it not only considers               problem of maintaining a consistent and correct view
the transmission hop but also considers the overhead                becomes harder as there is an increase in the number of
of the forwarding path. Generally, the above schemes                nodes whose information must be consistent, and as the
consider the multi path connection at routing layer and             rate of change in the true topology increases. The
leave the issue of reliable transmission being dealt with           challenge in creating a routing protocol for Ad hoc
at upper layer.[22][23] Dynamic change in           topology        networks is to design a single protocol that can adapt to
with    time in MANET gives ,several issues, such as                the wide variety of conditions present inside ad hoc
processing overhead, packets collisions, and route                  networks. For example, the bandwidth available between
maintaining, need to be overcome Network population                 two nodes in the network may vary from more than 10
and node density are important concerns for ad-hoc                  Mbps, when using high-speed network interfaces with
networking; the higher the population and node density,             little interference, to 10 Kbps or less when using low-
the higher the probability to reach any network node                speed network interfaces or when there is significant
[24][25] [26]. Ad hoc networks are thus conceived to                interference from outside sources or other nodes’

                                                                                             ISSN 1947-5500
                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                            Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
transmitters. Similarly, nodes in an Ad hoc network may            source routes to control the forwarding of packets
alternate between periods when they are stationary with            through the network. The key advantage of a source
respect to each other and periods when change                      routing design is that intermediate nodes do not need to
topology, rapidly conditions across a single network may           maintain consistent global routing information, since the
also vary, so that some nodes are slow moving, while               packets themselves already contain all the routing
others change location rapidly. The routing protocol must          decisions. Beyond this, the source route on each packet
perform efficiently in environments in which nodes are             describes a path through the network. Therefore, with a
stationary and bandwidth is not a limiting factor. Yet, the        cost of no additional packets, every node overhearing a
same protocol must still function efficiently when the             source route learns a way to reach all nodes listed on
bandwidth available between nodes is low and the level             the route [27] [28].
of mobility and topology change high. Because it is often
impossible to know a priori what environment the                   III DESIGN          SPACE          AND          PROPOSED
protocol will find itself in, and the environment can              ALGORITHM
change unpredictably, the routing protocol must be able               The proposed multicast routing protocol requires low
to adapt automatically. Most routing protocols include at          Communication overhead since it does not require
least some periodic behaviors, meaning that there are              periodical transmission of control packets. Most of the
protocol operations that are performed regularly at some           existing multicast routing protocols, such as DVMRP
interval regardless of outside events. These periodic              (Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol) [8] and
behaviors typically limit the ability of the protocols to          FGMP (Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol) [9], require
adapt to changing environments. If the periodic interval           periodical transmission of control packets in order to
is set too short, the protocol will be inefficient as it           maintain multicast group membership and multicast
performs its activities more often than required to react          routes, thereby wasting a lot of bandwidth. In the
to changes in the network topology. If the periodic                proposed protocol, route setup and route recovery are
interval is set too long, the protocol will not react              invoked only when they are required route setup process
sufficiently to changes in the network topology quickly            is invoked only when a new node joins a multicast group,
and lost packets Periodic protocols can be designed to             and route recovery process is invoked only when a
adjust their periodic interval to try to match the rate of         multicast route breaks due to the node movements.
change in the network, but this approach will suffer from          Further, in the route recovery process, control packets
the overhead associated with the tuning mechanism and              used to recover multicast routes are flooded only to
the lag between a change in conditions and the selection           limited network area scoped by TTL (time-to-live). In our
of a new periodic interval. In the worst case, which               protocol, bandwidth level at a node is used as TTL
consists of bursts of topology change followed by stable           .Limiting the scope of route search further decreases the
periods, adapting the periodic interval could result in the        communication overhead since control packets are not
protocol using a long interval during the burst periods            flooded to the entire network but only to just previous
and a short interval in the stable periods. This worst case        node (predecessor node)MAODV (Multicast Ad-hoc On
may be fairly common, for example, as when a group of              Demand Distance Vector) also tries to minimize the
people enter a room for a meeting, are seated for the              communication overhead by invoking the route discovery
course of the meeting, and then stand up to leave at the           process on-demand. However, unlike the proposed
end. The alternative to a periodic routing protocol is one         protocol, MAODV ignores multicast efficiency.
that operates in an on-demand fashion. On-demand
protocols are based on the premise that if a problem or            The proposed multicast routing protocol also achieves
inconsistent state can be detected before it causes                high multicast efficiency, i.e., it requires a small number
permanent harm, then all work to correct a problem or              of multicast transmissions. Multicast transmission is kept
maintain consistent state can be delayed until it is               minimal by keeping the number of forwarding nodes
proven to be needed. They operate using the same                   small. Forwarding nodes are the nodes which
“lazy” philosophy as optimistic algorithms. The Dynamic            broadcasts (forwards) multicast packets to neighboring
Source Routing protocol (DSR) is unique among the                  nodes. Most of the existing multicast Routing protocols
current set of routing protocols for ad hoc networks in            use unicast protocols such as DSDV (Destination
the way it avoids periodic behavior, and in the way it             Sequenced Distance Vector) and AODV (Ad hoc On
solves the routing information consistency problem. First,         Demand Distance Vector) to select the shortest paths
DSR is completely on-demand, which causes the                      from a source to each receiver. For example, in CBT
overhead of the protocol to automatically scale directly           (Core Based Tree) and PIM (Protocol Independent
with the need for reaction to topology change. This                Multicast) based protocols when a new node needs to
dramatically lowers the overhead of the protocol by                join a multicast group, these unicast protocols are used
eliminating the need for any periodic activities, such as          to set up the shortest path to a core . In FGMP
the route advertisement and neighbor detection packets             forwarding nodes are selected along the shortest paths
that are present in other protocols. Second, DSR uses              chosen by these unicast protocols. In multicast

                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
environment, using the shortest paths from a source to
each receiver does not always result in efficient                     III (A)     DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC FOR
multicast. Unlike these existing multicast protocols, the                            PATH SELECTION
proposed protocol does try to find a shortest path,
instead, it tries to find the nearest forwarding node in the           1. Distance of selected path is minimum or
multicast group when a node wants to join the group.                       optimum.
Nodes along the path between the nearest forwarding                    2. Load in selected path is minimum or optimum and
node and the new node become new forwarding nodes.                         load at intermediate node is less than threshold of
This results that the minimum number of forwarding                         B.
nodes are added. In addition, the proposed protocol                    3. Queue length at intermediate nodes of the path is
provides a mechanism to detect unnecessary forwarding                      minimum or optimal.
nodes and delete them from a multicast group. Due to                Distance is based in the number of hop counts.
the dynamic nature of ad-hoc environment, there may be              Queue Length is known to all the nodes, and while
unnecessary forwarding nodes in a multicast group.                  transferring the queue length, the maximum of all queue
Route optimization process employed in the proposed                 length at intermediate nodes in path is stored only. As a
protocol can detect and delete them from a multicast                node can transfer only one packet at time, thus the
group to reduce unnecessary transmissions of multicast              queue length can be used to estimate the available
packets. This further increases multicast efficiency.               bandwidth, as we are not considering multiplexing of
Hybrid routing protocols combines the advantages of                 data at the nodes. Thus, the position of paths in
proactive and of reactive routing. The routing is initially         bandwidth list will be similar to the position of path in
established with some proactively prospected routes and             queue length list.
then serves the demand from additionally activated
nodes through reactive flooding.
                                                                    III (B) CONTROL PACKET DETAILS:
                                                                    It have the following tables and functions
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) has with available
bandwidth B and number of nodes be n and distance
                                                                    (I) ROUTING TABLE CONSTRUCTION:
between nodes is D and load at each node be L.                      Whenever a mobile node enters a wireless network it
The following figure shows the wireless network of five             would broadcast a notification packet with fields as
nodes as Base Station,                                              shown in fig. – 2
 B= Total Available Bandwidth
 ni=Nodes Name(Base Station)                                         Node No.         Distance     Queue              Flag
Qi=Length of queue at node ni                                                                      length             (00)
Mi=Total number of users at node ni ( Base Station)
                                                                                Fig. – 2 Notification packet

                                                                    Initially the distance field value is initialized to 1 and
                  n2                                  n4            queue length is initialized to 0 and node number is
                                                                    calculated from the IP address and subnet mask.
                                                                    Arithmetic to calculate the node number is to apply AND
n1                                                                  operation on complement of subnet mask and IP
                                                                    address. Flag field is a 2-bit field and its set to 00 for
                                                                    notification packet. The receiving node, would match
                                                                    node no. of the received packet from their table, if it don’t
                                                                    have this node no. registered in its table, it would add a
                  n3                             n5                 row. An example of table construction is shown in Fig. –
                           Fig 1                                    (II) PATH CONSTRUCTION
                                                                    Now when a nodes get a packet to transmit to some
So in order to select path from n1 to n5                            other node then it calculate the node number of the
    1. P1:n1-n2-n4 –n5, or                                          destination node, if it has entry of this node in its routing
    2. P2:n1-n3-n5, or                                              table then it would simply send packet to it otherwise it
    3. P3:n1-n2-n3-n4-n5, or                                        would broadcast the route request(RREQ) packet(Fig. –
    4. P4:n1-n2-n3-n5, or                                           4) with unique sequence no., its node no. as the sender
    5. P5:n1-n2-n4-n3–n5 or                                         and route source node no. the flag is set as 01 for
    6. P6:n1-n3-n4-n5,                                              RREQ. The node receiving RREQ would then check its
                                                                    table for destination node, if it has entry then it sends the

                                                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500
                                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                 Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
route reply packet (RREP) (Fig. – 5) packet with its
sequence no. as that of RREQ packet, it’s node number                Sequ Path          Route    Destina Dist- Queue Flag
in the path field, distance increased by one from the                ence data          Source   tion    ance Length (10)
value in its routing table in the distance field, it’s queue         No.                Node No. Node
length in the queue length field and flag as 10 to the                                           No.
sender node number of RREQ packet, and then
multicast the RREQ packet with changed sequence no                    Fig. – 4 Route Request Packet (RREQ)
and its node no. as sender node no. to all the nodes in
its routing table except of sender node no. and
destination node no and save this information of original
sequence no., modified sequence no. sender node no.
and route source node no. in its memory. Even if the                 Path data          Destination      Route          Data            Flag
node receiving RREQ does not have the entry of                                          Node No.         Source                         (11)
destination node in its routing table then also it would                                                 Node
multicast it to other node, in its table, except for sender                                              No.
node, route source node number and destination node
no in the same manner as described before. The node                  Fig. – 5 Route Reply Packet (RREP)
receiving route reply packet checks to see if it itself is
route source node number. If it is not the route source
node no. then it would match the sequence no. and                    Sequence Sender           Route           Destination Flag
route source node no. in its memory to retrieve the                  No.      Node             Source          Node No.    (01)
original sequence no. and sender node no. and it sends                        No.              Node No.
the route      reply packet to the sender node no. with
sequence no. as

                                                                                            Fig. – 6 Message Packet
                    104    1   0          105    1      0
                    103    1   0          103    1      0            retrieved sequence no. and append its own node no. to
                                                                     the path data field and queue field value is set either to
                    101    1   0          102    1      0            value of queue length field of received RREP packet or
103     1   0       102    0   0          104    0      0            the its queue length value from the routing table
                                                                     depending upon whichever is maximum.
102     1   0
                                                                     The route source node on receiving any of the, RREP
101     0   0       n2                                 n4            packet will save it in its path list as shown in Fig. – 7.

   n1                                                                              P1            N1    N2     N4      N5

                                                                                    -            N1     N3     N5
                    n3                            n5

                                                                                    -           N
                                                                                                N11 NN2 NN3 NN4 NN5
                                                                                                     2   3   4   5
                    103    0   0          105    0      0
                    101    1   0          103    1      0
                                                                                    -            N1    N2     N3      N5
                    102    1   0          104    1      0
                    104    1   0
                                                                                   P6            N1    N3     N4      N5
                    105    1   0

        Fig. – 3 Construction of Routing Table

                                                                            Fig – 7 Path list at the Route Source Node

                                                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500
                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                            Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

(III) ALGORITHM: ROUTES MAIN-TENANCE                                         D_no. (Destination Node No. ) = D_node
                                                                                           F (Flag ) = 0 1
Input : Routing Table: RTable [] [], MessagePacket :M[],            24. Make an entry in system database with field
   Destination Node No. : D_node , Boolean variable                     values
                            Flag=0                                      New_Seq = Seq in step 23
   1. Start                                                             Old_Seq = RREQ.Seq
   2. Len=Length[M]                                                     RS_No. = RREQ.RS_No.
   3. If ( ( M [ Len – 2 ] = = 1 ) AND (M [ Len – 1 ] = =               D_No. = RREQ.D>No.
        1) )/*Message packet received*/                                 Sender = RREQ.SNo.
   4. For I = 0 to Length [RTable]                                  25. End If
   5.          If (RTable [i] [0] = = D_node )                      26. If (( M [ Len – 2 ] = = 1 ) AND (M [ Len – 1 ] = =
   6.              Transmit M to D_node                                 0 )) /*Route reply packet received*/
   7.               Flag = 1                                        27. If ( RREP.RS_No. = = Node_No.)
   8.               Break                                           28. Add Path data of RREP to the path Linked List
   9.          End If                                                          at the node.
   10. End For                                                      29.     Else
   11. If (! Flag )                                                 30. Insert its node no. in path data of RREP
   12. Broadcast RREQ packet with field values as                   31. If ( RREP.Q_Len < RTable[0][2])
        Seq (Sequence NO. ) = System generated no.                  32. RREP.Q_Len=RTable[0][2]
               S_No.( Sender node_no.) = self node no.              33. End If
                Rs No. ( Route Source Node no. ) = Self
                                                                    34. Retrieve sender node no. and Sequence number
                D_no. (Destination Node No. ) = D_node                         from database by RREP.Seq,
                              F (Flag ) = 0 1                                  RREP.S_no.
   13. End If                                                       35. RREP.Seq=Sequence no. of step 33
   14. If (( M [ Len – 2 ] = = 0 ) AND (M [ Len – 1 ] = =           36. Send RREP to sender node of sep 33
        1 )) )/*Route request packet received*/                     37. End If
   15. For I = 0 to Length [RTable]                                 38. End If
   16.       If (RTable [i] [0] = = D_node )                         39. Stop.
   17. Send RREP to S_No. with Field values
                 Seq ( Sequence No) = RREQ.Seq                    (IV)     ALGORITHM: PATH SELECTION
                 Pd ( Path Data ) = stack implementation (
                          with self node no on top )              Consider the following paths selection rules
                     Rs No. ( Route Source Node no. ) =                 Arrange all the possible paths in ascending
                                RREQ.Rs No.                                 order of queue length, load and distance,
                  D_no. (Destination Node No. ) = RREQ .                    consider only paths which has load lower
                                     DNo.                                   than threshold.
                      D ( Distance ) = RTable [i] [1] +1                Take the sum of position of the path in the
                   Q_Len (Queue Length) = RTable [i] [2]                    three lists and finally select the path with
                                F ( Flag ) = 1 0                            lowest sum.
   18.           Flag = 1                                                   In case if minimum sum of position in the
   19.           Break                                                      three lists calculated in step (ii) is more than
   20.      End If                                                          one then the following preference order is
   21. End For                                                              used for selection of an optimal path.
   22. If ( ! Flag )
   23. Multicast RREQ packet to all except for sender
                                                                          Queue Length > Load > Distance of path
        node no , route source node no and destination
        node no with field values                                 The queue length (Bandwidth Concept) of each node
         Seq (Sequence NO. ) = System generated no.               in the fig-1 is as follows
             S_No.( Sender node_no.) = self node no.              Q1=10, Q2=12, Q3=15, Q4=9, Q5=5
         Rs No. ( Route Source Node no. ) = Self Node

                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                             Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
  Thus the queue length and distance of paths are                  a multicast packet sets RTS flags of its neighbors, and
  shown in table-1 as details of Paths.                            each intended receiver sets CTS flags of its neighbors.
                                                                   The broadcast uses flooding, technique and only RTS
                                       Queue                       flags are set by the sending node, and CTS flags are not
Distance             Path
                                      Length                       set by any node. Therefore, in broadcast, collision may
     3         P1 :n1-n2-n4–n5           10                        occur. However, collisions are ignored in our simulation.
                                                                   The simulated network area is a N x N meter square,
     2           P2 :n1-n3-n5            15                        and M mobile nodes are roaming randomly in all
     4         P3 :n1-n2-n3-n4-          15                        directions at a predefined speed in this area. Each node
                                                                   has a finite buffer, and packets are lost when buffer
     3         P4 :n1-n2-n3-n5           15                        overflow occurs. Control packets have higher priority
               P5 n1-n3-n4-                                        over data packets in simulations1. Propagation delay is
     3                                   15
                    n5                                             assumed to be negligible, and it is assumed that packets
               P6 :n1-n2-n4-                                       always arrive without any bit error. A multicast group has
     4                                   15
                  n3-n5                                            one source and a number of receivers. The source node
                                                                   generates multicast packets at a constant rate Extensive
                           Table 1                                 simulation results obtained by varying several network
     Arranging the paths in ascending order with respect           parameters and workload configuration. The values of
to Distance, load and queue length as follows in the               the network parameters used in simulations are those
table with their position Table 2                                  specified in the IEEE 802.11. In this scenario we
                                                                   evaluate the performance improvement in terms
                                               Queue               throughput due to the use of multiple channels in a
   Position      Distance         Load
                                              Length               densely populated network. Specifically, we consider a
         1          P2            P1             P1                network of 5 to 20 Base Stations with 20 to 80 mobile
                                                                   nodes with an increasing number of neighbors from 5 to
         2          P1            P2             P2
                                                                   20 Base Station. Each node has a traffic flow with infinite
         3          P4            P3             P3                demands towards one of its neighbors. In Fig. 9 to Fig.
         4          P3            P4             P4                13.We show the some of throughput of all traffic flows,
         5          P5            P5             P5                with available Channel Bandwidth.
         6          P6            P6             P6
                                                                                                           Traffic Load VS Packet Drop
                            Table 2
                                                                     Packet Throughput Ratio

  The sum of position of path in the three lists (distance,                                     0.99
load and queue length)                                                                         0.988
  For p1: (2+1+1) =4                                                                           0.984
  For p2: (1+2+2) =5                                                                           0.982
  For p3: (4+3+3) =10                                                                                    20             40             50            60
  For p4: (3+4+4) =11                                                                                                      Mobile Node
                                                                                                       Band Width -Cutoff 0.4          Band Width -Cutoff 0.5
  For p5: (5+5+5) =15                                                                                  Band Width -Cutoff 0.6
  For p6: (6+6+6) =18
  From above calculation it is clear that the sum of
position of path P1 in the three lists is minimum hence
path P1 is selected.

In simulation, a flat network is assumed as clusters. For
unicast, before a node sends a unicast packet, it sets
RTS (Request-to- Send) flags of its neighbors and the
intended receiver sets CTS (Clear-to-Send) flags of its
neighbors. Nodes whose RTS or CTS flag is set cannot
transmit data, except the sender. When the sender
finishes sending the data, RTS/CTS flags are cleared by
the nodes which originally set those flags. Similar
scheme is used in multicasting .The node wants to send             Fig. – 10

                                                                                                                          ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                                                                     Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
                                 Comparision Between Drop OverHead VS Nodes
                                                                                                                         that of the DSR scheme for the maintenance overhead
                     30                                                                                                  and the path reliability, Thus reducing the congestion in
                                                                                                                         network and improving bandwidth utilization.
  Drop O ver Head

                                                                                                                                             VI   FUTURE SCOPE
                      5                                                                                                      In future there can be further evaluation of proposed
                      0                                                                                                  scheme by using more realistic mobility of nodes in the
                                               20      30          40           50           60                          simulation. It is believed that advantage of providing
                                                          Nodes              HRP-BC          DSR                         traffic information will be significant in those
Fig-11                                                                                                                                     VII     REFERENCES
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                                                                                                                         [3] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat. Highly Dynamic
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                                                                                                                         for Mobile Computers, SIGCOMM Conf. Proc, 1994.
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                           0                                                                                             Routing (SSA) for Ad Hoc Mobile Network, IEEE
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                                                                                                                         [7] Z. J. Hass. A New Routing Protocol for the
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                                                                                                                         Reconfigurable Wireless Network, ICUPC, 1997
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                    Data Delivery Loss

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                                           1                                                                             Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks Proceedings of
                                                                                                                         ICUPC '97, 1997
                                                170     190       210         230     250                                [11] C-C. Chiang, M. Gerla and L Zhang. Shared Tree
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                                                      Nodes 20          Nodes 50          Nodes 100                      International Conference on Computer Communications
                                                                                                                         and Networks (ICCCN'97), 1997.
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Fig-13                                                                                                                   (AODV) routing Proceedings of the IEEE 1997
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 The proposed HRPBC protocols will mostly select the                                                                     [14] D. Waitzman, C. Partridge, and S. Deering,
optimal path for transmission of packets from source to                                                                  “Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)”,
destination in wireless Ad-hoc networks and adopts                                                                       RFC 1075, Nov. 1988
the path information kept at each node with bandwidth                                                                    [15] B. Quinn, and K. Almeroth, “IP Multicast
information. It is compared to traditional DSR schemes.                                                                  Applications: Challenges and Solutions”, RFC 3170,
The simulation show that the proposed HRPBC                                                                              Sep. 2001
protocol achieve the above objectives and is superior to

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[19] C. PERKINS, E.ROYER AND S. DAS Ad hoc On-
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