A SEARCH FOR THE REMAINS OF PREHISTORIC CIVILIZATION IN by zvf19883

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     A SEARCH FOR THE REMAINS OF PREHISTORIC
         CIVILIZATION IN SOUTH-EAST CHINA.
                      PROF, WEI CHU-HSIEN, M.A.
           In the year 52 A.D., Yuen-K'ang (^0), a native of Shao-hsing,
     Chekiang (?$?}! In !!•)> wrote a book, named " Yuen-Chueh-Shu " or
    "Reconstructed History of Yueh State" (@$gjt£), containing some
    records about the States of Wu and Yueh (^@) before the fifth century
    B.(', This book tells us about the discovery of ancient stone implements
    in South-east China. The eleventh chapter of the book, dealing with
    Swords, tells us the difference between good and bad points of Swords,
    and thereby leads us to study the development of human weapons in our
    history.
           " Every period had its own weapons," said he. " In ancient times
    of the Kings Shuan-Yuen (ffg), Shen Nung (fljjj|) and Heh-Shu ($$
    flr), the people used stone-made weapons mainly to cut woods and to
    build houses. When the owner of the weapons died, these were buried
    in his tomb.
           "In the time of HWang-Ti (J^ljJ1), the weapons were made of jade.
    Besides being used to cut woods and to build houses, the jade weapons
    were also used to dig the land for plantation.
            "When the King was Yii (p?j), the weapons were made of bronze.
     Because of frequent inundation at that time, they were used to dig the
     mountains of I-ch'iieh (fp-p) and Lung-men (f|P5).
            " At the time of fifth century B.C., iron was used to make the
     weapons with which they could fight and conquer their enemies."
            From my ppint of view, Yuen-K'ang made a mistake in stating that
     the several classes of weapons represented the respective kings; but his
     theory of the sequence in the development of weapons was correct. By
     the unearthed remains from the ancient tombs, he classified the stone
j    weapons as of Palaeolithic age; the jade, Neolithic age; the bronze, Bronze
     age; and the iron, Iron age. Yuen-K'ang's classification was 1,800 years
    .before those of the western scientists, C. J. Thomsen and J. Lubbock.
            In HOI of the Christian era, a famous scholar, Su Tung-p'o (J^OfC
     ifc) discovered an arrowhead by the side of Stone lake (tfjiffi) in Soochow.
     (See "The Discovery of an Arrowhead in Shun Chi "Temple," in the
     "Collection of Su Tung-p'o" (M#ft;£M|*3E$i$Til5M).
            Also, the "Chia Hsing Fu Chih" (^^.Jfjg), or "The History
     and Topography of Chia Hsing," tells us that thirteen specimens of stone
     axes were discovered in Wang-Li's house (3E^), as quoted from "Lei
     Shu " (It'llt )• The discovery occurred during the i5th or i6th century.
            The book of "Ling Piao Lu I " (^t^ffS ) written by Liu Hsun
           )' again teus us tnat stone implements were discovered in Lei-chow
           )> at the west of Hong Kong. These weapons always appeared after
     violent storms, so the people there considered that they were laid down
     on the earth by the God of thunder.

                                                           The Hong Kong Naturalist,
A Search for the Remains of Prehistoric Civilization in South-East China 185

       Thus the remains of both Palaeolithic and Neolithic ages have •
appeared in the South-east coast of China. In Chinese literature, they
were recorded in the ist, 7th, nth, and i5th centuries. However, as most
authorities think that the civilization of the States of Wu-Yueh only started
as late as the 6th century B.C., and as the people of these two states migrated
from the valley of Yellow River after the stone age and settled down in
Kiangsu and Chekiang, then called Wu (^) and Yueh (@) respectively,
nobody has ever studied the stone implements discovered in those districts.
        In March 1930, when I was the Commissioner of the Bureau of
Antiquity Protection in Nanking ($f!M"£%'f&lf FJr), I discovered a stone
axe in good shape in a tomb of the and century at Chang Chia Ku ($&%.
Jijl), a village situated northeast of Mt. Ch'i Hsia dHUl!] ), near Nan-
king. The earth of the tomb was black. I also found a leg of Ting (^j)
or Chinese tripod. From its appearance, I inferred it was used by the
ancient people for cooking, as some remains of charcoal also appeared
therein.
        My co-workers thought, at that time, that it could not be the remains
of the Stone age, as by our classical records no souls lived in Nanking at
that remote period. I then invited some geologists and archaeologists to
visit the ruin, but they all arrived at the same conclusion.
       But from my own experience in the Yellow River Valley and from
the specimens mentioned above, I believed that the ruins in Nanking
belonged to the stone age. For further research, I spent 3 months in
Kan-Chia-Hang (~$^.'3ir), a town near Mt. Ch'i Hsia, and I unearthed
in its vicinity 3 stone axes, 2 adzes, i hammer, i knife, and some broken
stone implements, and more than 300 pieces of earthernware, some (14)
with geometric patterns,.
      Before my report was completed, I had to leave for Peiping for
some time. There I published an article on the Tribe of Wu-Yueh, which
appeared in the magazine "Monthly Progress" (j(§M^^!))- I*1 detail,
1 wrote a book of the " History of Chinese Archaeology," published by the
Commercial Press, Ltd. 1933. But it did not arouse much attention from
the public.
      When I was professor in Chi-Nan University, I took a trip to Yen-
ch'eng (i|;J&) in Ch'ang-chow Cffi^M) for archaeological survey, on May
26, 1933. In this place, I found the same remains of earthenware, as I
had found in Nanking. All bore the geometric patterns, which attracted
my attention. A book, entitled "A visit to Yen-ch'eng." (^ftStjJl&iE),
was written in 1935 by Mr. Ch'en Chih-liang (Pjt^ll. ), one of my pupils.
       In August 1935, I visited Chin-Shan (-^lll ) on the south-east bank
of the Chian-T'ang River (tt^fjl ). On my way, I also discovered some
geometric patterned earthenware, some of which was in quite good con-
dition, and one adze. My co-worker Mr. Chin Tsu-t'ung (-^1513]) then
published a report about this excursion, named " Archaeological Survey of
Chin-Shan"

August 1939.
1 86   f                PROF. WEI CHU-HSIEN, M.A.

       On the 24th of May^igyS, I travelled to Hang-chow (if «$•!). At
the Northwest corner of the West-lake (lgf®D> tnere IS a hill, called Lao
Ho Shan (^^0|lj), at the foot of which there is a place named Ku-Tang
(l&il)> where I found a big ruin of Neolithic time. Because a cemetery
was being constructed there, it was easy to unearth some antiquities. On
the second Sunday (May 3rd) I asked die Director of Hang-chow Museum
for cooperation. Then I dug out more than one hundred pieces of stone-
implements, such as adze, hammers, knife"} dagger, arrow-head, spear-head,
net-sinking stone, and some for workshops or factories. A report of the
above findings was written and published by myself.
       Mr. Shen Wei-tzu (^'ffi.^ ), the secretary of Shanghai Huchiang
College noticed my report in the newspaper, and in consequence he paid
much attention to his native county in Ch'ien Shan Yang ('Ulljial) from
the archaeological point of view. Finally he got more than one hundred
pieces of stone implements in his village and made a report of his findings
entitled " The Discovery of Stone Implements and the Dawn of Chinese
Civilization."
       In order to enlarge the scope of study, I organized a society for
that purpose in 1936, and requested Dr. Tsai-Yuen-P'ei (^TClp?) to be
chairman. I am the manager of the said society and it has more than
200 members, including almost all the leading scholars of archeology in
China. (All communications please address to " The Society of Wu-Yueh
Historical-Geographical Study," c/o Prof. C. H. Wei, the Central Bank,
Shanghai.)
      In 1936 when I worked in Hangchow, a member of Hangchow
Museum, Mr. Shih-Shin-Keng (^|ijjf S, ) joined us with much enthusiasm.
He has £ound some stone implements and black earthenware in his native
place Liang-chu Tqwn ( ^ f i j i ) , Hangchow, and has written both a report
and a book on the same matter.
       About the same time, Mr. Ho T'ien-Shing ({5J5Cf;f )> a native of
Hang-chow, who had attended my lectures on archaeology about 6 years
ago, dug out some remains from Liang-Chu, one of them bearing the
ancient Chinese characters. He published " The Prehistorical Site and the
Black Earthen Wares in Liang-chu District of Hangchow " in book form,
1937-
       Prof. W. H. Lin (ffliMM)      °f- Amoy University, at the same time
discovered the ruin of neolithic age in Wu-P'ing (jS^P), Fukien.        He
wrote us a simple account about his finding, and we published in for him
both in a newspaper and in our bulletin. In Hong Kong, two foreign
missionaries, Rev. Daniel J. Finn and Rev. R. Maglioni, discovered pre-
historic ruins in Hoi Fung ($!j:|t)> Canton, which affords us both interest
and confirmation. Their reports appeared in the " Hong Kong Naturalist,"
Vol. VIII, Nos. 3 and 4, March, 1938.
       The foregoing paragraphs deal with the discovery of the remains of
ancient civilization in the South-east coast of China; now I want to show
that the Wu-Yueh tribes were the basis of the Chinese race. The remains
on the coast of Kiangsu, Chekiang, Fukien and Canton form a unit for

                                                      The Hong Kong Naturalist,
A Search for the Remains of Prehistoric Civilization in South-East China 187

study; we may classify them as Ififc ruins of neolithic age. The Province
of Kiangsu was the territory o£ Wu State in 473 B.C.; Chekiang, Fukien,
Canton, -Kwangse, and Indo-China were the territory of Yueh in the 2nd
century B.C. The people of the said states may thus be called the Wu-Yueh
tribes
      Of the theories of human race, I prefer what is called polygenism
to monogenism. Europeans Albus, Asiaticus Fuseus, and Africanus Niger
are the races of the world. Asiaticus Fuseus." includes Chinese, Tibetans,
Burmese, Tai-Shans, Annamese, Malayan Race, Mongols Proper, Tungus,
Eskimos and Indian.
       The Chinese first inhabited a place somewhere on the boundaries of
Szechuen, Kweichow, and Yunnan. A branch of the race went down to
Kiangsu along the Yangtze River. (For my arguments, please see my
" Studies of the Ancient History of China.") They adopted fish as totem.
Among the Script of " shells and bones," the word ^, has the likeness of
a fish. (Figure i, e). Later on, it became a superstition and many people
nowadays still refuse to eat black fishes. Originally, Wu and Yueh were
one tribe, but the people of Yueh constructed a weapon with curved handle
which looked like the character Yueh (|[£). So they adopted the " Yueh "
or axe as the name of their State.
      The Wu tribe went up North along the sea and reached Shantung
and Hopeh. They encountered and fought with the Hsia tribe (]j[) on
many occasions. The latter tribe belonged to the Caucasian Race, occupied
the upper part of the Yellow River Valley and then moved down to Pei-
Ping where they met the Wu tribe. Their famous fightings were the war
between Hwang-Ti (f^lrfr) and Ch'ih Yu (%iit) and the war between
Shang Chia Wei (Jh*P$fc) and Yu 'H'u (^j||). Subsequently Hsia's
country was Conquered by the Wu tribe, so the former people moved
Northward along the Yellow River. The Wu tribe then settled down in
the district of Anyang (^iJ) ,Honan. They built a city near the Chang
River (j^Tfc)- The nation was named " Shang " (fgj) by our historians,
the script on " shell and bones " for '$ and jfj, being both pronounced
as "Shang."
      The Wu tribe in Anyang still used the name of Wu and sent a
group of them to the District P'ing-Lu (^p|>|?), Shansi, and established a
small nation named Yu (J|). In the script on " shell and bone," Wu
and Yu had the same pronunciation, from which they derived their name
Yin (ft).
      The " Yin " tribe occupied Kiangsu, Anhwei, Shantung, Hopei,
Honan, South part of Shansi, central and south parts of Shensi, and the
south of Kansu. A certain " Chow " tribe (|lj ) arose from the Hsia tribe
in the North-west and conquered the Yin country. The mixture of these
two different tribes then constituted the present Chinese race. A part' of
the defeated Yin tribe travelled through Hopei, Manchuria, and crossed
the Berhing Strait to America, becoming the forefathers of the Amerindians
and Eskimos. The word "Indian" has its first syllable "in," and the
Eskimo's own name " Innuit " also has an initial " in " syllable. (The

August /9J9-
i88                      PROF. WEI CHU-HSIEN, M.A.

name Eskimo was given E^ foreigners, meaning that the people eat raw
meat.) It was about tea thousand years ago, when the Yin tribe first crossed
over the Berhing Strait.
       A famous historian, Sze Ma Ch'ien (^j,^^) stated in his book
that King T'ang (H0, the founder of Yin Dynasty, came from the North-
west, the district of " Po " (^). I think he was wrong. Actually the
Yin tribe in Anyang went through the southern part of Shansi and reached
Changan, Shensi. They then went to the Northwest and established the
State of " Po " (^).
       In order to test my argument, the following topics will be discussed
in detail.
                               I. TATTOO.
       In " Tso-chuan " ( ^|f), it says in the yth year of Duke Ai        .
that in the State of Wu the people had a custom of tattooing. In the
3rd century B.C., Micius (H-f) and Chan Kuo Tseh (ipg^l) stated
that the people of the State of Yueh also tattooed. The scientific workers
of the Central Research Institute, once discovered a stone statue with tatooed
figures in Anyang. The report was published in " Academica Sinica, Pre-
liminary Report of Excavations at Anyang," Part II.
II. TIN CONTENTS IN THE BRONZE WEAPONS AND VESSELS.
       The remains of Yin dynasty we got at Anyang are the knife contain-
ing 15% of tin, arrowhead 17%, curved weapon (£Jji^) 20%, vessels for
worship 10.2%, the least tin content of all Yin vessels being not less than
10%. The Valley of Yellow River, we know, does not produce tin. Tin
is produced in Yunnan, but it is far away from Anyang, and as communica-
tions at that time were bad, the tin contained in these articles could not be
the products of Yunnan.
       In the district of Wu-Hsi (4fi|(|g), its name means " no tin," but in
ancient times it did produce tin in the Tin Hill of that district. In the
Ch'in dynasty (^), 3rd century B.C., the tin in the hill was exhausted.
Hence the name Wu-Hsi.           But because the district had produced tin
originally, its name was once changed to Yu Hsi (^fvJU) in about the ist
century A.D. So it leads us to believe that the district of Wu-Hsi did
supply the tin to the people in Anyang, because the Wu-Yueh tribes migrated
from this place northwestward.
         III. ANCESTORS OF YIN TRIBE WERE BLACK.
      There are two symbols in the script on the " shell and bone " (Figure
i, a and b), which the Yin tribe worshipped as their ancestors. In some
of our old books, one of these symbols was translated as |»f;.
      Later on, we find two books Shih Tze (P^f-) and Huai Nan Tze
           both of which explained that the character $j; meant a black-
skinned person. Shih Tze was written in the 3rd century B.C., and Huai
Nan Tze in the 2nd century B.C. Also, in the Book of Odes (Up®),
there is a poem named Ch'ang Fa (m^); it says that the ist ancestor
of Yin Dynasty was a "Black King" (;£;£)• The colours of human

                                                        The Hong Kong Naturalist,
A Search for the Remains of Prehistoric Civilization in South-East China 189

beings are black, yellow and     white, ,and their difference is due to the heat
of sun rays. Therefore the       black people in the North must have come
from the South in Kiangsu.       In another chapter of the Book of Odes, the
chapter of Black Bird (~&Mi)      the story says that the ancestor of Yin tribe
was a black bird.
       We discovered black earthenwares in Liang Chu (jsUH), 'Hangchow
and Chia Hsing GiyPI).         In the districts of Shuang-ch'iao (ftli) and
Anyang, we found a great number of black,*earthenwares. Some people
of Kiangsu and Chekiang worship the black fish as a god and refuse to
eat it. In Hangchow, there is a temple of the God Chang-Ta-Ti (^S^C^f);
the people of that district believe the ancestor of this God was a black fish.
This shows that the tribe of Yin migrated to the North from the South.
IV. THE NAMES OF MEN, WOMEN, AND FAMILY MEMBERS.
      We say J§ in Chinese for man meaning a farmer in its original sense.
The Chinese old poems had a certain rule, that the last word of each line
of a stanza had the same rhyme. It helps us to sing it smoothly. In this
way we find that the characters of fg1 (south) and J§ (man) have the same
pronunciation " Nan." That means that the men came from the South.
       ^C " Nil " or woman belonged to the family of Yu Q£,). In that
family, the woman had the predominant power. The slaves of Yin tribe
were women captured from the Yii tribe. Nii (^c) and Yu (fSj) had
the same pronunciation. According to the Yin tribe, the classification of
members of a family were Son, Elder brother, Father, and Ancestor. But
the Son and the Slave were in the same rank, not entitled to be citizens.
The ancestors were dead. So the proper citizens were only father and
eider brother.




                                        Figure i .
                        b.         e.            d.
      The character JfJ " Hsung " (elder brother) looked like a man kneel-
ing with a hat on his head. It showed that the elder brother was a young
man to be crowned by the chief of the tribe for fighting the enemy and
animals.
       The character of 3£ " Fu," (Father), was derived from a figure
which seems to indicate a man holding an axe and leading the people to
fight their enemies and animals, (Figure i, d).
     Women were daughters, mothers, and jflfc " Pi " (woman ancestors).
     The character for Woman, -£/r, was derived from a figure which
symbolizes, I think, a slave kneeling down with hands bound, (Figure i, e).
       The character of mother i$ " Mu " was derived from a figure
indicating a woman with mammae for nursing, (Figure i, f).
       The character jjfc    " Pi " meant the dead woman.

August /9.J9-
190                        PROF. WEI CHU-HSIEN, M.A.

       By the above names!?*! think I may conclude that the Hsia tribe
came from North-west, and the Yin tribe from South-east.
         V. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS ON EARTHENWARE.
       In the Yellow River Valley, the Neolithic earthenwares, which have
been unearthed, were partly painted pottery (^PS)). That art was brought
by the Hsia tribe from Babylonia. As to the process of making pottery,
there were three kinds of patterns: an ^earthenware with basket pattern
was held in a basket during baking; one with rope pattern in a hemp*
cloth; and one with mat pattern in a mat.
       The remains of the above patterned earthenwares were many in the
Yellow River Valley and Wu-Yueh, but those in Wu-Yueh were different
in that they had also the geometric figures which are lacking on the Yellow
River Valley wares. Now in Hai-Nan island, the " Li" people (^) still
wear such patterned clothes. I should say that the geometric patterns were
the peculiar civilization in the Wu-Yueh States. In Anyang district, we dis-
covered some remains of earthenwares with simple figures, thus showing
that the migrated people brought along with them the wares from the South.
So the race and civilization of W.u-Yueh States, according to my research,
must be the basis of the Chinese.




                     P     Figure 2. Stone-made " Kuo."
          From the side.                From above.         Kuo with handle.
      The stone implements which we unearthed in the Yellow River
Valley, were implements without handles. In the Wu-Yueh States, there
were three kinds of stone weapons, namely, " Shih-Kuo" (5 ^),
" Shih-Mao" (^j^-) and " Shih-Yueh " (%i$&) on all of which wooden
handles can be fitted.
      Ch'ih Yu (j£~Jt) was die chief of " Miao" tribe (•§') in the 3rd
century B.C., and as the book Shih Pen (•$;;$.) shows, he invented the
"Kuo" weapon. From the book of " Ch'u Su" (^|^), the "Kuo"
was first invented by the people of Wu Kingdom. It was called " Wu
Kuo." The character ^ can be traced as early as the Yin Dynasty, so
we may conclude that the Yin people must have known how to use this
weapon.
      Ch'ih Yu also made the Mao (%•} weapon, of which we have dis-
covered three shapes: ordinary mao, chieftain's mao and barbarous mao
                          Anyang district the bronze mao also appeared.

                                                          The ffong Kong Naturalist,
A Search for the Remains of Prehistoric Civilization in South-East China 191

On the " shell and bone," there"3S a. p"aleographical character ^. It had
a long handle. In the bronze age, the head of " Mao" was lengthened
and became a sword. In the ^th and 5th centuries, the States of Wu-Yueh
produced some famous swords.
      The weapon Yueh (|£) was another kind of " Kuo," made of metal
with a curved handle. The native people of Malaya archipelago use them
even now.




         V
                           Figure 3. Metal " Yueh."
         Head of Yueh.       Method of cutting handle   Yueh with
                           of Yueh from the branch       handle,
                           of a tree.
        The weapon " Yueh " was not found in the Valley of Yellow River,
 but many in Wu-Yueh States. In 482 B.C. the King Fu Tsa (^.iH) of
We called a meeting of Kings of different states, holding in his hand a
" Yueh" to show his powerfulness. Later the King of Yueh used it to
conquer the State of Wu in 473 B.C.
       The climate in Wu-Yueh was warm, and Hsia's country was cold.
From that difference, the people in the north were stronger than those in
the south, but the southern ,people had the powerful weapon " Yueh " and
 so were able to conquer and settle down in the North. They brought along
with them the knowledge of fortune telling and carving earthenwares.
       The States of Wu-Yueh were situated near the sea, so there were
many fishes and others of fish family. They used the back bone of the
tortoise to tell fortunes. But the tortoises were few in the North country,
so other animal bones were used for that purpose. They engraved words
on bones, and so we see the old characters on them. We have dug out
many of these remains in Anyang district.
       The black earthenwares in Wu-Yueh had been carved with patterns.
In the Yellow River Valley, the wares were painted. By combining these
two methods of pottery, the characters on the bones were painted first and
then engraved. The people of Yin were skilful in arts, and had dis-
covered the use of marks or letters. Through the influence of painting,
they made progress in letters. The book of Han-Fei-Tze (ft^-jp ) in 3rd
century B.C., and the book of " Huai-Nan-Tze " (fltf^^f) in 2nd century
B.C. tell us that the Chinese characters were made by Ts'ang Chieh (jf |g).
But the combined sound of his name was "Hsieh" (f?); Tsang Chieh
and Hsieh were the names of the same person, and he was a man of the
Yin tribe.

August
192                     PROF. WEI CHU-HSIEN, M.A.

       The people of Chow sISte caihe from the North-west and conquered
the Yin. We have not been able to get any remains of Chow bearing
letters before their conquest. Afterwards they had the same letters of Yin,
obviously adopted from the letter. In the 3rd and 4th centuries B.C. there
were six countries in the East, namely, Chi (^f), Chu (^), Yen ($£),
Han (fj), Chao (®) and Wei (H). They changed the letters slightly
according to their own spoken languages. The state of Chin (^), how-
ever, kept the letters of Chow dynasty. Later, Chin united the six states
and abolished the letters of the other states. The letters of Chin dynasty
became the only Chinese. Its type has been modified from time to time,
as from " Chuan " (^) to " Li" (H) and "Li" to " Kai" (^). The
last type is the present Chinese character.
       Because of favourable conditions, the people of Wu-Yueh loved arts
and they were patient, too. In the districts of Yellow River, the patterns
were natural, but those in Wu-Yueh were beautiful geometric designs. The
letters on the old bones were slender and beautiful. The letters on the
bronze vessels of Chow dynasty were rough and strong. In the 4th and
5th centuries B.C. a flower or certain design of birds appeared around each
character on the bronze vessel of Wu-Yueh. It was called " Niao-chuan "
(&«)•
       A few events will show the patience of the people of Wu-Yueh.
The people of Yin were defeated by Chow, some being killed. Others
became business men and were called "(ft], because they originally lived by
the Shang River. They did the hardest work in the face of poor com-
munication, going even so far as to Europe. A group of them went to
 the North-east in the 3rd century B.C. The book of " Shan Hai Ching "
dll$}i£) stated that there was a "Country of Gentlemen" (fSrfjiJ) in
 the East. Very probably this alluded to the people of Eskimo as they are
 great lovers of peace. ,
       The majority of the Chinese race are the descendants of die Yin
tribe. By their patience, although diey had been defeated and conquered
at different times, they always rose again.. For example, in 494 B.C. King
Kou Chien ('fiJiS) or. Yueh state, after 20 years of endurance, defeated Fu
Tsa, the King of Wu, and recovered his territory.
      Confucius admitted himself to be a descendant of Yin. His book
Chung-Yung taught the " Principle of the Golden Mean " (*f»Jj|f) which
has been the ideal of thought in China for more than two thousand years.
The people of Yin in North China mixed with the people of Hsia, and
became strong but those in the south still remained weak and patient. As
the " Book of the Golden Mean " says, the northerners are good fighters
in uniform without fear of death, while the men in South China are patient
and know how to retaliate.
      In conclusion, I believe that the remains in South-east China will
help us to understand the peculiarities of the Chinese people and civilization
in many respects.



                                                        The Jtong Kong Naturalist,

								
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