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					1   STATE OF ALASKA
,   Department of Natural Resources
    Divislon of               Geoiogicsi &                   G e o p h y s i c ~ a iS u r v e y s
    230 So. Franklin St.     323 E. 4th Ave.               3001 Porcupine Dr.      P.O. Box 80007      P.O. Box  7438
    Juneau 99801 *           Anchorage. AK 99501 *         Anchorage 99501         College 99708*+      Ketchikan 99901 *
i


    Vol. XXX                                                             October 1981                                                                   No. 4

                                                                    Published Quarterly
     Jay S. Hammond-Governor                                 John W. Katz--Commissioner                                 Ross G . Schaff-State Geologist
                                                          Geoffrey Haynes-Deputy Commissioner



               Is there a pot of gold at end of rainbow?
               'Western Alaska' to be topic of AGS symposium
                                                                             *
                                                                       I N THIS ISSUE

                                                                                 Fourth Int'l Conference on Permafrost to meet in Alaska
                                                                                 DGGS Anchorage mining-info office, DMEM move
               New claims received by DGGS rise dramatically                     36,000-year-old bison 'comes to life'
               DGGS publishes 9 open files, Cook Inlet bibliography              Sohio begins exploration program off Alaska's west coast
                 A
               U begins annual extension courses in prospecting                  Scientists say Alaskan peak could erupt
               Barnwell named DGGS Deputy State Geologist                        DEC works with miners to prevent pollution
               DGGSer studies salary scale of geologists                         Oil rigs ready for Beaufort drilling season
               AMA Conference well attended                                      Our Gangue
               DGGS presents papers at AMA meeting                               Metals Market

                                                                                                     * Mining-informotfon o f f k c + Publfratfon.   office



                       Is there a truly pot of gold at the end                    i n s t e a d of c u r r e n c y .     Ln o t n e r w u ~ i i s ,
                         of the rainbow?---Or just a hernia?                     you n o t o n l y work f o r a s h a r e i n t h e
                                                                                 p r o f i t s , b u t you pay f o r t h e ' ~ r i v i -
                        I f t h a t fabulous gold placer deal                     l e g e ' a s you do i t .
              i n A l a s k a y o u ' v e been o f f e r e d sounds t o                     Now, t h e r e is n o t h i n g wrong w i t h
              good t o be t r u e , i t p r o b a b l y i s .           Ac-      s u c h an arrangement i f a l l p a r t i e s
              c o r d i n g t o DGGS mining e n g i n e e r C l e l a n d        u n d e r s t a n d t h e agreement and i t i s
              Conwell, A l a s k a p l a c e r mines seem t o be                 equitable---but              g o l d must be produced
              t h e s o u r c e o f a g r e a t number of what is                and t h e p e r c e n t a g e s h a r e d must be f a i r ,
              known i n t h e s e c u r i t y b u s i n e s s a s                Conwell s a y s , o r y o u ' r e g o i n g t o be
              'shams.'         Most of t h e f i n a n c i a l b a c k e r s     b o t h s o r e and s o r r y .
              who l o s t t h e i r money were from o u t s i d e                           The Alaskan l a b o r e r c a u g h t i n such
              the state.                 Unfortunately,            Conwell       a nonpaying sham may have some p r o t e c -
              s a y s , t h e s e s o - c a l l e d 'good d e a l s ' h a v e    t i o n , however.            He may f i n d , t h r o u g h
              h u r t t h e f i n a n c i n g of l e g i t i m a t e Alas-       t h e Wage and Hour D i v i s i o n o f t h e
              kan mining p r o p e r t i e s .                                   A l a s k a Department of L a b o r , t h a t he i s
                                                                                 e n t i t l e d t o payment o f a minimum wage.
                                   The tax dodge                                 I t may n o t amount t o much, b u t i t ' s a
                                                                                 f a r b e t t e r d e a l t h a n some ended up
                       One t h r e a d common t o most o f t h e                 with---they          n o t o n l y worked f o r n o t h i n g
              p l a c e r f i n a n c i a l schemes i s t h e t a x              a l l summer b u t found t h e y owed t h e i r
              dodge. T r u e , f o r t h e l a r g e i n v e s t o r o r         employer f o r board and room.
              o p e r a t o r t h e r e a r e some t a x a d v a n t a g e s ,              Another l i n e d a n g l e d b e f o r e pro-
              t h e major one b e i n g a 1 5 - p e r c e n t d e p l e -        s p e c t i v e s u c k e r s i s t h a t "no t a x e s a r e
              t i o n a l l o w a n c e on g o l d p r o d u c t i o n . But     d u e u n t i l t h e g o l d i s s o l d " and t h a t
              t h e r e ' s a c a t c h : g o l d must be produced               " w e ' l l mine t h e g o l d now, w h i l e t h e
              a t a profit.                                                      p r i c e is low, and s e l l i t l a t e r , when
                       The t a x a d v a n t a g e i s o v e r p l a y e d .     i t ' s high.''            The f i r s t s t a t e m e n t is
              I t i s a p p l i e d t o b o t h money i n v e s t o r s          t r u e , t h e second one a d m i r a b l e .             In
              and ' t i m e ' i n v e s tors---men           who gamble          a c t u a l i t y , most o p e r a t i o ~ i s must s e l l
              t h e i r t i m e and l a b o r t h a t t h e y can make           t h e i r g o l d a s i t i s produced t o pay
              more money by r e c e i v i n g sharc.s i n g o l d                expenses.           Only t h e l a r g e mining con-
2                                                ALASKA MINES & GEOLOGY

c e r n s or t h e independently wealthy can                         rough ' c a n v a s ' s u r v e y made by DGGS min-
withhold t h e i r gold f o r a t a x s a v i n g s                  i n g g e o l o g i s t T.K. Bundtzen and E r n i e
o r for speculation a t a higher p r i c e .                         Wolff, head of t h e UA Mineral I n d u s t r y
                                                                     Research L a b o r a t o r y , more t h a n 114,000
                'The River of Gold'                                  t r o y oz of p l a c e r gold were probably
                                                                     produced i n Alaska d u r i n g t h e 1981
         Another g r e a t g i m i c k i s t h e 'new                o p e r a t i n g season.         But remember t h i s :
and f a n t a s t i c a l l y r i c h d e p o s i t . ' The          p l a c e r mining i s mining, and mining i s
sad t r u t h i s , most p l a c e r d e p o s i t s a r e           a tough, t e c h n i c a l b u s i n e s s .
o f v e r y low g r a d e . Many good o p e r a t o r s                        So, b e f o r e jumping i n f e e t f i r s t ,
have had            profitable        operations         on          a s k y o u r s e l f a few q u e s t i o n s : a ) Can I
ground t h a t y i e l d e d but 0.01 ounce of                       a f f o r d t o l o s e t h e investment of both
g o l d per cubic yard.             Most miners make                 time and money t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y t o
a p r o f i t because of f a v o r a b l e condi-                    make t h e p r o j e c t pay? b) Is i t a t a x
t i o n s and because t h e y a r e experienced                      dodge? c ) I s t h e r e a gimmick? d ) Do I
operators.                                                           know t h e           principals           involved?        and
          Oh, t h e r e a r e probably i s o l a t e d               e ) Has t h e s e c u r i t y been r e g i s t e r e d
r i c h pockets t o be found, but i f a pro-                         w i t h proper a u t h o r i t i e s ( s e c u r i t i e s Ex-
moter i s pushing a s u b s t a n t i a l d e p o s i t              change Commission) b e f o r e t h e s a l e ?
o f over 0.08 ounces per yard o r more---                                      But i f you s t i l l hear t h e c a l l and
BEWARE.         There a r e d e p o s i t s i n Alaska               have p r o p e r l y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e proposi-
t h a t were explored many y e a r s ago t h a t                     t i o n , perhaps you can make your f o r t u n e
have remained dormant because of wet or                              i n p l a c e r mining i n Alaska.
f r o z e n ground, e x t e n s i v e overburden, o r            I             On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e y s t i l l make
r e c o v e r y problems.        I f t h e s e a r e pre-            t r u s s e s for suckers
s e n t e d , make s u r e you s e e r e l i a b l e                                               x'
documentation---old             company maps, d r i l l               'Western Alaska' to be topic of AGS symposium
reports,         a s s a y s , and o t h e r       factual                              in February
data.
                                                                              About 1 5 s p e a k e r s w i l l d i s c u s s
      'New machines, l a z y o l d t i m e r s '                     w e s t e r n Alaska geology and i t s r e s o u r c e
                                                                     p o t e n t i a l a t t h e 1982 Alaska G e o l o g i c a l
          S t i l l another argument promulgated                     S o c i e t y symposium, t o be h e l d a t t h e
by t h e f a s t t a l k e r s i s t h e ' t h e new                 C a p t a i n Cook Hotel i n Anchorage next
machine' t h a t w i l l r e c o v e r untouched                     Feb. 17 and 18.                    The c o n f e r e n c e w i l l
f i n e gold t h a t t h e ' o l d t i m e r s l e f t               feature             two       luncheons        with       guest
behind '  .                                                          s p e a k e r s ($10 each) and a banquet
          Despite t h e i r f a u l t s , the s l u i c e            ($17.50) on t h e evening of t h e 1 7 t h .
box and j i g have withstood t h e t e s t of                                 R e g i s t r a t i o n f e e s f o r t h e sympo-
t i m e ; t h e y a r e s t i l l t h e primary re-                  sium, which f a l l s i n t h e middle of
c o v e r y systems.           True, some f i n e gold               Anchorage' s               annual        Fur       Rendezvous
was l e f t behind; t h e s l u i c e box has a                      c e l e b r a t i o n , a r e $40 i n advance, $50 a t
low r e c o v e r y f o r l e s s t h a n -65 mesh                   t h e d o o r , and $10 f o r s t u d e n t s .             For
gold.             But remember, f i n e gold is                      d e t a i l s on t h e program, c o n t a c t John
n e a r l y a s d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o v e r now as           Bolrn, USGS, 800 A s t . , Anchorage 99501
i t e v e r was.          Even a r e c o v e r y system              (ph 271-4583).
d e s i g n e d by a q u a l i f i e d mineral-separa-                                             a
t i o n e n g i n e e r , u s i n g proven s e p a r a t i o n        New claims received by DGGS rise dramatically
t e c h n i q u e s , may not be economic.
          The b e s t t h i n g t o remember i s t h a t
t h e o l d t i m e r s were thorough---they           took                   Mildred Brown and C a r o l e Stevenson
t h e cream and d i d n ' t l e a v e a whole l o t                                                       GS
                                                                     a r e pooped. The two D G mining-infor-
behind.                                                              mation s p e c i a l i s t s i n C o l l e g e processed
                                                                     8,484 new mining c l a i m s t h i s q u a r t e r , a
        Ask y o u r s e l f q u e s t i o n s f i r s t              t o t a l second o n l y t o t h e 9,668 docu-
                                                                     ments processed i n t h e f a l l of 1978,
        I f you a r e s t i l l s e r i o u s l y t h i n k -        when t h e p r i c e of gold was a t a ' f e v e r
 i n g about p l a c e r mining i n Alaska,                          pitch. '
don' t be d i s c o u r a g e d . Some good opera-                             This                autumnal t o t a l is sub-
t o r s make money.            On t h e b a s i s of a               s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t recorded
                                                          OCTOBER 1'981                                                                  3

l a s t y e a r , when 5 , 0 1 2 new cLailrls w e r e                          T h e b i b l i o g r a p h y , a 33-page book-
recorded.            It is a l s o markedly h i g h e r              l e t compiled by Karen S . Emrnel and
t h a n t h e 4 , 5 5 1 new c l a i m s r e c e i v e d and          P a t t i L. Coonrod, i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f
plotted last quarter.                                                g e o l o g i c a l e n t r i e s from r e c e n t l i t e r a -
          Of     particular            interest         is    tile   t u r e c o v e r i n g t h e Cook I n l e t a r e a
1 , 0 3 0 c l a i m s r e c o r d e d i n t h e Kuskokwim            between 59" and 61" n o r t h l a t i t u d e .
d i s t r i c t recorders office (see table                          The b i b l i o g r a p h y emphasizes petroleum-
below)    .      T h i s a c t i v i t y , p r i m a r i l y con-    Sased m a t e r i a l , but s u b j e c t s referenced
ducted           by      Greatland             Exploration,          i n c l u d e g e o p h y s i c s , s t r a t i g r a p h y , pale-
c e n t e r e d i n t h e Sleetmute Quadrangle,                      o n t o l o g y , and a r t i c l e s from t h e p e t r o -
a n a r e a n o t p r e v i o u s l y known f o r i t s              leum t r a d e j o u r n a l s .         It s e l l s f o r $ 1 .
mineral deposits.                                                              The f o c u s o f t h e o p e n - f i l e r e p o r t s
           h his i s goin:'             t o be a banner              p r i m a r i l y c e n t e r s on two a r e a s , t h e
y e a r , " s a i d Brown.            Already t h i s year,          Brooks Range and t h e F a i r b a n k s mining
i n t h e f i r s t 9 months, we've p r o c e s s e d                district.             Four g r a v i t y s t u d i e s from
more c l a i m s t h a n we d i d f o r a l l of l a s t             v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e s t a t e were a l s o
year."           She added, "More t h a n 6,000                      printed t h i s quarter.
c l a i m s h a v e been r e c e i v e d f o r O c t o b e r                   DGGS m i n i n g g e o l o g i s t J o h n D i l l o n ,
alone    ."                                                          p r i n c i p a l a u t h o r o f t h e Brooks Range
                           - - Sept.
                             July          Aug.                      o p e n - f i l e r e p o r t s , s a i d , "'I'heytve been
                                                                     a l o n g t i m e i n t h e making.                     I t ' s good
Fairbanks                                                            t o know t h a t          the'^      are f i n a l l y seeing
Barrow                                                               t h e l i g h t o f day.              Two of t h e r e p o r t s
Manley H . S p r .                                                   are         lengthy         geochemical                summaries.
Nulato                                                               They a r e :
M t . McKinley                                                                  .AOF-133A, 'Geochemical r e c o n n a i s -
Nenana                                                               s a n c e o f t h e s o u t h w e s t Wiseman Quad-
Rampart                                                              r a n g l e : Summary o f d a t a on pan-con-
F t . Gibbon                                                         c e n t r a t e and stream-sediment s a m p l e s , '
Kotzebue                                                             by J . T . D i l l o n , J . B . C a t h r a l l , and M.A.
Talkee t n a                                                         Moorman.           T h i s r e p o r t , produced i n co-
Palmer                                                               o p e r a t ion with t h e U. S.                      Geological
Nome                                                                 S u r v e y , p r e s e n t s t h e a n a l y s e s o f 647
Seward                                                               stream-sediment and 156 p a n - c o n c e n t r a t e
Juneau                                                               s a m p l e s . The samples were c o l l e c t e d by
Haines                                                               DGGS d u r i n g t h e 1977-79 f i e l d s e a s o n s
Petersburg                                                           and a n a l y z e d by t h e U.S. G e o l o g i c a l
Ketchikan                                                            Survey.           Most o f t h e 176-page t e x t i s
Anchorage                                                            t a k e n up by t a b u l a r d a t a .             The r e p o r t ,
I1 iamna                                                             which i n c l u d e s a 1:1 2 5 , 0 0 0 - s c a l e b l a c k -
Aleutian Is.                                                         1i n e geochemical l o c a t i o n p l a t e , c o s t s
Seldovia                                                             $8.
Cordova                                                                        .AOF-133B, 'Geochemical r e c o n n a i s -
Chitina                                                              s a n c e o f t h e s o u t h w e s t Wiseman Quad-
Glenal l e n                                                         rangle:           Summary       of      data       on     rock
Bethel                                                               s a m p l e s , ' by J . T . D i l l o n , M.A. Moorman,
Kuskokwim                                                            and L a r r y Lueck. T h i s 164-page r e p o r t ,
Homer                                                                which a l s o h a s a 1 : 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 - s c a l e b l a c k -
                                                                     1i n e geochemical l o c a t i o n p l a t e , h a s
Totals                     1,332        4,071          3,081         e x t e n s i v e t a b l e s on t h e a n a l y s i s o f 536
                               X                                     r o c k s a m p l e s . AOF-133B c o s t s $8.
                                                                              The o t h e r o p e n - f i l e r e p o r t on t h e
              DGGS publishes nine open files,                        Brooks Range, AOF-124, ' ~ e o l o g i cmap o f
                 Cook Inlet bibliography                             t h e Wiseman A-4 Q u a d r a n g l e , A l a s k a , ' by
                                                                     J . T . D i l l o n , G.H. P e s s e l , L a r r y Lueck,
         DGGS had a busy q u a r t e r on t h e                      and W.B. Hamilton, is a c o n t i n u a t i o n i n
publishing scene.                  A b i b l i o g r a p h y on      tile s e r i e s t h a t s t a r t e d e a r l i e r t h i s
t h e Cook ' ~ n l e ta r e a , n i n e new o p e n - f i l e        summer w i t h t h e pub1 i c a t i o n o f AOF-119,
r e p o r t s , and t h r e e r e v i s e d i n f o r m a t i o n    which c o v e r e d t h e Wiseman A-3 Quad-
c i r c u l a r s were r e l e a s e d .                             rangle.              AOF-124       consists          of    one
4                                                   ALASKA MINES 8;. GEOLOGY

 1 : 6 3 , 3 6 0 - s c a l e b l a c k l i n e rnap and c o s t s       i n s p e c t e d a t any of t h e f o u r DGGS in-
$1.                                                                     format ion o f f i c e s l o c a t e d throughout
            Two new open f i l e s cover t h e F a i r -                the s t a t e (p. 1).
banks mining d i s t r i c t .                   One, AOF-145,                    I n o t h e r pub1 i c a t i o n s news, t h r e e
 s h o u l d p r o v e p o p u l a r w i t h t h e m i n e r s of       DGGS s t a f f e r s had p a p e r s p u b l i s h e d i n
 the interior.                     It is a s e t o f f i v e            t h e UA M i n e r a l I n d u s t r y Research Lab-
b l a c k l i n e maps t h a t form a mosaic o f                        o r a t o r y ' s c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e second
 t h e mining-claim s t a t u s o f t h e F a i r -                     a n n u a l Conference on A1 a s k a P l a c e r
banks mining d i s t r i c t . The AOF d e p i c t s                    P l a c e r Mining, 'Focus on g o l d . '               Mark
 t h e s t a t u s of s t a t e mining c l a i m s and                  Robinson's p r e s e n t a t i o n , ' C l a s s i f i c a -
of        federal            patented         and u n p a t e n t e d   t i o n of p l a c e r d e p o s i t s , ' was t h e f i r s t
c l a i m s l o c a t e d b e f o r e 1981. AOF-145 i s                 p a p e r g i v e n a t t h e A p r i l 1980 con-
part          of        a     larger        study,       'Mineral.      ference,            held     at        the   UA-Fairbanks
resource appraisal of                            the     interior       campus.            Immediately f o l l o w i n g on t h e
A l a s k a mining d i s t r i c t s , ' a c o o p e r a t i v e        agenda            was      fellow         geologist      Tom
e f f o r t c o n d u c t e d by DGGS and t h e U A                     Rundtzen, who gave a t a l k e n t i t l e d
M i n e r a l I n d u s t r y Research L a b o r a t o r y .            'Geological              guides        t o heavy-mineral
            S o u r c e s o f t h e r e p o r t , compiled by           placers.'            The t h i r d DGGS a u t h o r i n t h e
L a r r y Lueck and J . E . S p e r b e r , a r e t h e                 r e p o r t was mining e n g i n e e r C l e l a n d Con-
DGGS          mining-informat i o n                 files,      the     $ell,            whose        presentat ion,           'Gold
s t a t e D i v i s i o n o f F o r e s t , Land, and                   r e c o v e r y from p l a c e r c o n c e n t r a t e s by
Water Nanagement, t h e RLM, t h e F a i r -                            c y a n i d a t i o n , ' was d e l i v e r e d t h e n e x t
banks North S t a r Borough, and t h e F a i r -                        d a y . The t h r e e p a p e r s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n
banks d i s t r i c t r e c o r d e r s o f f i c e .           The     MIRL Report 4 6 , which i s a v a i l a b l e from
f i v e - s h e e t s e t o f b l a c k l i n e maps c o s t s          t h e M i n e r a l I n d u s t r y R e s e a r c h Labora-
$6.50.                                                                  t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f - Alaska, Fairbanks
           The o t h e r open-f i l e r e p o r t cover-                99701.
 i n g t h e F a i r b a n k s mining d i s t r i c t i s                                     9t
AOF-137,             ' S u r f a c e g e o l o g y and ground           UA begins annual extension courses in prospecting
m a g n e t i c s o f t h e Yellow Pup t u n g s t e n
deposit,              F a i r b a n k s mining         district,                  J i m Madonna and Leo Mark-Anthony
A l a s k a ' by Y.S. Robinson.                         The one-        h a v e packed t h e i r bags and s t a r t e d
s h e e t map c o s t s $1.                                             l i v i n g o u t o f them.           The two i t i n e r a n t
           Four o f former DGGS g e o p h y s i c i s t                 i n s t r u c t o r s i n b a s i c mining and pros-
S t e v e H a c k e t t ' s g r a v i t y s u r v e y s a r e now       pec t i n g t e c h n i q u e s t r a v e l t h e s t a t e
available.                    The o p e n - f i l e      reports,       from September t i l l mid-May, t e a c h i n g
which a r e p r i m a r i l y computer p r i n t o u t s                b a s i c and geochemical p r o s p e c t i n g , o r e
o f g r a v i t y - s i t e r e a d i n g s from s e l e c t e d        identification,                 rockhounding and t h e
areas, are:                                                             like         in      free,         noncredit        extension
            .AOF-135, ' ~ a b u l a t e d g r a v i t y f i e l d       c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f
d a t a f o r Yukon F l a t s and Norton Sound                          A 1aska each year.
c o a s t a l a r e a s , w e s t e r n A l a s k a , ' by S.W.                   The o n l y f e e i n v o l v e d , a c c o r d i n g
Hackett (7 p . ) .                 The AOF c o s t s $1.                t o Madonna, i s "about $15" f o r books
            .AOF-136, ' T a b u l a t e d g r a v i t y f i e l d       and s u p p l i e s .         The c l a s s e s a r e t a u g h t
d a t a , Alaska Peninsula a r e a , Alaska, '                          e v e n i n g s , and r u n 2 t o 3 h o u r s e a c h .
by S.W. H a c k e t t (20 p . ) , $1.                                   F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n t a c t Char-
            .AOF-138, ' T a b u l a t e d g r a v i t y f i e l d       l e n e Winner a t t h e UA School of M i n e r a l
d a t a , n o r t h f l a n k o f Alaska Range,                         I n d u s t r y , F a i r b a n k s 99701 ( p h 479-7366)
A l a s k a , ' by S.W. H a c k e t t ( 6 p . ) , $1.                   o r Mark-Anthony, 2020 Lake O t i s Pkwy,
            .AOF-139, ' T a b u l a t e d g r a v i t y f i e l d       Anchorage 99504 ( ~ h279-4702).                             The
d a t a , Cook I n l e t , s o u t h - c e n t r a l Alas-              s c h e d u l e f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e y e a r is
k a , ' by S.W. H a c k e t t ( 1 5 P . ) , $ 1 .                       shown on page 5 .
           T h r e e i n f o r m a t i o n c i r c u l a r s were               I n a r e l a t e d n o t e , Madonna s a y s
r e v i s e d t h i s q u a r t e r : IC-16,               'Alaska      t h a t h i s r e v i s e d handbook, ' A g u i d e f o r
I , ;      l-,:?rlnation'            ( 3 p . 1; IC-11,        'List     t h e Alaskan p r o s p e c t o r , ' i s h o t o f f t h e
o f DGGS p u b l i c a t i o n s '               (47 p . ) ;    and     p r e s s and h a s two new c h a p t e r s .               The
IC-25, ' I n f o r m a t i o n on w a t e r and w a t e r               p a p e r b a c k b o o k l e t can be p u r c h a s e d f o r
r i g h t s i n ~ l a s k a ' (6 P . ) .                 A l l are      $6 a t h i s Alaskan P r o s p e c t i n g and
free.                                                                   G e o l o g i s t s Supply s t o r e s i n Anchorage
           All        t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s may be          (4409 Spenard Road, 99503) o r F a i r b a n k s
                                                           OCTOBER 1981                                                                    5

(504 C o l l e g e Road 9 9 7 0 1 ) .          The former           town S p e n a r d , between t h e Magic Carpec
l o c a t i o n , he wryly noted,                  is "con-         Ride and t h e Aloha massage p a r l o r s . I t
v e n i e n t l y s i t u a t e d i n b e a u t i f u l down-
                 - ~ - -- -
                  - .- o c ai t n
                                o-                    --.- .---- - -- - --
                                                        - -.--                             Date       -
                                              Instructor         -     Leo Mark-Anthony

              Anchorage                   Rock I d e n t i f i c a t i o n         November 2 - November 20
              E lmendor f                 Basic Prospecting                        November 23 - December 18
              Homer                       Basic Prospecting                        J a n u a r y 4 - J a n u a r y 29
              Soldotna                    Basic Prospecting                        F e b r u a r y 1 - F e b r u a r y 26
              Talkeetna                   Basic Prospecting                        March 1 - March 26
              Anchorage                   Basic Prospecting                        March 29 - A p r i l 23
              Anc h u r a g e             Ore D e p o s i t s                      A p r i l 26 - May 7
              Anchorage                   Environmental F a c t o r s              May 10 - May 1 4

                                                Instructor         -   James Madonna

               Fairbanks                  Basic Prospecting                        O c t o b e r 26 - November 20
               Fairbanks                  Ore D e p o s i t s                      November 23 - December 1 1
               Juneau                     Basic Prospecting                        J a n u a r y 4 - J a n u a r y 29
               Nome                       Basic Prospecting                        F e b r u a r y 1 - F e b r u a r y 26
               Tok                        Basic Prospecting                        March 1 - March 26
               C t .Wainwright            Rocks and M i n e r a l s                March 29 - A p r i l 16
               Fairbanks                  Basic Prospecting                        A p r i l 19 - May 14
                                                                       X
 Barnwell named DGGS Deputy State Geologist                                  ..
                                                                           M S       f rorn t h e Univer s i t y of LO l o r ado.
                                                                                    R i c h a r d D . Wallace is t h e new ( a n d
          ~illiam      W.        ill) ~ a r n w e l l , former             o n l y ) DGGS o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h a n a l y s t .
a s s i s t a n t t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e U.S.                 Wallace, who is c o o r d i n a t i n g and manag-
Geological            Survey          was named Deputy                     i,g      t h e DGGS d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i -
S t a t e G e o l o g i s t by DGGS ~ i r e c t o r Ross                   ties, h a s a B. S. from S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s
Schaff i n l a t e October.                  B a r n w e l l , who         U n i v e r s i t y , he h a s been in t h e DP b u s i -
s t a r t e d work i n e a r l y November, j o i n e d                     ness f o r about 20 years and came t o
five                new                    i n t h e Anchor-               DGGS from Boeing Computer i n Anchorage.
age                         The g r o u p i n c l u d e s a                D i c k is m a r r i e d and h a s f o u r c h i l d r e n .
p e t r o l e u m g e o l o g i s t , a computer spec-                              Ralph Ahgupuk i s a l s o new t o t h e
i a l i s t , and a c a r t o g r a p h e r .                              Anchorage f o l d .            The new c a r t o g r a p h e r
          Barnwell,                  had been w i t h the                                                         L
                                                                           came t o DGGS from t h e B M i n Anchorage,
USGS               l 6 years, w i l l b e concerned                        where h e was a d r a f t i n g t e c h n i c i a n f o r
primarily          with the h y d r o l o g y , petro-                     5 years.             Ralph r e p l a c e s G a r t h O l s e n ,
leum,         hazards                         g e o l o g y , and                                             L
                                                                           who r e t u r n e d t o t h e B M i n August.
pub1 i c a t i o n s a s p e c t s o f t h e DGGS o p e r a -                       I n t h e DGGS E a g l e R i v e r f a c i l i t y
tion.          The p e r s o n a b l e e a r t h s c i e n t i s t ,       is new geological               assistant          ~     d J. ~      ~
who f i r s t came t o A l a s k a w i t h SoCal O i l                     (Ed) Collazzi,              who works in the hy-
i n 1958, h a s a B.A. from Harvard and an                                 drology section.                A b a c h e l o r , Ed came
M.A. in geology                        the University                      t o DGGS from N o r t h e r n p a c i f i c A e r i a l
Wyoming.            B i l l and h i s w i f e , Audrey,                    Surveys in Anchorage.
h a v e f o u r c h i l d r e n and one b o a t , a                                 I n F a i r b a n k s t h e r e is a newcomer
3 0 - f o o t e r t h a t t h e y keep i n Seward.                         t o o , b u t t h e r e i s a n e p o t i s m problem
          The petroleum g e o l o g i s t is an o l d                      involved.            On September 2 6 , a 6 - l b 9 o z
hand i n t h e o i l and g a s b u s i n e s s . C . G .                   daughter was born to wyatt                          and J~~~
'                                            DGGS with             a       Gilbert.             So f a r , young C l a i r e Morgan
varied c a r e e r , having s p e n t 14 Years i n                         shows no q u a l m s about r e g i s t e r i n g h e r
i n d u s t r y ( ~ i c h f i e l d ,~ x x o n )and 6 y e a r s                                  with        Deputy state Geol-
w i t h t h e USGS, m o s t l y i n A l a s k a . He i s                   ogist,
working on r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r a l - s t r a t i -                                           R
                                                                                                         !
g r a p h i c s t u d i e s and h y d r o c a r b o n poten-                         "The s t r e a k of a r o c k i s t i l e c o l o r
t i a l , m o s t l y on t h e A r c t i c S l o p e and                   shown when s c r a p e d w i t h a pet."--Geo-
Brooks Range.               G i l h a s a B. S. and an                     l o g i c a l Fiowlers.
                                                                                                  ALASKA MINES & GEOLOGY


                       DGGSer studies salary scale of geologists                                                             veys ailci t o c u r r e n t s t a t e and i n d u s t r y
                                                                                                                             standards.              F o r t y - t h r e e Alaska-based
                       DGGS mining g e o l o g i s t John D i l l o n                                                        mining,            petroleum,            consulting,      and
             made a s u r v e y of s a l a r y r a n g e s o f                                                               e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m s were c o n t a c t e d i n
             g e o l o g i s t s working i n Alaska.                  He com-                                                February and asked t o supply informa-
             p i l e d r e p l i e s t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s he had                                                  t i o n on wages paid t o t h e i r g e o l o g i s t s ;
             s e n t t o Alaska-based g e o l o g i c f i r m s ,                                                            UA and t h e .USGS were a l s o c o n t a c t e d .
             ' O u t s i d e ' companies (which he a d j u s t e d                                                           The l a t t e r two and 12 o f t h e 4 3 f i r m s
             f o r cost-of-living                d i f f e r e n c e s ) , and                                               c o n t a c t e d responded.
             government a g e n c i e s .                                                                                              The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t l e a d
                       In       the        questionnaire,               Dillon                                               g e o l o g i s t s and above i n t h e employ of
             s e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s and a s s o c i a t e d qual-                                                 t h e s t a t e of Alaska a r e paid s i g n i f i -
             i f i c a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o con-                                                c a n t l y l e s s than t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s work-
             form i n p a r t t o nationwide s a l a r y sur-                                                                i n g i n i n d u s t r y ( t a b l e l)   '.  The o v e r a l l
                                                                                                                             wage s c a l e i s shown i n t a b l e 2.

                                                            T a b l e I . Sumnary of wages paid t o g e o s c i e n t i s t s who l i v e and work in Alaska

                                                                                                                                    Geologist                                                    Geophysicist
    P o s i t ion           Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s         Respondents             Avg mo. wage                 Benefits1         Respondents           Avg w . wage           Benefits

 Beginning              Beginning, s e a s o n a l , f i e l d g e o a c i e n t i a t                  10          Range               1000-1600         105-600
 field                  with some t r a i n i n g i n g e o e c i e n c e s (no                         10          O v e r a l l avg        1370             321
 assistant              d e g r e e r e q u i r e d ) ; d u t i e s mainly i n v o l v e                 7          Industry                 1350             34 1
                        camp o p e r a t i o n s .                                                       3          Govt.)                   1419             257
                                                                                                         1          state4                   1660             448

Experipnced             Seasonal f i e l d g e o s c i e n t i s t w i t h 2 o r                        10          Range               1300-1900    .    145-664
.field                  more s e a s o n s f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e 2 and                          10          O v e r a l l avg        1672             374
assistant               c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g 2 ; d u t i e e mainly                             7          Industry                 1657             398
                        geologic.                                                                        3          G o ~ t . ~              1706             316
                                                                                                         1          state4                   1870             505

 Beginning              Permanent, n o n s u p e r v j s o r y , e n t r y - l e v e l        ,         10          Range               1700-2538          50-829                 4                 1900-3135                399-900
 geoscientist                                            S
                        g e o s c i e n t i s t with B o r 0.4; .works on                               10          O v e r a l l avg        2004             462                 4                    2296                    668
                        g e o l o g i c p r o j e c t s of v a r i o u s t y p e s ,                   . 8          Industry                 2018             460                 2                    2645                    865
                        u s u a l l y under d i r e c t i o n of l e a d geo-                            2          G o ~ t . ~              1948             470                 2                    1948                    470
                        scientist.                                                                       1          state4                   1995             539                 I                    1995                    5 39

Working                 Permanent g e o s c i e n t i s t with US ( o r                                13           Range               1889-3325         100-1000                6              1889-3350               464-990
geoscientist            Bachelors p l u s 2 y r e x p e r i e n c e ) ; may                            13           O v e r a l l avg        2494              614                6                   2562                    707
                        be a s s i g n e d s u p e r v i s o r y and p r o j e c t                      8           Industry                 2558              584                3                   2974                   881
                        mgmt r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .                                              3           Govt . 3                 2151              521                3                   2151                   521
                                                                                                        1           state4                   2455              663                1                   2455                   663

Lead                    Permanent r e s e a r c h g e o s c i e n t i s t w i t h                      12           Range               2200-3742         150-3000                6             2300-3726                608-1734
geoscientist            PhD ( o r MS plua 2 y r e x p e r i e n c e o r                                12           O v e r a l l avg         3101             864                6                  3261                     879
                        Bachelors d e g r e e p l u s 5 yr e x p e r i e n c e ) ;                      9           Industry                  3128             992                3                  3500                    1055
                        u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d s u p e r v i s o r y and pro-                    3           G o ~ t . ~              3021              680                3                  3022                     7 36
                        j e c t ugmt r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s pro-                       1           stateb                   3039              820                1                  3039                     820
                        jects.


Senior                 Permanent s e n i o r r e s e a r c h g e o s c i e n t i s t                   14         Range                 2740-6234        150-3000                 8          - 2740-5988                685-1734
geoscientist           with Masters o r PhD p l u s 7 y r e x p e r i e n c e ,                        14         O v e r a l l avg           3956           1126                 8                   4093                   1151
                       including e i t h e r well-established reputa-                                  I1         Industry                    4056           1195                 5                   4413                   1212
                       t i o n a s a r e s e a r c h e x p e r t o r 3 o r more y r                     3         Govt.)                      3595            876                 3                   3561                   1050
                       s u p e r v i s o r y and management e x p e r i e n c e ;                       I         state4                      3494            94 3                1                   3494                    94 3
                       may assume s p e c i a l i z e d s c i e n t i f i c d u t i e s
                       o r supervisory responsibility for 4 o r
                       more l e a d and working g e o l o g i s t s and co-
                       ordinate their projects.

Chief                  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s same a s s e n i o r g e o s c i e n t i s t ;      13         Range                 3500-8200        150-3000                 6           4022-7669                 804-2700
geoocientist           employee may be a " s u p e r s t a r " r e s e a r c h geo-                    13         O v e r a l l avg          5101             1512                6                 5667                     1614
                       mcient i s t ( r e g i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n g e o l o g i s t ,        10         Industry                   5086             1477                3                6712                     2122
                       c o n s u l t i n g s p e c i a l i s t , o r may have o v e r a l l             3         ~ o v.3  t                 4623             1129                3                4623                      1105
                       management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r a r e g i o n ) .               1         state4                     4022             1086                1                4022                     1086

Executive              V i c e - p r e s i d e n t of g e o s c i e n c e f i r m .                     4         Range                 4022-6033        804-1500
vice-presi-                                                                                             4         O v e r a l l avg          5264             1335
dent                                                                                                    1         Industry                   6000             1500
                                                                                                        3         ~ o v. 3 t                 5018             1279
                                                                                                        1         state4                     4022             I086

1 . Approximate d o l l a r v a l u e . 2. E x p e r i e n c e , t r a i n i n g , and e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s assumed t o be i n f i e l d of g e o s c i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o p o s i t i o n .
3. F e d e r a l and S t a t e G e o l o g i c a l Surveys and U n i v e r s i t y of Alaska. 4. Anchorage baae f o r DNR, does n o t i n c l u d e UA.
                                                                                                  OCTOBER 1981

                                   T a b l e 2 . A d j u s t e d r e s u l t s of wage s t u d i e s , g e o s c i e n t i s t s i n U . S . ,   including Alaska


                                                                                                                           Geologist                                          Geophysicist
       Po8 i t i o n            Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and r e a p o n s i b i l l t i e s     source2            Wages    ~ e n e ift s '          sourcei               Wages     Benefits

Beginning                    See t a b l e I .
field assistant

Experienced                  See t a b l e 1
field assistant

Beginning                    Permanent n o n s u p e r v i s o r b e g i n n i n g geo-                A           1700      400             170
geoscientist                 s c i e n t i s t w i t h BS o r BA.                                      B                  1355                87              B
                                                                                                       C                  1685               -   -            C
                                                                                                       D                  2340               180              0

Working                     Permanent g e o s c i e n t i s t w i t h a MS ( o r                       A                  2174               400             A
geoscientist                with Bachelors plus 2 yr experience;                                       B                  1554                93             B
                            may be a s s i g n e d s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n -                 C                  --                 -   -
                            s i b i l i t y in rare instances.                                         D                  2666               35 2            D

Lead                        Permanent r e s e a r c h g e o s c i e n t i s t         with a          A            3000   2  800             450
geoscientist                PhD ( o r MS p l u s 2 y r e x p e r i e n c e            or              B                   1787               107              B
                            Bachelors plus 5 yr experience;                           employee        C                   2484               --
                            may be a s s i g n e d s u p e r v i s o r y and          project         D                   3584               398              D
                            mgmt r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

Senior                       See t a b l e 1.
geoscientist



Chief                        See t a b l e 1
geoscientist




Executive                   Vice p r e s i d e n t of a geoscience firm.                              A           6250     2 2000          2500
                                                                                                      B                   3750              602
                                                                                                      D                   7157             2218

l ~ p p r o x i m a t ed o l l a r v a l u e . 2 ~ o u r c es t u d i e s : A.-Oil and Gas J o u r n a l ( ~ e c . 1 9 8 0 ) ; 8 . - ~ i e t r i c h and ~ s s o c i a t e s ,1980; C . - S c i e n t i f i c
  Manpower C o m o i s s i o n , 1979; D.-Average t h i s t a b l e a d j u s t e d t o A l a s k a 1981.


Alaska Miners Ass'n Conference well attended---                                                                devoted a               t n e wtwhyls and ~:1~:re'sot
           More than 700 register                                                                              s t r a t e g i c minerals.            Papers were pre-
                                                                                                               s e n t e d on v a r i o u s m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s i n
          The Alaska Miners ~ s s o c i aito n ' s                                                             t h e s t a t e - - - t i n g r a n i t e s on t h e Seward
s i x t h annual conference was, i n t h e                                                                     P e n i n s u l a , chromite d e p o s i t s on t h e
words of one a t t e n d e e , "a huge suc-                                                                    Kenai p e n i n s u l a , t h e Yakobi I s l a n d and
c e s s .I'    More than 700 m i n e r s , s t u d e n t s ,                                                   Brady G l a c i e r copper-nickel d e p o s i t s ,
and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of i n d u s t r y and                                                       t h e L o s t River t i n l o d e , and t h e podi-
government descended on t h e Captain                                                                          form chromite                 d e p o s i t s of     central
Cook Hotel i n Anchorage t o a t t e n d t h e                                                                 A 1aska.
annual meeting.                                                                                                          The second d a y ' s               presentations
          The theme o f t h e October 23-24                                                                    were devoted t o new s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s
c o n f e r e n c e was s t r a t e g i c m i n e r a l s i n                                                  used i n l o c a t i n g s t r a t e g i c m i n e r a l s and
Alaska.           I n t h e opening s e s s i o n , P e r r y                                                  t o t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s of p l a c e r min-
Pendley, deputy a s s i s t a n t s e c r e t a r y f o r                                                      ing.
energy and m i n e r a l s f o r t h e Department                                                                        The conference included a sur-
o f Energy, d i s c u s s e d t h e Reagan Ad-                                                                 p r i s i n g number of a t t e n d e e s from Out-
m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e develop-                                                  side.             John Sims, d i r e c t o r o f t h e
ment of s t r a t e g i c mineral r e s o u r c e s .                                                          O f f i c e of Mineral Development of t h e
          DNR Commissioner John Katz pre-                                                                      A 1aska          Department          of      Commerce and
s e n t e d h i s views on t h e i s s u e s a f f e c t -                                                     Economic Development, s a i d , "Quite a
i n g t h e mining i n d u s t r y i n Alaska today                                                            few people i n t h e lower-48 have t h e i r
and i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e .       State                                                  e a r s t o t h e ground on what's happening
G e o l o g i s t Ross Schaff b r i e f l y sum-                                                               up h e r e . "
                           GS
marized t h e D G Resource E v a l u a t i o n                                                                                          GS
                                                                                                                         Three D G s t a f f members had a
and Mapping program.                                                                                           hand i n p r e s e n t i n g papers ( s e e follow-
          The r e s t of t h e f i r s t day was                                                               ing a r t i c l e ) .
8                                                 ALASKA MINES & GEOLOGY


        DGGS presents papers at AMA meeting                            6 ;i:      on iilct o'i)k2a v e i n , w i t h one A b u - f t
                                                                       s e c t i o n averaging 1.60 o z / t o n over a
         Three papers were p r e s e n t e d by t h e                  3 . 3 - f t width.
D G s t a f f a t t h e Alaska Miners As-
  GS                                                                              S u r f a c e e x p i o r a t l o n has c o n s i s t e d
s o c i a t i o n annual meeting i n l a t e Octo-                     o f EM-16 geophysics.                         The 50 f t of
ber.           The f i r s t , on t h e Grant Gold                      Loess overburden a t t h e mine have pre-
Mine, an underground working near F a i r -                            v e n t e d s u c c e s s f u l geochemical sampling.
b a n k s , was coauthored by D G g e o l o g i s t
                                             GS                        However, r e c e n t r o t a r y r e v e r s e - c i r c u l a -
Tom Bundtzen and Wayne Murton, of T r i -                              t i o n d r i l l i n g has been used success-
Con, I n c . , t h e mine d e v e l o p e r .                  Ab-     fully.
s t r a c t s of t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o l l o w .                    A g r a v i t y m i l l f o r t e s t i n g was
                                                                       installed               i n July           1980 and began
 GEOLOGICAL 8 PRODUCTION ASPECTS OF THE                                o p e r a t i n g a t about 5 t p d . The mine and
                                                                       m i l l have s i n c e been i n continuous pro-
                    OD
             GRANT G L MINE
                                                                       duction.             The m i l l now t r e a t s 1.5 t o 2
       FAIRBANKS DISTRICT, ALASKA                                      t p h and o p e r a t e s 24 h r a day.
      By Wayne Murton and T.K. Bundtzen
                                                                               ALASKAN STRATEGIC MINERALS---AN
            The c u r r e n t development and pro-                                        OVERVIEW
  d u c t i o n program a t t h e Grant ~ i n e               began
  i n t h e s p r i n g of 1979.                 E a r l i e r work                       By T.K. Bundtzen
  was i n t e r m i t t e n t         since the 1920's;
  about 6,000 t o n s of s e l e c t e d o r e had                                S i n c e t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y ,
. b e e n mined and custom m i l l e d b e f o r e                     Alaska            has      contributed              significant
  1950.                                                                amounts o f so c a l l e d ' s t r a t e g i c ' and
            There a r e two known s h e a r zones                       ' c r i t i c a l ' m i n e r a l s t o U.S. domestic
  w i t h v e i n s i n t h e mine---the                  ~rlshman     p r o d u c t i o n . During f o u r wars and times
  and t h e O'Dea, which d i p s t e e p l y and                       o f commodity s h o r t a g e s , A l a s k a ' s con-
  c r o s s - c u t r e l a t i v e l y f l a t - l y i n g poly-       t r i b u t ion       included             tin,         tungsten,
  metamorphic s c h i s t and q u a r t z i t e of                     platinum-group m e t a l s , antimony, mer-
  undetermined age.                                                    c u r y , chromium, and minor amounts of
            The underground workings cons i s t                        asbestos.             I n some c a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y
  o f over 3,000 f t of d r i f t s , c r o s s c u t s ,              d u r i n g World War I1 and t h e Korean War,
  and r a i s e s on t h e loo-,                       150-,    and    p r i c e s u p p o r t s and s u b s i d i z e d explora-
  200-ft l e v e l s of t h e Irishman system                          t i o n e f f o r t s were provided by t h e
  and on t h e 80-, 120-, and 200-ft l e v e l s                        f e d e r a l government and dropped when
  o f t h e 0 ' ~ e ab r e c c i a zone.                               e i t h e r s t r a t e g i c s t o c k p i l e s were ac-
            The two o r e zones c o n t a i n a t l e a s t            cumulated o r t h e demand f o r t- e. miner-           h        --
  t h r e e ages o f v e i n - q u a r t z and l a t e - -             a l s slowed.            Minor amounts of t u n g s t e n
  stage s i l i c a injection;                      t h e s e were     and                      a r e p r e s e n t l y produced i n
  accompanied by f r e e g o l d , a r s e n o p y r i t e ,           Alaska and major mining companies a r e
  lead-antimony s u l f o s a l t s , and ( r a r e l y )              evaluating s t r a t e g i c mineral d e p o s i t s
  s c h e e l i t e and c i n n a b a r .            Ore f l u i d s   statewide.              N a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t re-
  were emplaced along f a u l t zones trend-                           serves            of     tin,          fluorite,            cobalt,
  i n g s i n u o u s l y N . 20"-55" E . and d i p p i n g            n i c k e l , a s b e s t o s , and platinum m e t a l s
  from 45"-90" t o t h e SE.                                           can be found throughout t h e 4 9 t h S t a t e .
            Underground e x p l o r a t i o n and de-                  By-product r e s e r v e s of c o b a l t and p l a t -
  velopment h a s shown t h e Irishman v e i n                          inum have been r e c e n t l y recognized i n
  system t o be over 400 f t long and open                             Alaskan copper-nickel d e p o s i t s , p a r t l y
  b o t h t o t h e south and a t d e p t h ; t h e                    a s a r e s u l t of r e i n t e r p r e t i n g p a s t
  O'Dea system e x t e n d s over 900 f t i n t h e                    d r i l l i n g programs.
  same d i r e c t i o n .          The NE end of b o t h                         A major- a s b e s t o s d e p o s i t i s being
  o r e zones i s c u t by a N-NW-striking                             developed by t h e Native c o r p o r a t i o n
  j o i n t - f a u l t system.                                        Doyon, I n c .           The U.S. Bureau of Mines
            The n a t u r e of movement along t h i s                  h a s begun an a g g r e s s i v e program t o
  c r o s s c u t t i n g f a u l t i s n o t understood.              assess             Alaska's           strategic             mineral
  Vein widths v a r y from 3 t o 22 i n . on                           p o t e n t i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o b a l t , chro-
  t h e Irishman, with g r a d e s a v e r a g i n g                   inium, and t h e platinum m e t a l s .
  about 1 o z l t o n , and from 6 i n . t o over
   FAIRBANKS M I N I N G DISTRICT I N 1981:                           a m p h i ~ o l i t e s , black              quartzite,             anu
   NEW LOOK A AN O D MINERAL PROVINCE
             T    L                                                   p e l i t i c s c h i s t thought t o have formed
                                                                      a t h i g h e r p r e s s u r e s than t h e o t h e r
        By T.E. Smith, M.S. Robinson,                                 r o c k s exposed i n t h e d i s t r i c t .
        T.K. Bundtzen, and P.A. Metz*                                           I n t r u s i v e rocks i n t h e d i s t r i c t
                                                                      o c c u r mainly a s n o r t h e a s t e r l y - t r e n d i n g
          A t t h e r s q u e s t of t h e F a i r b a n k s          bod i e s of a ) d a r k , homogeneous grano-
North S t a r Borough, both t h e U n i v e r s i t y                 d i o r i t e exposed near Pedro Dome, and
                              GS
o f Alaska and D G began a m i n e r a l in-                          b) light-colored,                    coarse-grained                por-
v e s t i g a t i o n aimed a t producing d a t a                     p h y r i t i c q u a r t z monzonite-granodiorlte
u s e f u l i n stimulating l o c a l mineral                         present            mainly            on       Gilmore             Dome.
development and e x p l o r a t i o n . The F a i r -                 Numerous small p l u t o n s of f e l s i c t o
banks d i s t r i c t , which has accounted f o r                     i n t e r m e d i a t e composition occur through-
about 25 p e r c e n t of A l a s k a ' s gold pro-                   out the d i s t r i c t .                  C r o s s c u t t i n g re-
duct ion,             also       provided         significant         l a t i o n s h i p s show t h e p o r p h y r i t i c q u a r t z
amounts of antimony, t u n g s t e n , b u i l d i n g                m o n z o n i t e - g r a n o d i o r i t e is younger t h a n
s t o n e , and a g g r e g a t e .                                   the        hornblende-bearing                    granodiorite.
          The new s t u d i e s i n c l u d e 1:24,000-               A v a i l a b l e r a d i o m e t r i c ages f o r                  the
s c a l e g e o l o g i c mapping, d r a i n a g e and                Pedro Dome s t o c k range from 91 t o
rock-chip               geochemical          surveys,        and      9 3 m.y.
d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of s e l e c t e d p r o s p e c t s              Structural              development                of     the
and mines.                                                            F a i r b a n k s r e g i o n was dominated by two
          Bedrock exposed i n t h e d i s t r i c t                   folding episodes.                        The f i r s t r e s u l t e d
comprises t h r e e metamorphosed s t r a t i -                       i n i s o c l i n a l northeast-verging                           folds
g r a p h i c packages, which appear t o be i n                       w i t h wavelengths t o about 1,000 f t and
f a u l t c o n t a c t . The lowermost sequence,                     northwes t - t r e n d i n g a x e s .                The second
r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Fairbanks S c h i s t ,                 e p i s o d e f o l d e d t h e p r e v i o u s l y meta-
c o n s i s t s dominantly of q u a r t z i t e and                   morphosed u n i t s i n t o a s e r i e s of broad
micaceous s c h i s t with l o c a l v a r i a n t s                  northeast-trending                       open f o l d s which
c o n t a i n i n g g a r n e t , b i o t i t e , and chlo-           c o n t r o l t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of r o c k t y p e s
rite.           Interbedded near t h e c e n t e r of                 now exposed i n t h e d i s t r i c t .                           Local
t h e Fairbanks S c h i s t i s a 4 0 0 - f t - t h i c k             s t r u c t u r e s include small-scale f o l d s ,
sequence of i n t e r l e n s i n g f e l s i c s c h i s t ,         faults, joints,                     shears,          and         'crush
white q u a r t z i t e , g r e e n s c h i s t , g r a p h i t i c   zones. ' These zones t y p i c a l l y c l u s t e r
s c h i s t , minor maf i c flows and r h y o l i t e ,               i n NS- and EW-trending s u b p a r a l l e l s e t s
c a l c - s i l i c a t e beds, g r a y m a r b l e , and             up t o 1 m i l e long.                    Both s e t s of f r a c -
s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of q u a r t z i t e and                t u r e s have a c l o s e s p a t i a l and g e n e t i c
mica-quartz               schist      indistinguishable               r e l a t i o n s h i p t o v e i n d e p o s i t s of g o l d ,
from t h e Fairbanks S c h i s t h o s t r o c k s .                  antimony, and a r s e n i c i n t h e d i s t r i c t .
T h i s group of r o c k s , r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e                                  X
C l e a r y Sequence, appears t o be l a r g e l y
o f d i s t a l volcanogenic o r i g i n and con-                     Fourth International Conference on Permafrost
t a i n s most of t h e lode-mineral occur-                                     to meet in Alaska in 1983
rences i n the d i s t r i c t ; it is also
exposed upstream from most important                                            S i n c e World War 11, , t h e s e r i o u s
placer deposits.                                                      impact of permafrost o r p e r e n n i a l l y
          S t r u c t u r a l l y above t h e F a i r b a n k s       f r o z e n ground on development i n north-
S c h i s t - C l e a r y Sequence i s an i n t e r v a l             e r n and h i g h - a l t i t u d e r e g i o n s h a s be-
o f v a r i a b l e t h i c k n e s s c o n t a i n i n g amphi-      come widely a p p r e c i a t e d .                  Effective
b o l i t e , m a r b l e , coarse-grained g a r n e t -              c o n s t r u c t i o n of a i r f i e l d s , r o a d s , r a i l -
muscovite s c h i s t , b i o t i t e s c h i s t , c a l c -         r o a d s , urban a r e a s , and o i l - and gas-
s c h i s t , and g r e e n i s h c h e r t .                         p i p e l i n e systems r e q u i r e s              extensive
          Metamorphic rocks o c c u r r i n g along                   knowledge of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , prop-
t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t of t h e d i s t r i c t a l s o        e r t i e s , and e n g i n e e r i n g performance of
o v e r l i e t h e Fairbanks S c h i s t i n pre-                    perennially frozen m a t e r i a l s .
sumed t h r u s t - f a u l t c o n t a c t , but c o n s i s t                 About 20 y e a r s ago it became ap-
o f a d i f f e r e n t r o c k assemblage, includ-                   p a r e n t t h a t s c i e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s
i n g garnet-clinopyroxene r o c k s , g a r n e t                    working with               permafrost             needed         to
                                                                      p e r i o d i c a l l y exchange i n f o r m a t i o n a t
                                                                      the international level.                           The F i r s t
*Authorship o r d e r by l o t t e r y .                              I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on P e r m a f r o s t
                                                 ALASKA MINES & GEOLOGY

was held i n t h e J l l i t e d S t a t e s a t Purdue             o f t h e t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s , t n r e e tlalf-
U n i v e r s i t y i n 1963.            This r e l a t i v e l y   days a r e s e t a s i d e f o r f i e l d t r i p s i n
s m a l l conference was extremely success-                         t h e Fairbanks area.                     Both t h e geologi-
f u l and y i e l d e d a p u b l i c a t i o n which is            c a l and e n g i n e e r i n g a s p e c t s of perma-
s t i l l c o n s u l t e d throughout t h e world.                 f r o s t w i l l be emphasized, i n c l u d i n g
I n 1973 t h e Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l Con-                p i p e l i n e t e s t s i t e s , segments of t h e
f e r e n c e on Permafrost was convened i n                        Trans-Alaska P i p e l i n e System, a t u n n e l
Yakutsk, S i b e r i a , where 400 a t t e n d e e s                i n i c e - r i c h p e r m a f r o s t , water systems,
(mostly ~ e s t e r n e r s )got t o see f i r s t -                utilidors ,                sewage-treatment                 works,
hand t h e v a s t amount of work accom-                            s e c t i o n s of roadways impacted by perma-
p l i s h e d by t h e S o v i e t s i n t h e s c i e n c e        f r o s t , and o t h e r permafrost f e a t u r e s
and e n g i n e e r i n g of p e r m a f r o s t . I n 1978         such a s open-system pingos, a c o l l a p s e d
Canada h o s t e d t h e Third I n t e r n a t i o n a l            ping?,          thermokarst mounds and p i t s ,
Conference on Permafrost i n Edmonton,                              erosional g u l l i e s , and v a r i o u s t y p e s of
A l b e r t a , with f i e l d t r i p s t o n o r t h e r n        ground i c e .             S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n w i l l be
Canada.              About 800 i n d i v i d u a l s from           g i v e n t o Quaternary s t r a t i g r a p h y and
nine nations attended.                       I n Edmonton i t       r e l a t i o n s h i p s between permafrost and
was decided t h a t t h e U.S. would h o s t                        vegetation.
t h e Fourth I n t e r n a t i o n a l on P e r m a f r o s t                  Before t h e formal conference t h r e e
and a formal i n v i t a t i o n was extended t o                    f i e l d e x c u r s i o n s a r e planned: a ) Alaska
h o l d t h e n e x t C ~ n f e r e n c eon t h e F a i r -         R a i l r o a d and M t        .         McKinley N a t i o n a l
banks campus o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f                      Park; b) F a i r b a n k s t o Prudhoe Bay v i a
A 1aska.                                                             t h e Dalton Highway, and c ) Prudhoe Bay
                    Conference Program                               and v i c i n i t y .           A f t e r t h e formal ses-
          The        technical         program         of    the     s i o n s s i x f i e l d t r i p s a r e b e i n g ar-
Fourth            International             Conference        on     ranged:           a ) Alaska R a i l r o a d and M t              .
P e r m a f r o s t , which w i l l meet J u l y 18-22,              McKinley N a t i o n a l Park, b ) Prudhoe Bay,
1983,          will      consist         of      two p a r t s :     c ) n o r t h e r n Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Mac-
a ) reviews of s i x themes i d e n t i f i e d a s                 k e n z i e River D e l t a , d ) F a i r b a n k s t o
b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y t i m e l y , and b ) pre-        Anchorage v i a                   Copper         River       Basin,
s e n t a t i o n s of c o n t r i b u t e d p a p e r s .   The     e ) Prudhoe Bay and Beaufort Sea Coast,
reviews w i l l be p r e s e n t e d a s panel d i s -               and f ) Prudhoe Bay and C o l v i l l e River
c u s s i o n s among i n v i t e d e x p e r t s i n t h e         Delta.            P r i o r t o the conference, D G                GS
following t o p i c s : pipeline construc-                          w i l l p u b l i s h i l l u s t r a t e d guidebooks f o r
t i o n , c l imat i c change and geothermal                         a l l field trips.
regime, deep foundat i o n s and embank-
ment s , permafrost t e r r a i n and env iron-                                           Registration
mental p r o t e c t i o n , f r o s t heave and i c e                       Registration                 forms     will         be
s e g r e g a t i o n , and subsea p e r m a f r o s t .            mailed d u r i n g t h e summer of 1982 t o
          Papers w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h on a l l           i n d i v i d u a l s e x p r e s s i n g an i n t e r e s t i n
aspects            of    permafrost             science      and    t h e Conference by w r i t i n g t o :
e n g i n e e r i n g a r e welcome.                  Ex tended
abstracts              are      due     for       review by              P o l a r Research
October 1, 1982, and w i l l be published                                N a t i o n a l Academy of Science
i n a s e p a r a t e volume, which w i l l be
a v a i l a b l e a t t h e Conference.                   Papers         2101 C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Avenue, N.W.
f o r c o n f e r e n c e p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e due on           Washington, D.C. 20418
March 1, 1983, and w i l l be reviewed
p r i o r t o p u b l i c a t i o n i n a proceedings                         Participants              can       either         pre-
volume o r perhaps volumes.                                         r e g i s t e r a t a reduced c o s t of about
          A popular a s p e c t of p a s t Con-                     $175 b e f o r e J a n u a r y 1 , 1983, o r pay
f e r e n c e s h a s been f i e l d t r i p s d u r i n g          about $225 a f t e r t h a t d a t e .             Bona f l d e
which a t t e n d e e s have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o        s t u d e n t s , g u e s t s of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and
o b s e r v e phenomena t h a t a r e d i s c u s s e d a t         s ingle-day r e g i s t r a n t s can r e g i s t e r a t
the sessions.                   The main r e a s o n f o r          reduced r a t e s of $25 t o $50.                       Payment
h o s t i n g t h e Fourth Conference i n F a i r -                 o f t h e f u l l r e g i s t r a t i o n f e e ( o r about
banks is t h e r e a d y a v a i l a b i l i t y of many            $175 p r i o r t o J a n u a r y 1, 1983) e n t i t l e s
outstanding              examples           of     permafrost       p a r t i c i p a n t s t o a t t e n d a l l s e s s i o n s and
f e a t u r e s and problems r e l a t e d t o peren-               o f f i c i a l f u n c t i o n s , r e c e i v e a program
n i a l l y f r o z e n ground.           During t h e week         f o r t h e meeting, and r e c e i v e a l l publi-
c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e volume o r ex-                      36,000-year-old bison 'comes t o life'
tended a b s t r a c t s and t h e volume(s) of                                                     al
                                                                               ( f r o m Fairbanks D i y News-miner,
f i n a l papers and d i s c u s s i o n s .      There
                                                                                          A ug. 26, 1981)
w i l l be no c h a r g e f o r r e f r e s h m e n t s
served during the sessions or for the                                        On a w i n t e r day i n I n t e r i o r Alaska
local field trips.                                                 some 36,000 y e a r s ago, a nine-year-old
                              X                                   b u l l b i s o n with 40-inch                    h o r n s was
       DGGS Anchorage mining-info office,                          a t t a c k e d from t h e r e a r by l i o n s , pale-
                      DMEM     move                               o n t o l o g i s t Dale G u t h r i e b e l i e v e s .
                                                                             I n e a r l y spring the p a r t i a l l y
          The D G Anchorage mining-informa-
                   GS                                              scavenged remains were q u i c k l y b u r i e d
t i o n o f f i c e has come f u l l c y c l e .            O n   by t h i c k mud, c r e a t i n g a n a t u r a l deep
September 1, i t moved again---back                          to    f r e e z e which l a s t e d u n t i l J u l y 1979,
where i t s t a r t e d from 4 y e a r s ago, t h e               when Walter and Ruth Roman of t h e Lucky
MacKay B u i l d i n g Annex, a t 323 E . 4 t h .                  Seven Mining Co. uncovered t h e b i s o n a t
The move, according t o mining s p e c i a l -                     t h e i r gold mine n o r t h of F a i r b a n k s .
i s t Bob Stuvek, was " p r e t t y h e c t i c . "                          " ~ e d meat i n t h e mud," G u t h r i e
          The r e l o c a t i o n i s p a r t of an over-          s a i d Tuesday a s he showed s l i d e s a t t h e
a l l p l a n t o c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e a s many           32nd Alaska Science Conference of what
DNR Anchorage a g e n c i e s a s p o s s i b l e .                t h e b i s o n looked l i k e when i t was d i s -
The D i v i s i o n of Technical S e r v i c e s a l s o           covered.            "It is r e a l l y a d r a m a t i c
r e t u r n e d t o t h e MacKay B u i l d i n g Annex;            t h i n g t o a l l of a sudden f a l l i n t o your
t h e D i v i s i o n of M i n e r a l s and Energy                l a p , t o s e e t h i s coming out---an                animal
Management, which had been on Northern                             t h a t no longer e x i s t s with b l a c k h a i r ,
L i g h t s Blvd, moved i n t o t h e Cordova                      wool and f a t . I '
B u i l d i n g , a t 555 Cordova S t , a s d i d                            Under t h e d i r e c t i o n of G u t h r i e , a
some of t h e D i v i s i o n of F o r e s t , Land,              v e r t e b r a t e p a l e o n t o l o g i s t , t h e bison
and Water Management personnel who had                            was excavated i n two weeks and taken t o
been i n an o f f i c e on Dowling Road.                           a f r e e z e r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Alaska
          The above a g e n c i e s w i l l s h a r e t h e        for storage.               There has been an on-
same m a i l i n g a d d r e s s ,          Pouch 7-005,           going s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n which
Anchorage 99510.                 The hone number of               w i l l conclude i n a published r e p o r t and
t h e DGG? mining i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e i s            a d i s p l a y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Alaska
279-5577.                                                         Museum about t h e o l d e s t mummified b i s o n
          Most      of      the D G  G S offices            in     e v e r found.
C o l l e g e a r e a l s o p r e p a r i n g f o r a move.                  The s t u d y won't be complete u n t i l
I n late-November, t h e D G s t a f f w i l l
                                          GS                       l a t e r t h i s year,            Guthrie t o l d t h e
b e g i n moving t o t h e second f l o o r of t h e               audience i n t h e a u d i t o r i u m o f t h e
Alaska N a t i o n a l Bank of                  t h e North        Brooks B u i l d i n g .         But he s a i d a l i o n
B u i l d i n g , l o c a t e d on G e i s t Road and              a t t a c k was probably r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e
U n i v e r s i t y Avenue.          The o f f i c e s t a f f    b i s o n ' s d e a t h a t a s i t e which would
now i n t h e UA O ' N e i l l B u i l d i n g w i l l             e v e n t u a l 1 y become P e a r l Creek. Lions
move f i r s t , followed by t h e mining-in-                     were t h e most common l a r g e p r e d a t o r i n
formation           and        publications          staffs,      Alaska 36,000 y e a r s ago, he s a i d .
which a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e UA P h y s i c a l                       He s a i d t h e r e is evidence t h a t a
Plant.          The D G a s s a y l a b w i l l remain
                       GS                                         heavy mud flow covered t h e b i s o n i n t h e
i n t h e O I N e i l l Building.             The m a i l i n g    e a r l y s p r i n g , s a v i n g i t from d e s t r u c -
a d d r e s s w i l l remain t h e same.                  New      t ion.            Most mummies a r e preserved
phone numbers were not a v a i l a b l e a t                      because t h e y were b u r i e d q u i c k l y , he
p r e s s time.                                                    said.
                              X                                              The U n i v e r s i t y of Alaska s c i e n t i s t
                                                                   s a i d t h e r e were claw marks on t h e r e a r
          " R h y o l i t e i s an e x t r u s i v e rock         o f t h e b i s o n , which appear t o be from
formed i n igneous i n t r u s i o n s .            It i s         l i o n s l i k e t h o s e found todav i n A f r i c a .
sometimes c o a r s e and sometimes f i n e i n                    The b i s o n was scavenged from t h e t o p ,
grain.            It i s o f t e n l i g h t c o l o r e d        which i s u n u s u a l , G u t h r i e s a i d , but
though i t may be dark.                  It i s b a s i c         most of t h e c a r c a s s remained i n t a c t .
sometimes, but more u s u a l l y though not                                 The muscles were c l o s e t o o r i g i n a l
often it is acid.               It i s a common con-              form and a l t h o u g h i t smelled a l o t , he
s t i t u e n t of ,sedimentary rocks. "--Geo-                    t r i e d e a t i n g a b i t of t h e preserved
l o g i c a l Howlers                                             meat. He s a i d i t t a s t e d something l i k e
12                                               ALASKA WINES (3r GEOLOGY

     j er ky   .                                                   " I t ' s a Tertiary-aged ( 6 5 m i l l i o n years
               Guthrie said the find,                       pos-   t o p r e s e n t ) b l o c k - f a u l t e d b a s i n , ' ' he
     s i b l e by t h e cold ground i n t h e North,               said.             asin ins s i m i l a r t o t h i s have
     is        important         because         normally    all   been p r o d u c t i v e e l sewhere, namely, Cook
     t h a t ' s l e f t of p r e h i s t o r i c animals a r e    I n l e t , o f f s h o r e C a l i f o r n i a and t h e Gulf
     skeletons.               "One of t h e t h i n g s we         of Mexico."
     haven' t had i s m a t e r i a l t o r e c o n s t r u c t              Clardy mentioned t h a t g a s seeps
     what t h e s o f t p a r t s look l i k e , " he              c o n t a i n i n g g a s o l i n e - r a n g e hydrocarbons
     said.                                                         have been d e t e c t e d i n t h e area---
               ~ u t h r i eb e l i e v e s t h a t an a r c ex-   a n o t h e r promising                indicator  .          "The
     t e n d i n g from Alaska t o Asia and Europe                 b a s i n d o e s n ' t extend onshore,"                     says
     was once a d r y g r a s s l a n d u n l i k e any-           C l a r d y , "so t h i s w i l l be our f i r s t
     t h i n g found i n t h e North today. Bison,                  j p p o r t u n i t y t o s e e w h a t ' s out t h e r e . "
     wooly mammoth, h o r s e s , camels, t a i g a                          To d a t e , Sohio has d r i l l e d 12
     a n t e l o p e , and l i o n s once roamed t h e             e x p l o r a t i o n w e l l s o f f s h o r e i n t h e Reau-
     t e r r i t o r y , a s evidenced by o c c a s i o n a l      f o r t Sea, some of which have shown t h e
     f o s s i l discoveries.                                      potential             f o r hydrocarbons              i n com-
               The b i s o n i s a member of t h e same            mercial q u a n t i t i e s .
     s p e c i e s which o c c u r s i n cave p a i n t i n g s              According t o t h e company's explor-
     i n France and Spain and i t was common                       a t i o n manager Roger H e r r e r a ,                    Sohio
     a l l a c r o s s Europe and Alaska d u r i n g t h e         p l a n s t o d r i l l f i v e o f f s h o r e explora-
     I c e Age.          I t s horns a r e b i g g e r than        tion wells                 i n Alaska           this     coming
     modern b i s o n and i t had two s h o u l d e r              winter.            Three w i l l be o f f s h o r e i n t h e
     humps.           Such b i s o n were hunted by t h e          Beaufort Sea and two onshore, t h e Col-
     e a r l y people who came t o Alaska from                     v i l l e River delta---about 50 m i l e s west
     Siberia.                                                      o f Prudhoe---and               t h e o t h e r near O l i k t o k
               The b i s o n , which was donated t o               P o i n t , about 35 m i l e s northwest of
     t h e school by t h e Romans and t h e Alaska                 Prud-hoe    .
     Gold Co., was determined t o be 36,000                                  " I f we bid s u c c e s s f u l l y d u r i n g t h e
     y e a r s old by carbon d a t i n g .                         proposed f i v e - y e a r OCS program," says
                                      X                            H e r r e r a , "our e x p l o r a t i o n program i n
                                                                   Alaska w i l l probably t r i p l e w i t h i n t h a t
               Sohio begins exploration program off                                   .
                                                                   t ime p e r i o d I '
                       Alaska's west coast                                                       a
                   (fromAlaska Industry, Sept. 1981)
                                                                          Scientists say Alaskan peak could erupt
           Sohio Alaska Petroleum Company has                                (fromAnchorage Times, July 30, 1981)
 begun s e i s m i c t e s t i n g i n p r e p a r a t i o n
 f o r a proposed November 1982 f e d e r a l                                S c i e n t i s t s s a y they a r e concerned
 lease sale.                The Outer C o n t i n e n t a l        t h a t i n c r e a s e d thermal a c t i v i t y beneath
 S h e l f S a l e w i l l o f f e r 429 t r a c t s com-          Mount Wrangell could one day lead t o an
 p r i s i n g 2.4 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n Norton              e r u p t i o n of t h e 14,163-foot volcano i n
 B a s i n , o f f A l a s k a ' s western c o a s t .             s o u t h - c e n t r a l Alaska.
           Before freeze-up t h i s y e a r , s e i s -                      "Mount Wrangell is one of t h e
 mic s u r v e y work w i l l a l s o be completed                 l a r g e s t a c t i v e volcanos on the P a c i f i c
 i n t h e Beaufort Sea, t o t h e west of                         R i m , and i t ' s p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o s i v e ,
 Prudhoe Bay. A s a l e i s scheduled t h e r e                    just         l i k e Mount S t . Helens,"                    said
 f o r September 1982. The s a l e s a r e only                    C h r i s t o p h e r Noah, e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of
 two of 16 o f f s h o r e l e a s e s a l e s t o be              t h e Alaska Council on Science and
 h e l d i n Alaska from 1982 t o mid-1986                         Technology, which h a s a l l o t e d $87,500
 under t h e f i v e - y e a r OCS l e a s i n g sched-            f o r s t u d i e s of t h e mountains.                       The
 ule.                                                              r e s e a r c h w i l l be conducted by t h e Geo-
           Under c o n t r a c t t o Sohio, Geophysi-              p h y s i c a l I n s t i t u t e of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of
 c a l S e r v i c e s , I n c . i s conducting t h e              Alaska, F a i r b a n k s .
 surveys          from       the     134-foot       vessel                  Noah s a i d t h e r e is i n c r e a s e d t h e r -
 ' K r y s t a l S e a , ' which s a i l e d from Homer            mal a c t i v i t y beneath Mount Wrangell                      .
 i n mid-July.                                                     I t i s 100 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of Valdez,
           According t o E x p l o r a t i o n Super-              j u s t n o r t h of t h e Alaska Panhandle.
 v i s o r Bruce Clardy , p r e l i m i n a r y geo-                         "We're         concerned about t h e in-
 l o g i c d a t a from t h e Norton Basin i n d i -               creased            heat       flux    (flow)       and        its
 c a t e s t h e a r e a has good p r o s p e c t s .              p o t e n t i a l t o m e l t t h e surrounding i c e
t~ E Lt30d 1        L~      I . d l a ~ l C - l e p r o p o r ~ i o n ," he
                                                                      s       b u i l t 1 8 sediment ponds a t f o u r of t h e
said.           l i e s i d e n t s of t h e Copper River                     f i v e mines.              The f i f t h mine was de-
V a l l e y , a l o n g t h e e a s t s i d e of t h e                        signed t o o p e r a t e without a discharge
n o u n t a i n , have r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d v o l -              t o the r i v e r .          The r e s u l t was a reduc-
canic activity.                                                               t i o n o f more t h a n 95 p e r c e n t i n t h e
          D r . C a r l Benson, t h e G e o p h y s i c a l                   amount of mud e n t e r i n g t h e r i v e r , p l u s
Institute's principal investigator for                                        t h e r e t u r n o f c a n o e i s t s and f l y f i s h e r -
t h e Mount Wrangell p r o j e c t , s a i d t h e r e                        men.
h a s been a t h r e e f o l d i n c r e a s e i n h e a t                              By i t s e l f , t h e C h a t a n i k a was o n l y
from t h e mountain s i n c e an e a r t h q u a k e                          one o f t h e more d r a m a t i c c a s e s o f min-
o c c u r r e d i n t h e Mount S t . E l i a s a r e a i n                   ing-related c o n f l i c t s facing the s t a t e
1979.          Mount S t . E l i a s i s 120 m i l e s                        l a s t year.           From t h e Tolovana River---
southeast              of Wrangell           .              The quake         where          Minto        village           fishermen     and
measured 7 . 5 on t h e R i c h t e r s c a l e .                             t r a p p e r s h a v e s u b s i s t e d f o r years---to
          Mount Wrangell h a s n o t e r u p t e d i n                        t h e 40-Mile-River---now                       a Wild      and
recorded h i s t o r y .                    However, a c r a t e r            S c e n i c R i v e r under f e d e r a l law---more
more t h a n 8 m i l e s                        i n diameter             is   t h a n 300 p l a c e r mines u s i n g heavy
e v i d e n c e of an a c t i v e v o l c a n i c p a s t .                   equipment were i n o p e r a t i o n .
          Benson             said         that          despite         the             I n f a c t , 57 p e r c e n t o f a l l com-
r e c e n t t h e r m a l and s e i s m i c a c t i v i t y ,                 p l a i n t s lodged w i t h DEC o f f i c i a l s i n
t h e r e was no t e l l i n g what would happen                              F a i r b a n k s l a s t y e a r were r e l a t e d t o
on t h e mountain i n t h e f u t u r e . "We a r e                           p l a c e 11 m i n i n g .
                                                                                        r
n o t p r e d i c t i n g an e r u p t i o n .                 Rut t h i s                 The p l a c e r mining i n d u s t r y is no
i s a b i g , h o t s y s t e m and i t is chang-                             longer simply a family o p e r a t i o n , " says
ing.          You c a n ' t walk away from t h a t .                          J e r r y Brossia,              from D E C ' s F a i r b a n k s
What is needed                         i s a very careful                     of £ice   .        J e r r y h a s watched t h e number
watch."                                                                       o f a c t i v e mines i n h i s r e g i o n i n c r e a s e
          He s a i d t h e h e a t e n e r g y from Nount                     by about 300 p e r c e n t i n t h e l a s t f i v e
W r a n g e l l ' s summit a r e a i s 200 t o 500                            years.
                                                                                        11
megawatts.                  The h e a t f l o w from t h e                                 Companies l i k e Asamera O i l , S t .
n o r t h c r a t e r a l o n e i s 10 t i m e s t h a t                      J o e M i n e r a l , P l a c i d O i l , WGM, A l a s k a
emanating from Yount Raker i n Washing-                                       Gold and U.S.                  S m e l t i n g a r e becoming
t o n s t a t e , a n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l l y danger-                 i n t e r e s t e d i n placer gold o p e r a t i o n s .
ous volcano.                        *                                         I t is a f a c t t h a t a s i n g l e l a r g e com-
                                                                              pany such a s Asamera O i l c a n s l u i c e
                                                                              3,000           to      4,000 I I ( c u b i c )      yards   of
   DEC works with miners t o prevent pollution                                m a t e r i a l per day,               Brossia observes.
        (from 1981 Environmental Report o f Alaska                            "A w e l l o r g a n i z e d f a m i l y o p e r a t i o n may
           Dept. of Environmental Conservation)                               move 1 , 0 0 0 t o 1 , 5 0 0 y a r d s p e r day.''
                                                                                        To h e l p m i n e r s r e d u c e sedimenta-
          S i n c e mining              operations          ceased            t i o n , B r o s s i a and h i s c o l l e a g u e s a r e
a b o u t 40 y e a r s ago, t h e C h a t a n i k a River                     d i r e c t i n g a settling-pond demonstration
n e a r F a i r b a n k s h a s r u n c l e a r and c o l d ,                 p r o j e c t , l o o k i n g a t t h e b e s t ways t o
a t t a c t i n g l a r g e numbers o f b o a t e r s and                     remove from w a t e r t h e sediment t h a t
fishermen.                                                                    r e s u l t s from s l u i c i n g g r a v e l . Informa-
          When g o l d and o t h e r p r e c i o u s metal                    tied g l e a n e d            from t h i s          and   other
p r i c e s s o a r e d i n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s , how-                    s t u d i e s should h e l p t h e state---as              well
ever,         f i v e p l a c e r mining o p e r a t i o n s                  a s t h e miners---in making t h i s h i s t o r i c
s t a r t e d up a g a i n a t t h e h e a d w a t e r s o f                  i n d u s t r y compatible with o t h e r water
t h e Chatanika.                    D i s c h a r g e s o f muddy             uses.
w a t e r d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e r i v e r from f o u r                          L a s t y e a r , two DEC f i e l d o f f i c e r s
o f t h e f i v e mines l e f t t h e C h a t a n i k a                       working on pl-acer mining t r a v e l e d t o 38
u n u s a b l e f o r s p o r t f i s h i n g f o r 100                       o f t h e 300 p l a c e r mines o p e r a t i n g i n
m i l e s downstream i n t h e summer o f                                     t h e Fairbanks region,                        and made 77
1980.                                                                         i n s p e c t i o n s a t t h e s e mines, providing
          By l a s t A u g u s t , however, t h e d i s -                     t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o b u i l d 51 s e d i -
c h a r g e problem---and                    t h e river---had                ment ponds, i n c l u d i n g t h e 1 8 a t t h e
b e e n l a r g e l y c l e a n e d up.                                       headwaters of t h e C h a t a ~ i k a .
          F i e l d o f f i c e r s o f t h e Department                                I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t t ling-pond
of Environmental Conservation provided                                        demonstration project                         and     technical
technical            a s s i s t a n c e t o m i n e r s who                  a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d t o m i n e r s t o con-
14                                                  ALASKA MINES & GEOLOGY

 s t r u c t s e t t l i n g ponds, Environmental                         and surrounded b y r s l a t i v e l y s h a l l o w
 ~onservation participated                          with     the          w a t e r s a v e r a g i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than
 departments                of    Natural          Resources,             40 f e e t i n d e p t h .
 Revenue, and F i s h and Game t o c r e a t e a                                    O i l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y h a s oc-
 single           state        application           form    for          c u r r e d i n t h e B e a u f o r t on and o f f f o r
 placer miners.                The a p p l i c a t i o n , which          the past several years.                               But t h i s
 r e c e n t l y won a n a t i o n a l award f o r form                   w i n t e r marks t h e f i r s t a l l - o u t push i n
 design,            c o v e r s most      state          permits          t h e a r e a , and i n d u s t r y o f f i c i a l s a r e
 r e q u i r e d f o r t h e a v e r a g e placer-mining                  c a u t i o u s l y o p t i m i s t i c about t h e poten-
 operation.                                                               t i a l o f t h e 10-year l e a s e s from t h e '79
           W i t h i n t h e n e x t d e c a d e , many ex-               s a l e , w i t h some w e l l s t o be l o c a t e d a s
 p e r t s p r e d i c t , Alaska a l s o w i l l s e e a                 f a r n o r t h a s any e v e r d r i l l e d .
 l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n t h e hard-rock minirlg                              Of t h e 21 w e l l s d r i l l e d i n t h e s e a
 i n d u s t r y , such a s t h e planned molyb-                          so far      --      13 by Sohio A l a s k a P e t r o l e u m
 denum mine of U.S. Borax n e a r K e t c h i -                           Co.    --       t h e r e s u l t s o f two have been
 kan   .                  R
                                                                          h i g h l y promising.
                                                                                    I I The p i c t u r e is an e n c o u r a g i n g one

      Oil rigs ready for Beaufort drilling season                         a t t h i s s t a g e , " s a i d Roger H e r r e r a ,
           (fromAnchorage Times,Oct. 25, 1981)                            S o h i o e x p l o r a t i o n manager. " I t ' s b e i n g
           Perched on n a t u r a l and man-made
                                                                          translated i n t o action t h i s winter..                     ..
                                                                          The f a c t t h a t companies a r e w i l l i n g t o
 i s l a n d s j u s t o f f t h e ice-jammed Reau-                       spend l a r g e amounts of money means t h e y
 f o r t Sea c o a s t 1 i n e , a h a 1 f-dozen o i l
 r i g s have been                   sitting           idle    like
                                                                          t h i n k t h e r e a r e l a r g e accumulations          ."
 p a t i e n t f i s h e r m e n f o r weeks, some even                   Our Gangue....
 months.                                                                  By Frank Larson, DGGS editor
           Standby c h a r g e s o f a s much a s
 $30,000 a day have r u n tip m u l t i m i l l i o n -                   Ever have t h a t l i s t l e s s f e e l i n g ?              No,
 d o l l a r t a b s without a s i n g l e d r i l l i n g                n o t t h e l a n g u i d , I ' 11-do-it-tomorrow
 b i t having y e t                 touched t h e f r o z e n              f e e l i n g , b u t t h e s e n s a t i o n t h a t you a r e
 earth.                                                                    l o s t , b e r e f t o f a l l d i r e c t i o n , aim-
           The f i v e o i l companies who a r e                          l e s s l y a d r i f t on t h e s e a of l i f e ?             If
 renting the r i g s strongly believe the                                 s o , B r o t h e r and S i s t e r , you a r e l i s t -
 p o t e n t i a l u n d e r s e a t r e a s u r e i s worth                                     ~
                                                                          l e s s - - - ~ ~ done l o s t your                   l i s t of
 t h e investment.                 When t h e r i g s g r i n d            t h i n g s t o d o . . .Listmaking i s a compul-
 i n t o o p e r a t i o n a t p r e c i s e l y 12 :01 a.m.              s i o n , a s i c k n e s s , an a d d i c t i o n .           Ask
 a week from t o d a y , t h e s e a r c h f o r an                       me.         I ' m an i n c u r a b l e l i s t j u n k i e .    In
 o f f s h o r e v e r s i o n of t h e Prudhoe Bay o i l                 f a c t , I m a i n t a i n two l i s t s .         The f i r s t
 f i e l d w i l l have begun i n e a r n e s t .                          i s :r~ymain l i s t , a compendium of d a i l y
           O i l companies would be s a t i s f i e d                     c h o r e s reminding me of what t o do ( f e e d
 w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s , a s long a s t h e y           d o g s , k i s s w i f e ) , where t o go (work),,
 l o c a t e d e p o s i t s i n commercial quan-                         s t o p s t o make on t h e way home ( b e e r f o r
 tities.              No m a t t e r what t h e i r d i s -               me, day-old b r e a d ' f o r k i d s ) , and s o
 c o v e r i e s , t h e winter d r i l l ing season                      forth.            The second l i s t t e l l s me where
 s h o u l d show whether t h e $1.06 b i l l i o n                       I l e f t t h e f i r s t l i s t . . .Listmaking i s a
 i n b i d s promised by t h e i n d u s t r y a t t h e                  dangerous d i s e a s e , p o s s i b l y a terminal
 December 1979 j o i n t f e d e r a l - s t a t e Beau-                  one.           (YOUdoubt t h i s ? When y o u ' r e t o o
 f o r t Sea l e a s e s a l e was w i s e l y s p e n t .                b u s y making e n t r i e s t o your l i s t t o s e e
           II
              1 t ' l l be t h e b u s i e s t w i n t e r on             the           runaway         cement          truck,          it's
 the         North        Slope         ( e x p l o r a t ion-wise)       terminal.)       ....     Lists       are       sort       of    a
 s i n c e '67-68,            and i t might even be                       l i t e r a r y Rorschach t e s t . They g i v e you
 b u s i e r t h a n t h a t one,'' s a i d B i l l Van                   insight i n t o the listmaker.                    Some l i s t s
 Dyke, p e t r o l e u m manager f o r t h e s t a t e                    r e f l e c t personal t r a i t s , others indi-
 D i v i s i o n of M i n e r a l s and Energy Manage-                    c a t e a personal philosophy.                               Leroy
                II
 mn-nt.            This w i n t e r ' s r e a l l y going t o              ' s a t c h e l ' P a i g e , now, was c o o l .             When
 a l m o s t make o r b r e a k t h e o i l companies"                    t h e a g e l e s s b a s e b a l l p i t c h e r was asked
 on t h e i r B e a u f o r t i n v e s t m e n t s .                     t h e s e c r e t of h i s l o n g e v i t y , h e r e p l i e d
           Most of t h e e x p l o r a t i o n w i l l be                 w i t h h i s l i s t f o r e t e r n a l youth: ' a )
 o f f s h o r e , h i g h l i g h t e d by t h e B e a u f o r t         - v o i d f r i e d f o o d s , f o r t h e y a n g r y up
 d r i l l i n g i n the Barrier Islands region                           t h e b l o o d . b ) I f your stomach d i s p u t e s
 -- a l l o f i t w i t h i n 10 m i l e s o f s h o r e                  you, l i e down and p a c i f y i t w i t h c o o l
                                                                      I
    thoughts.              c ) Keep t h e j u i c e s flowing         e ) Taiwan i s looking toward developing
    b j a n g l i n g around g e n t l y a s you move.                a c o a l market with Alaska i n about
     7
    d Go v e r y l i g h t l y on t h e v i c e s , such
    a s c a r r y i n g on i n s o c i e t y ; t h e s o c i a l
                                                                      5 y r . P.S. Pan ( f i r s t name P e t e r ? ) of
                                                                      t h e Taiwan Power Company s a i d , "After
    ramble a i n ' t r e s t f u l . e ) Avoid running                1986 w e w i l l be looking f o r c o a l from
    a t a l l t i m e s , and f ) Don't look back.                    Alaska, and t r a d e w i l l be v e r y much
I
    Somebody might be g a i n i n g on y o u 1 . .               .
    Other l i s t s r e f l e c t i n n e r t u r m o i l , w i t -
                                                                      speeded up.''               f ) Bear Creek Mining, t h e
I                                                                     e x p l o r a t i o n d i v i s i o n of Kennecott, has.
    n e s s t h e one s e n t t o l o v e l o r n columnist           opened an Alaska o f f i c e (1111 Dowling
    A b i g a i l Van Buren by a d i s t r a u g h t                  Rd, Anchorage). g ) An Exxon well a t P t .
    mother.            I t seems h e r 7-yr-old boy had               Thomson, 50 m i E of Prudhoe Bay, came
    a n o l d e r s i s t e r who tormented him. The                  i n with c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s of o i l
    k i d had a l i s t : 'Things t o do: a ) Get                     and g a s .          Exxon, which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n
    p e n c i l box. b) Cub Scout k e r c h i e f . c )               the         1979-80            drilling                     with        Mobil ,
1   Find m i t t e n .                                     ..
                                   d ) K i l l ~ h y l l i s '. .My
    a l l - time f a v o r i t e l i s t , however, comes
                                                                      P h i l l i p s , and Chevron, o n l y r e c e n t l y
                                                                      announced t h e f i n d i n g s .                            F i v e of s i x
I
    f rom---where             e l se?---a        restroom.       On   exploratory wells i n the region t e s t e d
    t h e w a l l i n t h e men's room of t h e l o c a l             s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s of o i l and g a s .
    l i b r a r y , where t h e r e should be a towel                 Exxon i s planning two more w e l l s t h i s
    d i s p e n s e r of some s o r t , is one of those               winter.                                         .
                                                                                         h) NERCO , Inc , a s u b s i d i a r y
    h o t - a i r hand d r i e r s .        or            y
                                                        m money,      of P a c i f i c Power and L i g h t , bought
    t h e s e machines run a v e r y c l o s e second                 Resource A s s o c i a t e s of Alaska i n l a t e
I   i n L i f e ' s Ulcer Sweepstakes t o t h e                       October f o r $15.2M.                            RAA w i l l c o n t i n u e
    u l t i m a t e instrument i n sadism, t h e pay                  t o work with t h e p a r e n t company on a
    toilet.)            A t any r a t e , a t o p t h i s n o i s y   tungsten-gold d e p o s i t near F X and i n                     B
    a i r blower i s a l i s t of o p e r a t i n g in-               l o c a t i n g c o a l r e s e r v e s on t h e Alaska
    structions.               I t s a y s , ' a ) Wash hands.                                                     L
                                                                      P e n i n s u l a . i ) The B M i s s u e d p a t e n t t o
    b ) Shake o f f excess w a t e r .                 c ) Depress    Kennecott M i n e r a l s f o r 16 l o d e c l a i m s
    l a r g e button.                 d) Hold hands under             i n t h e Ambler d i s t r i c t on t h e south
    n o z z l e , rubbing t o g e t h e r v i g o r o u s l y . '     f l a n k of           t h e Alaska Range.                                  The
    A t t h e bottom of t h e l i s t someone had                     d e p o s i t , a p r o s p e c t i v e openpit Cu-Zn-
    p a i n s t a k i n g l y s c r i b e d , ' e l Dry hands on      Pb-Ag-Au mine, is near t h e copper-rich
    pants.'.     ...        Now t h e n , h e r e is a l i s t ,      Ruby Creek d e p o s i t .                           (BLM i s s u e d two
    i n no semblance of any kind of o r d e r ,                       p a t e n t s i n Alaska i n 1979, f o u r i n
    o f r e c e n t happenings :                     a ) Chevron      1980.)                     L
                                                                                          j ) B M d i r e c t o r Curt McVee
    r e c e n t l y b i d $4.4M               for    exploration      a d v i s e s miners t h a t h o l d e r s of un-
                                                     L
    r i g h t s on 1 3 t r a c t s i n a B M s a l e of               p a t e n t e d c l a i m s on f e d e r a l land l o c a t e d
    o i l and gas l e a s e s i n lower Cook I n l e t .              b e f o r e 1981 have u n t i l Dec. 30 t o f i l e
    One of t h e late-September b i d s was f o r                     annual assessment n o t i c e s with t h e B M                              L .
    $2.3M f o r a t r a c t west of Anchor P o i n t ,                I f you d i d n ' t do any assessment work
    1 5 m i NW of Homer.                     b) Diamond Sham-         t h e previous y e a r , he s a y s , you must
    r o c k , an NRG f i r m from D a l l a s , home of               f i l e a Notice of I n t e n t t o Hold. F a i l -
    t h e Ewings, p l a n s t o i n v e s t $25M i n                  u r e t o do e i t h e r w i l l cause your c l a i m
    d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r l e a s e s on 21,000 a c r e s     t o be d e c l a r e d abandoned, he s a y s . So,
    o f t h e Beluga Coal F i e l d s , west of                       avoid t h e Christmas r u s h and f i l e
    Anchorage.                     (The       Bass-Hunt-Wil son       early.             L
                                                                                        B M has o f f i c e s i n A n c h ~ r a g e
    consortium has h e l d t h e l e a s e s s i n c e                (BOX 1 3 , 99513) and i n Fairbanks (Box
    1 9 6 7 . ) c ) P l a c e r Amex ( o f SF, home of                                            .
                                                                      1150, 99707). .How much can you ' r e a d
    t h e you-know- whats) shipped 1,200 t o n s                      into' a l i s t ?                The S e a t t l e Chamber of
I
    o f Beluga c o a l t o Japan i n mid-0c t o b e r            .    Commerce r e c e n t l y h e l d a c o n t e s t t o
    The c o a l , shipped from t h e P o r t of                       choose a c i t y nickname.                                ' ~ m e r a l dC i t y '
    Anchorage,              w i l l be t e s t e d f o r i t s        was t h e winner.                          However, among t h e
    e f f i c i e n c y i n f u e l i n g Nipponese power             13,000 e n t r i e s i n t h e c o n t e s t t o name
    plants.               d ) Sun Eel-Alaska,               a sub-    this          verdant              metropol is---one                        not
    s i d i a r y of Sun Eel Shipping of South                        e s p e c i a l l y known f o r i t s abundant sun-
    Korea, i s c o n s i d e r i n g a 14-acre s i t e i n            shine---were               some i n t e r e s t i n g l o s e r s .
    Seward f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of a coal-load-              Among them: 'The Big D r i p p e r , ' ' C i t y of
    i n g f a c i l i t y ; o r i g i n a l p l a n s f o r one i n   C r o c o d i l e Tears ,' 'The Green Weenie ,'
    Anchorage £ e l 1 through when t h e munic i-                     ' C i t y of Crying C l o u d s , ' 'Puddle Town,'
    p a l i t y announced i t would n o t spend                       and 'Home of t h e Peoples Republic of
    $3.5M             for        ground           stabilization.      Arpesia . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            Cheers.
                                   kletalsMarket

                                                   3 Months Ago    1 Year Ago
                                   Oct. 30. 1981     (7124181)       (914180)
Antimony metal per lb,
  NY dealer
Barite (drilling-mud grade
  per ton)
Beryllium ore, stu*
Chrome ore per long ton
  (~ransvaal)
Copper per lb. (MW-prod.)
Gold per oz.
Lead per lb.
Mercury per 76-lb flask
Molybdenum conc. per lb.
  (climax)
Nickel per lb. (cathode)
Platinum per oz.
Silver, New York, per oz.
Tin per lb., MW composite
Titanium ore per ton (ilmenite)
Tungsten per unit (GSA domestic)
Zinc per lb. (MW-US PW)

*   - Standard ton unit (20 lb)



Alaska Department of Natural Resources                          Bulk Rate
Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys                U.S. Postage Paid
P .O. Box 80007
College, AK 99708                                           Fairbanks, Alaska
RETURN POSTAGE GUARANTEED

				
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