Study Guide European Civilization Chapter 12 Spring 2007 A History of the Modern World Chapter Twelve Revolution and the Reimposition of Order, 1848-1870 Summary In 1848, the forces of reaction toppled as revolutionary movements spontaneously broke out all over Europe. While no single organization or doctrine united these movements, many made similar demands for constitutional governments, the fulfillment of nationalist aspirations, and an end to the restrictions of serfdom. However, the Revolution of 1848 failed almost as rapidly as it won victories. While some governments made constitutional concessions, many resorted to military repression to stem the revolutionary tide. In France, the July Monarchy was overthrown, and temporarily, the Provisional Government sought to fulfill republican and radical ideals. Yet it was soon replaced by the authoritarianism of Napoleon III. The government of the Austrian empire collapsed under pressure from nationalists and republicans. However, the forces of counterrevolution soon reasserted themselves, and a new government sought to centralize the region. The Frankfurt assembly failed to unify the German states, and liberal nationalism suffered another defeat. The Revolution of 1848 brought a new toughness of mind to Europe, which showed itself in the philosophies of materialism, positivism, and realism. Among the disappointed revolutionaries of 1848 was Karl Marx, whose theories of dialectical materialism and historical development would soon earn both adherents and critics. Terms February Revolution Second Empire capital Constituent Assembly Opportunism Crédit Mobilier and Napoleonic Ideas Bach system Crédit Foncier March Days June Days Communist Manifesto Realpolitik National Workshops proletariat Positivism Extinction of Poverty Young Hegelians Dialectical materialism Frankfurt Assembly Napoleonic Legend Austroslavism Liberal nationalism People Karl Marx Jellachich Emperor Ferdinand Lamartine Friedrich Engels Auguste Comte General Cavaignac Giuseppe Mazzini Louis Blanc Pius IX Louis Kossuth Louis Napoleon Windischgratz King Charles Albert Bonaparte Places Frankfurt Budapest Kingdom of the Two Venetia Posen Sicilies Sudetenland Lombardy Moravia Schleswig-Holstein Prague Piedmont Bohemia 1. How did Charles X provoke the revolution in 1830? 2. What was the result of the revolution of 1830? 3. In 1848 the French Provisional Government adopted National Workshops. Why? 4. What were the June Days? 5. Why did Louis Napoleon get elected as President of the Second Republic? 6. Describe the peoples of the Austrian empire pre-1848? 7. What was the greatest accomplishment of the Revolution of 1848? 8. What theory did Karl Marx adopt from the British political economists? 9. How did Marx feel about proletarians who tried to improve their economic condition? 10. What does Realpolitik mean? 11. What kind of government did the French socialists want? 12. In general why did the Revolution of 1848 break out in Austria? 13. Why did the English Reform Bill of 1832 reform the “boroughs”? How did the bill “extend” the vote? 14. What provoked the Revolution of 1848 in France? 15. What was the main consequence of the Revolutions of 1848? Essays 1. What common objectives were sought by the revolutionists in Europe in 1848? To what extent were they successful? How did the outcome lead to a new “toughness of mind” and new strategies? 2. How were the ideas of Marxism derived from (a) the French Revolution, (b) social and economic conditions of the time, and (c) German philosophy? What relationship did Marxism have to earlier and later forms of socialism? To later communism? Not until the 1920s and 1930s, when dictators sprouted all over Europe, did the world begin to suspect what Louis Napoleon Bonaparte had really been, an omen of the future rather than a bizarre reincarnation of the past.
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