Study Guide European Civilization by zvf19883

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									Study Guide                                             European Civilization
Chapter 12                                              Spring 2007
A History of the Modern World

Chapter Twelve Revolution and the Reimposition of Order, 1848-1870

Summary

In 1848, the forces of reaction toppled as revolutionary movements spontaneously
broke out all over Europe. While no single organization or doctrine united these
movements, many made similar demands for constitutional governments, the
fulfillment of nationalist aspirations, and an end to the restrictions of serfdom.
However, the Revolution of 1848 failed almost as rapidly as it won victories. While
some governments made constitutional concessions, many resorted to military
repression to stem the revolutionary tide. In France, the July Monarchy was
overthrown, and temporarily, the Provisional Government sought to fulfill
republican and radical ideals. Yet it was soon replaced by the authoritarianism of
Napoleon III. The government of the Austrian empire collapsed under pressure
from nationalists and republicans. However, the forces of counterrevolution soon
reasserted themselves, and a new government sought to centralize the region. The
Frankfurt assembly failed to unify the German states, and liberal nationalism
suffered another defeat. The Revolution of 1848 brought a new toughness of mind to
Europe, which showed itself in the philosophies of materialism, positivism, and
realism. Among the disappointed revolutionaries of 1848 was Karl Marx, whose
theories of dialectical materialism and historical development would soon earn both
adherents and critics.


Terms

February Revolution             Second Empire               capital
Constituent Assembly            Opportunism                 Crédit Mobilier and
Napoleonic Ideas                Bach system                 Crédit Foncier
March Days                      June Days                   Communist Manifesto
Realpolitik                     National Workshops          proletariat
Positivism                      Extinction of Poverty       Young Hegelians
Dialectical materialism         Frankfurt Assembly          Napoleonic Legend
Austroslavism                   Liberal nationalism

People

Karl Marx                       Jellachich                  Emperor Ferdinand
Lamartine                       Friedrich Engels            Auguste Comte
General Cavaignac               Giuseppe Mazzini            Louis Blanc
Pius IX                         Louis Kossuth               Louis Napoleon
Windischgratz                   King Charles Albert         Bonaparte
Places

Frankfurt                        Budapest                       Kingdom of the Two
Venetia                          Posen                          Sicilies
Sudetenland                      Lombardy                       Moravia
Schleswig-Holstein               Prague                         Piedmont
Bohemia

   1. How did Charles X provoke the revolution in 1830?
   2. What was the result of the revolution of 1830?
   3. In 1848 the French Provisional Government adopted National Workshops.
       Why?
   4. What were the June Days?
   5. Why did Louis Napoleon get elected as President of the Second Republic?
   6. Describe the peoples of the Austrian empire pre-1848?
   7. What was the greatest accomplishment of the Revolution of 1848?
   8. What theory did Karl Marx adopt from the British political economists?
   9. How did Marx feel about proletarians who tried to improve their economic
       condition?
   10. What does Realpolitik mean?
   11. What kind of government did the French socialists want?
   12. In general why did the Revolution of 1848 break out in Austria?
   13. Why did the English Reform Bill of 1832 reform the “boroughs”? How did
       the bill “extend” the vote?
   14. What provoked the Revolution of 1848 in France?
   15. What was the main consequence of the Revolutions of 1848?

Essays

1. What common objectives were sought by the revolutionists in Europe in 1848? To
what extent were they successful? How did the outcome lead to a new “toughness of
mind” and new strategies?

2. How were the ideas of Marxism derived from (a) the French Revolution, (b) social
and economic conditions of the time, and (c) German philosophy? What
relationship did Marxism have to earlier and later forms of socialism? To later
communism?


         Not until the 1920s and 1930s, when dictators sprouted all over Europe, did the
         world begin to suspect what Louis Napoleon Bonaparte had really been, an
         omen of the future rather than a bizarre reincarnation of the past.

								
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