Reliable Routing With Optimized Power Routing For Wireless Adhoc Network by ijcsiseditor


									                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                           Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010


                 T.K.Shaik Shavali , Dr T. Bhaskara Reddy and Sk fairooz

      Professor , Department of Computer Science, Lords institute of Engineering & Tech,
                                     Hyderabad-08, A.P. , INDIA


 Department of Computer Science & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapur-03, A.P.,INDIA


            Associate Prof, Department of ECE, AHCET, Hyderabad-08, A.P. , INDIA


 Abstract                                                 highly dynamic topology resulted from the
                                                          mobility of network nodes and the changing
 In this paper work, a routing protocol called RMP
                                                          propagation conditions. These networks are used
(route management protocol) is implemented to
                                                          in emergency disaster rescue operation, tactical
cope with misbehavior operation in AdHoc
                                                          military communication and law enforcement..
network. It enables nodes to detect misbehavior by
                                                          Mobile ad hoc networks are also a good
first-hand observation and use the second-hand
                                                          alternative in rural areas or third world countries
information provided by other nodes. This RMP
                                                          where basic communication infrastructure is not
protocol can run on any routing protocol to cope
                                                          well established
with misbehavior. In this paper work, we have
                                                          The lack of infrastructure and organizational
tested for DSR routing protocol.( ie DSR with
                                                          environment of mobile ad hoc networks offer
RMP). The efficiency of communication routes is
                                                          special opportunities to attackers. Misbehavior
tested over the node power consumption and
                                                          means deviation from normal routing and
developed a mechanism to optimize the power
                                                          forwarding behavior. Without appropriate
consumption in routing scheme.
                                                          countermeasures, the effects of misbehavior
 Keyword: route management protocol, adhoc                dramatically decrease network performance.
 network, power optimization, network efficiency          Depending on the proportion of misbehaving
                                                          nodes and their specific strategies, network
 I. INTRODUCTION                                          throughput can be severely degraded, packet
                                                          loss, nodes can be denied service, and the
  Wireless networking grows rapidly because of            network can be partitioned. These detrimental
 the human desires for mobility and for freedom           effects of misbehavior can endanger the
 from limitation, i.e., from physical connections         functioning of the entire network. Minimizing
 to communication networks. A particular kind of          energy consumption is the important challenge in
 wireless network called mobile ad hoc networks           mobile networking. Wireless network interface is
 is presently under development. A mobile ad hoc          often a device’s single largest power consumer.
 network is a self-organizing and rapidly                 Since the network interface may often be idle,
 deployable network in which neither a wired              turning the radio off when not in use could save
 backbone nor a centralized control exists. The           this power. In practice, however, this approach is
 network nodes communicate with one another               not straightforward. A node must arrange to turn
 over scarce wireless channels in a multi-hop             its radio on not just to send packets, but also to
 fashion. The ad hoc network is adaptable to the          receive packets addressed to it and to participate

                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                             Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

in any higher-level routing and control protocols.          second step, i.e. adjusting the transmission
The requirement of cooperation between power                power. We call them as power on-off scheduling
saving and routing protocols is particularly acute          and transmit power-scheduling algorithms
in the case of multi-hop ad hoc wireless                    respectively.
networks, where nodes must forward packets for              Objective of this work is to design a topology
each other.                                                 management scheme for ad hoc wireless
                                                            networks. A good power-saving topology
II. POWER OPTIMIZED ROUTING                                 management scheme for wireless ad hoc
SCHEME                                                      networks      should     have     the    following
The Topology Management in Ad hoc Wireless                  characteristics:
Networks is deciding for every node:                        It should allow as many nodes as possible to turn
1.which node to turn on.                                    their radio receivers off most of the time because
2.when they turn on.                                        even an idle radio in receive mode can consume
3.At what transmit power.                                   almost as much energy as an active transmitter.
In     power     on-off      scheduling   topology          The algorithm for picking this backbone should
management schemes, few nodes, rich in power,               be distributed, requiring each node to make a
are selected as cluster heads and gateways. These           local Division.
cluster head nodes are selected distributive in
such a way that each node in the ad hoc wireless            III. PROPOSED TOPOLOGY MANAGEMENT
network is either cluster head or connected (i.e.,                                   SCHEME
in transmission range) to the cluster head and the          In our topology management scheme, power
gateway nodes are selected such that they                   (Mobile Agent with Routing Intelligence) nodes
forward packets between cluster heads. Cluster              are selected in such a way that power nodes have
heads and gateways form the virtual backbone                the maximum power level among their on hop
for routing in ad hoc networks. Some proposed               neighbors and all non-power nodes are within
power on-off scheduling topology management                 the transmission range of power nodes. These
schemes are Span (3) and TMPO (Topology                     power nodes have the routing intelligence i.e.
Management by Priority Ordering) (4). In span,              they make all decisions related to routing. The
some special coordinator node are selected                  gateway nodes having sufficient power level are
distributive in such a way that two of the                  selected so that they can forward packets
coordinators neighbors can not reach each other             between power nodes. A gateway node does not
either directly or via one or two coordinators.             have routing intelligence. These power and
This selection rule ensures the connectivity in ad          gateway nodes stay continuously awake to route
hoc network. Span runs over 802.11 ad hoc                   the packets of other member nodes. The member
power saving mode, which has high broadcast                 nodes wake up a number of times in a beacon
overhead. While TMPO assigns willingness                    period T, and if they do not have to transmit or
value to each node, based on the energy level               receive data, they go to sleep mode again. The
and speed of the node. A node with high                     wake up time for each node is calculated from a
willingness value is selected as cluster head with          pseudo-random number, such that power node
high probability.                                           and neighbor nodes know the wake up of that
Few power scheduling topology management                    node time.
schemes are CBTM (Cone based Distributed                    Thus the member node can remain in power
Topology Management) and K-Neigh Protocol                   saving sleep mode most of the time, if it is not
for symmetric topology control (6). In CBTM,                actively sending or receiving packets. The
each node tries to find the minimum transmitting            packets are routed over the virtual backbone
power p such that transmitting with p ensures               consisting of power nodes and gateways. The
that in every cone of degree around each node,              routes are found with the help of mobile agents.
there is at least one neighbor node. Whereas in             The topology management scheme runs above the
the K-Neigh Protocol, each node adjusts its                 MAC layer and interacts with the routing
transmission power, such that it has k or slightly          protocol. If a node has been asleep for a while,
less than k one-hop neighbors, So that network              packets destined for it are not lost but are buffered
connectivity is maintained under the conditions             at a neighboring power node. When the node
of mobility. Most of the algorithms proposed for            awakens, it can retrieve these packets from the
Topology Management follow either first two                 buffering power node. This topology management
steps or third step, i.e., switching between active         schemes makes the routing simple, as only those
(transmit, receive or idle) and sleep mode or the           entries in a node’s routing table that correspond to

                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                           Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

currently active power nodes can be used as valid         which it has received the HAI packet earlier. If
next-hops (unless the next hop is the destination         an undecided node has more power than power
itself).                                                  node then it declares it self as power in the next
Definition 1 Power nodes are the nodes such that          HAI packet.
all non-power nodes are connected to (i.e., in
transmission range of) power nodes and route              b) POWER NODE WITHDRAWAL
packet for all other nodes with the help of mobile        Power node will drain its energy more rapidly, as
agents.                                                   compared to member nodes. Before the power
Definition 2 Sleep Cycle period is the time               node loses its major part of its power,
period during which member nodes remain in the            responsibility of power node should be
power efficient sleep mode and wake up once for           transferred to other node with sufficient power
fixed time duration T.                                    level. Also power nodes should not be changed
We assume that each node periodically                     frequently which will increase the overhead.
broadcasts HAI messages that contains:
Node’s id,
Its status (i.e., whether the node is a power
node, gateway, member, undecided),
Its current power level,
Its current power node,
A wakeup counter wi,
Information about each neighbor i.e.
Neighbor’s id,
Its status,
Its power node.
Based on the HAI messages received from                        Fig 1 nodes distributed in an network
neighbors, each node constructs a list of its
neighbors, their power nodes, power level,                c) GATE WAY SELECTION
wakeup counter and information about their                         As the maximum number of hops
neighbors.                                                between any two close power nodes is two,
A node switches state from time to time between           gateways are required forward packets between
being a power node and being a member. A node             power nodes. Also as gateways need to receive
becomes a gateway, if its power node chooses it           and transmit routing packets to and from power
as a gateway to route the packets between power           nodes, they should have sufficient amount of
nodes. It switches its state to undecided, if it          power.
looses contact with its power node due to                 Power nodes periodically send broadcast request
mobility. A node includes its current state in its        packet STAY-AWAKE to its members for
HAI messages. The following sections describe             synchronization among members. Then it selects
that it should withdraw from being a power                a node as gateway, which has maximum power
node, and how a power node selects its                    and maximum power nodes as its neighbors. If
gateways.                                                 any power nodes with in two hops have already
                                                          declared their gateways, then there is no need to
a) POWER MANAGEMENT                                       select gate way again. Power level of the
Power nodes along with gateways form the                  gateway is periodically checked by power and if
virtual backbone, which is used for routing this          it has less power than threshold, then power
demands for additional power for transmission,            starts new gateway selection.
reception and processing of routing packets.
Thus these power nodes should be selected in              d) SLEEP CYCLE SCHEDULING:
such a way that they have enough power level                       We propose some additional power
The nodes in a the network periodically check             saving features to 802.11 CSMA/CA to make the
among its one hop neighbors for maximum                   MAC layer power efficient by using randomized
power and declare themselves a node as power if           wake up time for member nodes in ad hoc
it has maximum power. Power nodes select the              network.     Power     nodes     and    gateways
neighboring nodes as its members and maintain             continuously stay awake to forward packets of
the list about its members. If more than one              other nodes. Member nodes wake up a number of
neighbors of an undecided node become power               times in a beacon period T (see figure) and if
then undecided node selects its power node from           they do not have to transmit or receive data, they

                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                              (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                              Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

go to sleep again. There are number of sleep                 REPLY messages can be triggered by ROUTE
cycle periods (T1, T2), (T2, T3)…(Tn, T) in a                REQUEST messages or gratuitous. After
beacon period. Member nodes wake up once in a                receiving one or several routes, the source picks
sleep cycle. All nodes stays awake during period             the best (by default the shortest), stores it, and
(0,T1) called as broadcast window to exchange                sends messages along that path. In general, the
HAI packets. Each node synchronizes their clock              better the route metrics (number of hops, delay,
by using time stamp of HAI message from power                bandwidth or other criteria) and the sooner the
node. Each member node determines its wake up                REPLY arrived at the source (indication of a
time from its node id and a wakeup counter wi                short path - the nodes are required to wait a time
                                                             corresponding to the length of the route they can
                                                             advertise before sending it in order to avoid a
                                                             storm of replies), the higher preference is given
                                                             to the route and the longer it will stay in the
                                                             cache. In case of a link failure, the node that
                                                             cannot forward the packet to the next node sends
                                                             an error message toward the source. Routes that
                                                             contain a failed link, can be ‘salvaged’ by taking
                                                             an alternate partial route that does not contain the
                                                             bad link.
         Fig 2 beacon period
                                                             a) PASSIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENT (DSR)
e) LOAD DISTRIBUTION                                         Instead    of    waiting     for    an     explicit
          One part of ad hoc network may be                  acknowledgment for each packet by the next-hop
congested and other part of network may have                 node on the route, a node assumes the correct
free resources. This will increase the packet                reception of the packet when it overhears the
delivery latency. Throughput and packet delivery             next-hop node forwarding the packet this is
ratio also will be badly affected. To distribute the         called passive acknowledgment In this, the
load evenly in the network, we have devised a                simple passive acknowledgment is used not only
congestion metric, which is used for route                   for an indication of correct reception at the next
selection as described above. This congestion                hop, but also to detect if nodes fail to forward
metric is based on the amount of time power                  packets.
node sees free channel for the past T seconds.
The developed power optimization scheme is                   b) MISBEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION BY
then incorporated with a routing scheme for the              DSR
reduction of non-cooperative nodes so as to                  DSR classify attacks on them as dropping,
minimize the power consumption happing at                    modification, fabrication, or timing attacks. The
each node. The approach of discovering and                   previous hop can detect dropping by use of
reduction of misbehaving nodes are as outlined               passive acknowledgment and this is detected as
below.                                                       misbehavior and takes an alternate partial path to
                                                             reach to the destination.
                                                             V. RMP PROTOCOL
Dynamic Source Routing is a protocol developed
for routing in mobile ad-hoc networks. Nodes                 a) RMP Protocol Components
send out a ROUTE REQUEST message, all                        We present here the RMP components we
nodes that receive this message forward it to                designed for coping with routing and forwarding
their neighbors and put themselves into the                  misbehavior in mobile ad-hoc networks running
source route unless they have received the same              DSR Fig 3 shows the protocol components.
request before. If a receiving node is the
destination, or has a route to the destination, it
does not forward the request, but sends a REPLY
message containing the full source route. It may
send that reply along the source router in reverse
order or issue a ROUTE REQUEST including
the route to get back to the source, if the former
is not possible due to asymmetric links ROUTE

                                                                                         ISSN 1947-5500
                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                             Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

                                                            informed decisions about which node to use for
                                                            their paths.

                                                            d) TRUST MANAGER
                                                            The task of the trust manager is to decide when
                                                            to trust second-hand information and to
                                                            administer the trust given to other nodes. The
                                                            goal is to minimize the risk of spurious ratings
 Fig 3: RMP protocol components                             while still making use of second-hand
                                                            information received from others. The trust
b) MONITOR                                                  rating represents node i’s opinion about how
The goal of the monitor is to gather first-hand             honest node j is as an actor in the reputation
information about the behavior of nodes in the              system (i.e. whether the reported first hand
network. This is achieved by observing and                  information summaries published by node j are
classifying node behavior as normal or                      likely to be true). We represent the trust ratings
misbehaving. The monitor can detect                         as data structure Ti,j
misbehavior that can be distinguished from
normal behavior by observation. We call the                 e) PATH MANAGER
information gained by direct experience by node             Once a node i classifies another node j as
i about node j first hand information (Fi,j) and            misbehaving, i isolates j from communications
use it as an input to the reputation system                 by not using for routing and forwarding and by
component of RMP.                                           not allowing j to use i .This isolation has three
                                                            purposes. The first is to reduce the effect of
c) REPUTATION SYSTEM                                        misbehavior by depriving the misbehaving node
Reputation systems are used for example in                  of the opportunity to participate in the network.
some online auctioning systems. The main idea               The second purpose is to serve as an incentive to
behind the use of reputation systems is two fold            behave well in order not to be denied service.
first; it is used to serve as an incentive for good         Finally, the third purpose is to obtain better
behavior to avoid the negative consequences that            service by not using misbehaving nodes on the
a bad reputation can entail. Second, it provides a          path. The path manager performs the following
basis for the choice of prospective transaction             functions: Path re-ranking according to security
partners. The most relevant properties of a                 metric (e.g. reputation of the nodes in the path),
reputation system are the representation of                 deletion of paths containing misbehaving nodes,
reputation, how the reputation is built and                 action on receiving a request for a route from a
updated, and for the latter, how the ratings of             misbehaving node (e.g. ignore, do not send any
others, i.e. second-hand information, are                   reply), and action on receiving request for a route
considered and integrated. The reputation of a              containing a misbehaving node in the source
given node is the collection of ratings maintained          route (e.g. ignore, alert the source). The path
by others about this node. In our approach the              manager thus controls the topology as seen by an
reputation system is fully distributed, and a node          individual node. Misbehaving nodes are not used
i maintains ratings about every other node j that           for routing and forwarding and the path manager
is cares about. The reputation rating represents            refuses to be used by them.
the opinion formed by node i about node j’s
behavior as an actor in the base system, i.e.               V. RESULTS
whether node j correctly participates in the
routing protocol and forwarding. We represent               1) Fig 4 shows a dynamic ad hoc network with
the reputation ratings that node i has about node j         20 nodes and 8 misbehaving nodes distributed
as data structure Ri,j                                      randomly.
The use of second-hand information enables
nodes to find out about misbehaving nodes
before making a bad experience. Also, in mobile
ad-hoc networks, nodes might not meet every
node that they need for multi-hop forwarding,
but with second-hand information they can make

                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                            Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

                                                           Fig 6.DSR delay plot with no of misbehaving

                                                           4) Fig 7 shows that our approach of using second
                                                           hand information not only speeds up the
                                                           detection of misbehaving nodes but also reduces
                                                           delay to reach the destination i.e. as the no of
                                                           misbehaving nodes goes on increasing delay
                                                           reduces than compared to original DSR.
Fig 4: Ad hoc network with 20 nodes and 8
misbehaving nodes.                                         Delay

2) The Fig 5 shows the performance of DSR
with RMP protocol for the above randomly
distributed network we have chosen 7 as source
node and 15 as destination node. Misbehaving
nodes are indicated by round circles .The black
dotted line shows the optimum path that has been
selected to reach the destination. The Fig clearly
shows that RMP protocol is able to cope
with misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks thus                         No of misbehaving nodes
making network function for normal nodes                   Fig 7 DSR with RMP delay plot with no of
when other nodes don’t route and forward                   misbehaving nodes
correctly. The protocol is integrated with
modified Bayesian approach to decide whether               5) Fig 8 shows the throughput comparison
node is misbehaving or not                                 between original DSR and DSR with RMP. The
                                                           Fig shows that as the number of misbehaving
                                                           nodes increases throughput decreases in case of
                                                           original DSR where as DSR with RMP will
                                                           maintain the constant throughput. RMP can keep
                                                           the network throughput constant up to 80%
                                                           misbehaving nodes.

Fig 5: DSR with RMP performance for the
randomly distributed network.

3) Fig 6 shows DSR delay plot to reach the
destination .As the no of misbehaving nodes
goes on increasing the delay to reach the
destination increases.

                                                                     No of misbehaving nodes
                                                           Fig 8:Throughput comparison between DSR and
                                                           DSR with RMP

                                                           We have used the energy consumption model of
                                                           [8], which is obtained from measurements on the
                                                           Cabletron Roam about 802.11 DS High Rate
                                                           network interface card (NIC) operating at 2
                                                           Mbps. Power consumption in various modes
                  No of misbehaving nodes                  such as Tx (transmit), Rx (receive), Idle and

                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                             Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

Table 1: Power consumption in various modes
    Tx        Rx         Idle       Sleeping

  1400mW 1000mW            830mW       130mW

The measure the effectiveness of              the
Topology Management scheme, we simulated,
with on demand routing, several static and
mobile topologies. Simulation results show that
the scheme performs well by low packet delivery
latency and high percentage of packet delivery.
It outperforms flat topology network (network                Figure 10: Average delay for CBR traffic
without using topology management) in average
power consumption per node and network lifetime.             c) Overhead messages per node
                                                             Figure 11 shows the comparison of overhead
a) Fraction of nodes in forwarding backbone                  messages of topology management scheme and
Figure 9 shows the fraction of nodes that are                routing as the number of nodes increase. Number
part of virtual forwarding backbone (i.e. RIMA               of overhead messages per node per second
and gateway nodes) as node density increases.                decrease as number of nodes increase. Also it
It can be observed that as node density increases,           can been seen that overhead messages per node
fraction of forwarding nodes goes on decreasing.             per second with Topology Management scheme
Thus more number of nodes are member nodes,                  is less as compared with flat topology.
which are in power efficient sleep state most of the time.

                                                             Fig 11 Overhead messages per node per second
Figure 9 Fraction of nodes that are part of
virtual forwarding backbone        (RIMA and                 d) Power consumption
gateway nodes ) as node density increases                    Figure 12 shows the average power consumption,
                                                             as node density increases. It can be noticed that
b) Delay performance                                         as node density increases, average power
Figure 10 shows average delay as the number                  consumption per node is much less in Topology
of sleep cycles in a beacon periods are increased.           Management scheme, as compared to flat
As can be seen, delay goes on decreasing as                  Topology network. For more node density, there
number of sleep cycles per beacon period is                  are less number of RIMA and gateway nodes,
increased. This is because, to deliver packet at             which are awake all the time and large number of
the last hop, RIMA node has to wait for less                 member nodes are in power efficient mode, most
amount of time, if number of sleep cycle per                 of the time.
beacon period is more. It can also be seen that
with load distribution delay has been reduced.
For more number of sleep cycle per beacon
period, average delay drops.

                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                           Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

                                                          [1].A review of routing protocols for mobile ad
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of second hand information speeds up the                  [11] Yih-Chun Hu, Adrian Perrig, and David B.
detection of misbehaving nodes. a proposed                Johnson. Ariadne: A secure on-demand routing
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